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  • 1. Name three biogeochemical cycles. Explain WHY they are called biogeochemical cycles. List as many places as you can that a water molecule could go (in an ecosystem).
  • 2. Ecosystems and Human Interferences Chapter 48
  • 3. Nature of Ecosystems
    • Biosphere is part of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere that contains living organisms.
      • An ecosystem where organisms interact.
        • Ecosystems characterized by:
          • One-Way flow of energy.
          • Cycle of materials from abiotic environment through biotic community.
  • 4. Biotic Components
    • Autotrophs
      • Require only inorganic nutrients and an outside energy source to produce organic nutrients.
        • Producers
          • Photoautotrophs
          • Chemoautrophs.
  • 5. Heterotrophs
    • Heterotrophs need a preformed source of organic nutrients.
      • Consumers
        • Herbivores - Feed on plants.
        • Carnivores - Feed on other animals.
        • Omnivores - Feed on plants and animals.
        • Detritivores - Feed on detritus.
      • Decomposers are heterotrophic bacteria and fungi that break down dead organic matter.
  • 6. Energy Flows One Way!
    • Energy flow occurs because as nutrients pass from one population to another, all the energy content is converted to heat, which dissipates into the environment
  • 7. Energy Flow
    • Food Web - Interconnecting paths of energy flow describing trophic relationships
      • Arrow shows direction of energy flow
  • 8. Ecological Pyramids
    • Trophic level = all the organisms that feed at a particular link in a food chain
      • = each step on the chain
      • Flower Caterpillar Mouse Owl
  • 9. Ecological Pyramids
    • Trophic level = all the organisms that feed at a particular link in a food chain
      • = each step on the chain
      • Flower Caterpillar Mouse Owl
      • 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th
      • Producer Primary consumer Secondary consumer Tertiary
      • In general, only about 10% of the energy of one trophic level is available to the next trophic level.
  • 10. Ecological Pyramid Why are there rarely more than 4 or 5 trophic levels?
  • 11. Chemical Cycling
    • Matter keeps recycling!
    • Chemicals cycle as organic nutrients are returned to the producers.
      • Excretion
      • Death
      • Cellular Respiration
  • 12. Hydrologic Cycle
  • 13. Carbon Cycle
    • Atmosphere = source of carbon (in CO 2 )
    • Captured by photosynthesis
    • Incorporated into organism tissue
    • Passed from organism to organism
    • Released
      • Cellular respiration
      • Decay
      • Combustion
  • 14. Carbon Cycle
  • 15. Greenhouse Effect
    • Greenhouse gases allow solar radiation to pass through atmosphere but trap heat (infrared radiation) from escaping.
      • Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane
        • If Earth’s temperature rises, more water will evaporate, forming more clouds and setting up a potential positive feedback loop.
  • 16. Earth’s Radiation Balances
  • 17. Nitrogen Cycle
    • Atmosphere = source of nitrogen (in N 2 )
    • Captured by nitrogen fixation
      • Nitrogen fixing bacteria (nodules on legumes)
    • Incorporated into organism tissue
    • Passed from organism to organism
    • Released
      • Decay
      • Denitrification
  • 18. The Nitrogen Cycle
  • 19. Nitrogen and Air Pollution
    • Acid Deposition
      • Nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide are converted to acids when they combine with water vapor.
  • 20. Thermal Inversion
  • 21. Phosphorus Cycle
    • Phosphorus does not enter the atmosphere.
      • Sedimentary cycle.
        • Phosphate taken up by producers incorporated into a variety of organic molecules.
      • Can lead to water eutrophication.
        • Biomagnification
  • 22. Phosphorus Cycle
  • 23. If limiting factor is not limited…
    • Chemical fertilizers
      • Contaminate water and lead to algal blooms and fish kills
  • 24. Biomagnification or Bioamplification
    • Concentration of pollutant increases as it is passed up the food chain
    Fish-Eating Birds Magnification of DDT Concentration 10,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000,000 1000 Large Fish Small Fish Zooplankton Producers Water
  • 25. Sources of Water Pollution