Animal Behavior Ref:  Chapter 45
Behavior <ul><li>Observable and coordinated responses to environmental stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Ethology = scientific stu...
Genetic Basis to Behavior
Genetic Basis to Behavior: Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Twin Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare similarities between </li...
Genetic Basis to Behavior: Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Twin Studies indicate differences in personality traits </li></ul><u...
Development of Behavior <ul><li>Innate behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Action Pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resp...
Development of Behavior <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutr...
Development of Behavior <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual...
Development of Behavior <ul><li>Imprinting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning occurs in   sensitive period </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Development of Behavior <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female chimpanzees termite fish like mothers </li></ul></ul...
Behavior is Adaptive <ul><li>Behaviors that increase survival and reproductive success are passed down </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Sexual Dimorphism <ul><li>Differences in appearance between genders </li></ul>Male gorilla 1.5X size of female
Female Choice <ul><li>Female determines “best mate” </li></ul><ul><li>Courtship rituals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds </li><...
Male Competition <ul><li>Dominance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant male mates with females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domin...
Male Competition <ul><li>Territoriality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male defends his territory (and harem) from other males </li...
Chemical Communication <ul><li>Pheromone:  chemical signal passed between members of the same species </li></ul>
Tactile Communication Waggle dance Grooming
Sociobiology <ul><li>Principles of evolutionary biology applied to social behavior in animals </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits o...
Advantages to Living Together <ul><li>Avoid predators </li></ul><ul><li>Raise young </li></ul><ul><li>Find food </li></ul>
Disadvantages to  Living Together <ul><li>Competition over resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential low spot in hierarchy...
Altruism <ul><li>Behavior that reduces direct fitness but increases indirect fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive fitness =...
Honeybee Society <ul><li>Males -  haploid (have 1 set of chromosomes) </li></ul><ul><li>Females – diploid (have 2 sets of ...
Honeybee Genetics <ul><li>Queen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes half her chromosomes and all of male’s chromosomes to offspri...
Honeybee Genetics <ul><li>Who is more closely related?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen and female offspring </li></ul></ul><u...
Helpers <ul><li>Support reproducers </li></ul><ul><li>Later gain support for reproducing </li></ul>
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Animal behavior

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Animal behavior

  1. 1. Animal Behavior Ref: Chapter 45
  2. 2. Behavior <ul><li>Observable and coordinated responses to environmental stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Ethology = scientific study of how animals behave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanistic questions: “how” a behavior occurs by an animal’s structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival value questions: “why” a behavior occurs and how it helps an animal to survive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary advantage = behavior increases fitness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Genetic Basis to Behavior
  4. 4. Genetic Basis to Behavior: Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Twin Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare similarities between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identical twins (share 100% DNA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fraternal twins (share 50% DNA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same environment (nurture) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare similarities for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identical twins reared apart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different environment; same genetics (nature) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Genetic Basis to Behavior: Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Twin Studies indicate differences in personality traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% polygenic inheritance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% environmental influence </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Development of Behavior <ul><li>Innate behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Action Pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to sign stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of unlearned behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always performed same way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary advantage? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Development of Behavior <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral stimulus paired with significant stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexive response triggered by neutral stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Pavlov’s dog (bell + food drool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bell drool) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfZfMIHwSkU </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Development of Behavior <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual strengthening of stimulus-response connections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus  Reward if proper response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B F Skinner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary advantage? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Development of Behavior <ul><li>Imprinting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning occurs in sensitive period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will follow first moving object seen after hatching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually occurs in precocious young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary advantage? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Development of Behavior <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female chimpanzees termite fish like mothers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn by imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary advantage? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Behavior is Adaptive <ul><li>Behaviors that increase survival and reproductive success are passed down </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual selection = changes in males and females caused by mate choice and competition for mates </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sexual Dimorphism <ul><li>Differences in appearance between genders </li></ul>Male gorilla 1.5X size of female
  13. 13. Female Choice <ul><li>Female determines “best mate” </li></ul><ul><li>Courtship rituals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Male Competition <ul><li>Dominance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant male mates with females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance determined by confrontation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Male Competition <ul><li>Territoriality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male defends his territory (and harem) from other males </li></ul></ul>Mockingbird Male fur seals
  16. 16. Chemical Communication <ul><li>Pheromone: chemical signal passed between members of the same species </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tactile Communication Waggle dance Grooming
  18. 18. Sociobiology <ul><li>Principles of evolutionary biology applied to social behavior in animals </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of living together must outweigh costs for society to persist </li></ul>
  19. 19. Advantages to Living Together <ul><li>Avoid predators </li></ul><ul><li>Raise young </li></ul><ul><li>Find food </li></ul>
  20. 20. Disadvantages to Living Together <ul><li>Competition over resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential low spot in hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased risk of disease and parasites </li></ul>
  21. 21. Altruism <ul><li>Behavior that reduces direct fitness but increases indirect fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive fitness = reproductive success of self and relatives (who share your genes!) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Honeybee Society <ul><li>Males - haploid (have 1 set of chromosomes) </li></ul><ul><li>Females – diploid (have 2 sets of chromosomes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen – reproductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers – sterile </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Honeybee Genetics <ul><li>Queen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes half her chromosomes and all of male’s chromosomes to offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen shares half her chromosomes with daughters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shares half of queen’s chromosomes and ALL of father’s chromosomes with sisters </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Honeybee Genetics <ul><li>Who is more closely related? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen and female offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female offspring and female offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the queen exploiting the workers – or the workers exploiting the queen? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Helpers <ul><li>Support reproducers </li></ul><ul><li>Later gain support for reproducing </li></ul>
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