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  • 1. MatterMatter What is matter?What is matter? Anything that has mass andAnything that has mass and takes up space!!takes up space!!
  • 2. ChemistryChemistry  All about studying matter and how itAll about studying matter and how it changeschanges  We like to look at what things are made ofWe like to look at what things are made of and what kind of properties they have…and what kind of properties they have… these properties help us make every daythese properties help us make every day choices!!choices!!  Can you give some examples ofCan you give some examples of properties we look at?properties we look at?
  • 3. SoapSoap Food choicesFood choices Glue vs. PasteGlue vs. Paste vs. Duct Tapevs. Duct Tape
  • 4. Atoms and ElementsAtoms and Elements AtomAtom: smallest particle; means: smallest particle; means indivisible; has the properties of theindivisible; has the properties of the element it is made fromelement it is made from ElementElement: a substance that cannot be: a substance that cannot be broken down into smaller substancesbroken down into smaller substances For example: Mercury, Carbon, HydrogenFor example: Mercury, Carbon, Hydrogen
  • 5. CompoundsCompounds Made of two or more atoms ofMade of two or more atoms of DIFFERENTDIFFERENT elementselements For example, water is made of 2For example, water is made of 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygenhydrogen atoms and one oxygen atomatom QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 6. CompoundsCompounds A compound is more than just theA compound is more than just the sum of its elements…what doessum of its elements…what does THAT mean???THAT mean??? When the atoms combine, theWhen the atoms combine, the compound has new, uniquecompound has new, unique properties that will go away if you splitproperties that will go away if you split the atoms apart again!the atoms apart again!
  • 7. MoleculesMolecules A collection of atoms that act as aA collection of atoms that act as a unit…sounds kind of like a compoundunit…sounds kind of like a compound though…though… A molecule may be two or more atomsA molecule may be two or more atoms of theof the SAMESAME element, or two or moreelement, or two or more atoms ofatoms of DIFFERENTDIFFERENT elements…aelements…a compound always has at least twocompound always has at least two elementselements
  • 8. MoleculesMolecules  Examples: a molecule of oxygen OExamples: a molecule of oxygen O22 and aand a molecule of water Hmolecule of water H22OO
  • 9. Chemical FormulasChemical Formulas Shows how many atoms of eachShows how many atoms of each element are in one molecule of aelement are in one molecule of a substancesubstance For example: a water molecule hasFor example: a water molecule has 2 Hydrogen atoms and 1 Oxygen2 Hydrogen atoms and 1 Oxygen atomatom HH22OO
  • 10. More Chemical Formulas…More Chemical Formulas… Carbon Dioxide is written: COCarbon Dioxide is written: CO22 Two Molecules of COTwo Molecules of CO22 is written with ais written with a coefficient in front of the formula:coefficient in front of the formula: 22COCO22
  • 11. Pure SubstancesPure Substances Elements and compounds areElements and compounds are pure substances-pure substances-there is onlythere is only water in a water molecule (Hwater in a water molecule (H22O)O) and if you break it apart, you noand if you break it apart, you no longer have waterlonger have water There is only glucose in a glucoseThere is only glucose in a glucose molecule (Cmolecule (C66HH1212OO66) if you break it) if you break it apart, you no longer have glucoseapart, you no longer have glucose
  • 12. MixturesMixtures One or more pure substances can beOne or more pure substances can be mixed togethermixed together Grape Juice has sugar, water, vitamins,Grape Juice has sugar, water, vitamins, minerals, acids…many substances thatminerals, acids…many substances that are completely different with differentare completely different with different ratios, depending on the maker of theratios, depending on the maker of the juice! (Like when your juice box saysjuice! (Like when your juice box says 10% fruit juice or 100% juice…)10% fruit juice or 100% juice…)
  • 13. Mixtures Continued...Mixtures Continued... HeterogeneousHeterogeneous mixtures aremixtures are not uniformlynot uniformly distributeddistributed-like a chocolate chip cookie-like a chocolate chip cookie HomogeneousHomogeneous mixtures aremixtures are uniformlyuniformly distributeddistributed-like sugar water-like sugar water
  • 14. More Mixtures...More Mixtures... Liquid mixtures can be:Liquid mixtures can be: Miscible:Miscible: Able to mix together easily andAble to mix together easily and dissolve into each other (like rubbingdissolve into each other (like rubbing alcohol and water)alcohol and water) Immiscible:Immiscible: Unable to mix together easilyUnable to mix together easily (like oil and water)(like oil and water)
  • 15. Section 2.2 Matter and EnergySection 2.2 Matter and Energy
  • 16. Kinetic TheoryKinetic Theory Kinetic-deals withKinetic-deals with movementmovement Main Points of Kinetic Theory:Main Points of Kinetic Theory: All matter is made of atoms and molecules thatAll matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particlesact like tiny particles These tiny particles are constantly moving;These tiny particles are constantly moving; higher temps=faster movementhigher temps=faster movement Heavier particles move more slowly than lighterHeavier particles move more slowly than lighter ones (if we keep the temperature the same!)ones (if we keep the temperature the same!)
  • 17. SolidsSolids Rigid, littleRigid, little freedom forfreedom for particles to moveparticles to move Hold their own-Hold their own- fixed volume andfixed volume and shapeshape
  • 18. LiquidsLiquids Particles are close together, but not attracted toParticles are close together, but not attracted to each other as strongly as in a solid-can slideeach other as strongly as in a solid-can slide around each other at randomaround each other at random Fluids: particles can spread out on their own:Fluids: particles can spread out on their own: Liquids and Gases BOTHLiquids and Gases BOTH Liquids have a fixed volume but will take the shapeLiquids have a fixed volume but will take the shape of whatever container they are inof whatever container they are in
  • 19. ViscosityViscosity Liquids spread out at different rates-Liquids spread out at different rates- think honey vs. waterthink honey vs. water Stronger attraction betweenStronger attraction between particles=slower moving liquid=moreparticles=slower moving liquid=more viscosityviscosity
  • 20. GasesGases Free to spread in all directionsFree to spread in all directions Particles are spread far apartParticles are spread far apart FLUID-particles can spread out,FLUID-particles can spread out, and they do-quickly!!and they do-quickly!!
  • 21. Gases…continuedGases…continued Even though you can’t see the gasEven though you can’t see the gas particles, they still exert PRESSUREparticles, they still exert PRESSURE Think about a balloon that you blow upThink about a balloon that you blow up and then release without tying the openand then release without tying the open end…what happens?end…what happens? That is PRESSUREThat is PRESSURE
  • 22. ENERGYENERGY Fire, electricity, batteriesFire, electricity, batteries-all-all examples of energyexamples of energy The ability to move or changeThe ability to move or change mattermatter
  • 23. ENERGYENERGY To change yourTo change your “state”“state” you mustyou must transfer energytransfer energy It takes energy to melt a solid orIt takes energy to melt a solid or evaporate a liquid!!evaporate a liquid!!
  • 24. ENERGY…continuedENERGY…continued Changing your “state” doesChanging your “state” does NOTNOT mean you are made of differentmean you are made of different elements!elements! Same elements=same massSame elements=same mass Chemical makeup and mass do notChemical makeup and mass do not change during physical changes ofchange during physical changes of statestate
  • 25. Law of Conservation of MassLaw of Conservation of Mass Mass cannot be created norMass cannot be created nor destroyeddestroyed It can change form, like from liquidIt can change form, like from liquid to gas, or gas to solid, but the matterto gas, or gas to solid, but the matter is still there!is still there! Gases have mass even if you can’tGases have mass even if you can’t see itsee it
  • 26. Law of Conservation ofLaw of Conservation of EnergyEnergy Energy cannot be created norEnergy cannot be created nor destroyed!destroyed! The amount you put INTO a reaction isThe amount you put INTO a reaction is equal to the amount you get OUT OFequal to the amount you get OUT OF your reaction!!your reaction!!
  • 27. Section 2.3 Properties of MatterSection 2.3 Properties of Matter Two types of properties: Chemical andTwo types of properties: Chemical and PhysicalPhysical Chemical propertiesChemical properties: describe the way a: describe the way a substance reacts with other substances to formsubstance reacts with other substances to form NEW substances with new propertiesNEW substances with new properties • i.e. does it burn (i.e. does it burn (flammableflammable), does it explode), does it explode when it contacts the air (Sodium)when it contacts the air (Sodium) • Reactivity:Reactivity: the ability of a substance tothe ability of a substance to combine chemically with another substancecombine chemically with another substance
  • 28. Physical properties:Physical properties: describedescribe characteristics of a substance that can becharacteristics of a substance that can be measured and observed without changingmeasured and observed without changing the compositionthe composition • i.e. color, shape, mass, densityi.e. color, shape, mass, density • Can you think of any other properties youCan you think of any other properties you can observe?can observe?
  • 29. DensityDensity Density is aDensity is a physicalphysical property defined as theproperty defined as the mass per unit volume of a substancemass per unit volume of a substance →→ What does that even mean??What does that even mean?? ➢ It means how heavy an object is compared to itsIt means how heavy an object is compared to its volumevolume ➢ Can you think of any materials that are really lightCan you think of any materials that are really light compared to other materials that are about thecompared to other materials that are about the same size?same size?
  • 30. Density continued...Density continued... Density is a mathematical value derivedDensity is a mathematical value derived from mass and volume.from mass and volume. The equation for Density is:The equation for Density is: Density = Mass/Volume or D = m/VDensity = Mass/Volume or D = m/V
  • 31. More Density...More Density... Units forUnits for massmass are usually grams (g) orare usually grams (g) or kilograms (kg)kilograms (kg) Units forUnits for volumevolume are usually liters (L) orare usually liters (L) or milliliters (mL) or cubic centimeters (ccmilliliters (mL) or cubic centimeters (cc33 )) 1 mL = 11 mL = 1 cccc 33 so these two measurementsso these two measurements are interchangeableare interchangeable
  • 32. Chemical and PhysicalChemical and Physical ChangesChanges Chemical changesChemical changes occur when a newoccur when a new substance is formed (you can never gosubstance is formed (you can never go back to the original substance)back to the original substance) i.e when you burn wood, it becomes ashes andi.e when you burn wood, it becomes ashes and can never go back to being a piece of wood!can never go back to being a piece of wood! Physical changesPhysical changes occur when theoccur when the substance changes form or states but thesubstance changes form or states but the chemical composition is still the samechemical composition is still the same i.e. frozen water is still water, just in solid formi.e. frozen water is still water, just in solid form