Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Ecology of populations
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Ecology of populations

1,110

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,110
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Ecology of Populations Reference: Chapter 46
  • 2. Density vs Distribution
    • Density: #/area
    • Distribution
    • Ecological reasons for each?
  • 3. Limiting factors
    • Resource or environmental condition that restricts the abundance or distribution of an organism
    • Abiotic or biotic
    • Why is there a
    • tree line?
  • 4. Intrinsic Rate of Natural Increase
    • What increases population size?
    • What decreases population size?
  • 5. Intrinsic Rate of Natural Increase, r
    • Population growth rate
      • + natality (birth) rate
      • - mortality (death) rate
      • + immigration rate
      • - emigration rate
    • If immigration = emigration
      • r = birth rate – death rate
    • Rates expressed per capita
      • 2 out of 50 die = 0.04 death rate
  • 6.
    • Discrete breeder: one reproductive event in lifetime
    • Continuous breeder: many reproductive rates through out lifetime
  • 7. Exponential Growth
    • Unchecked growth
      • Unlimited resources
      • Protection from disease & predators
    • Biotic potential = MAX growth under ideal conditions
    • R = net reproductive rate (offspring that survives from one female)
    N t+1 = RN t N t = # females present N t+1 = population size the following year
  • 8. Environmental resistance
    • Populations don’t grow unchecked forever…
    • Stopped by …
  • 9. Logistic Growth
    • Growth slows or stops as resources dwindle
    • Carrying capacity
      • Maximum # of one species environment can support
  • 10. Logistic Growth
  • 11. Life History Patterns
    • Environment may influence reproductive strategies
    • Density-independent factors
      • Weather, natural disasters, etc.
    • Density-dependent factors
      • Parasitism, competition, predation
  • 12. Life History Patterns
    • Unstable environment
      • Density-independent factors keep population from getting too high
      • r -selection
        • Rate of increase is most important
      • r -strategists
        • Many offspring; minimal parental care
        • Small body size; mature quickly
        • Good dispersers and colonizers
        • Get it while the getting’s good!
        • “Live fast, die young”
  • 13. Life History Patterns
    • Stable environment
      • Density-dependent factors keep population from getting too high
      • K -selection
        • Carrying capacity is most important
      • K -strategists
        • Few offspring; extensive parental care
        • Large body size; mature late
        • Specialists
        • “Slow and steady wins the race”
  • 14.
    • Cohort = all the members of population born at the same time.
      • Survivorship = probability of newborn individuals of a cohort surviving to particular ages
    Survivorship Curves
  • 15. Survivorship Curves
  • 16. Human Population Growth
    • Human population has an exponential growth pattern.
      • Doubling time currently estimated at 53 years.
    • Population Size
      • 1800 1 Billion
      • 1930 2 Billion
      • 1960 3 Billion
      • 2000 6 Billion
  • 17.  
  • 18. World Population Growth
  • 19. Country Development
    • More-Developed Countries (MDCs)
      • Slow population growth.
      • High standard of living.
      • Completed Demographic Transition.
        • North America and Europe
    • Less-Developed Countries (LDCs)
      • Rapid population growth.
      • Low standard of living.
        • Latin America
        • Africa and Asia
  • 20.  
  • 21. Age Distributions
    • Age Structure Diagrams divide populations into three age groups.
      • Pre-Reproductive
      • Reproductive
      • Post-Reproductive
  • 22. More-Developed Countries
  • 23. Less-Developed Countries
  • 24. Age Structure Diagrams
    • Keep your eye on the reproductive ages!
  • 25. Environmental Impact
    • Environmental impact of a population is measured in terms of:
      • Population Size
      • Resource Consumption Per Capita
      • Resultant Pollution
  • 26. Environmental Impact
  • 27. Echoes of the Boom…

×