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Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
Tang Song China
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Tang Song China

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  • Ms. Brown is cool(:
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  • This is a great powerpoint and it corresponds with the McDougal Littel World History textbook!
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  • 1. Medieval China: Sui, Tang, Song Dynasties
  • 2. Objectives 12.1 <ul><li>Identify the historical importance of the Sui Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the main rulers of the Tang Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the achievements of the Tang and Song empires </li></ul><ul><li>Describe changes in Chinese society </li></ul>
  • 3. Sui Dynasty <ul><li>By 589, the first emperor of the Sui dynasty had forcefully reunited northern and southern China once again after over 300 years of disunity with the fall of the Han Dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>The foundations for the Tang & Song Dynasties were laid. </li></ul>
  • 4.  
  • 5. Sui Dynasty, 581-618 C.E. <ul><li>“ Land Equalization” System  land redistribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Unified coinage. </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Canal constructed—million peasants labored for 5 years on its completion—half died </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Canal connected the Huang He and Yangtze Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Established an army of professional soldiers. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People were overworked and overtaxed! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People revolted in 618 and assassinated the Sui emperor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. Grand Canal
  • 7. Medieval China <ul><li>General pattern: With onset of Middle Ages, China recentralizes and retrenches, reinforcing Confucianism. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast to the Roman Empire, the western half of which fragments, bringing on the Dark Ages in W. Europe. </li></ul>
  • 8.  
  • 9. Tang China: 618-907 CE <ul><li>Expanded and strengthened the central government; expanded roads & canals; further unified the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Reconquered northern and western lands lost after the fall of the Han </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial examination system perfected. </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal attitude towards all religions. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of Buddhism in China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Golden Age of foreign relations with other countries—promoted foreign trade. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan, Korea, Persia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. Emperor Taizong: 600-649 CE <ul><li>Tang Taizong (“Great Ancestor”) </li></ul><ul><li>Tang emperor who was an important general—came to power in 626 after killing brothers </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded China’s borders north to Manchuria and south to Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Reformed the government and the law code </li></ul>
  • 11. Empress Wu Zhao 625-705 <ul><li>The only female Empress in China’s history who ruled alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Searched for outstanding individuals to attract to her court. </li></ul><ul><li>Military campaign to take Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism was the favored state religion. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financed the building of many Buddhist temples. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT… She appointed cruel and sadistic ministers to seek out her enemies. </li></ul>
  • 12. Buddhism in Tang China <ul><li>Mahayana Buddhism spreads to China as Han are collapsing (ca. 220 C.E.)—but reaches its greatest influence in China under the Tang </li></ul><ul><li>Tang patronize Buddhism while promoting Confucian education. </li></ul><ul><li> (1) Endow monasteries </li></ul><ul><li> (2) Host Buddhist ceremonies at court </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Art, literature, architecture—Buddhist themes widely seen </li></ul><ul><li>Empress Wu (r. 690-705) tries to make Buddhism state religion-> powerful monks and monasteries </li></ul>
  • 13. Buddhism in Tang China Buddhist sculpture in Luoyang caves, commissioned by Empress Wu
  • 14. Tang China: 618-907 CE <ul><li>CONFUCIANISM & CIVIL SERVICE EXAMS </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of scholar-gentry (govt. bureaucrats) as a result of patronage of Confucianism---created the model for gentleman bureaucrats </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. bureaucracy filled by competitive exams in Confucian classics—all the wealthy receive similar educations and develop the same world-view </li></ul><ul><li>Examination system was complex—roughly equivalent to a modern day Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucrats provided stability in time of political crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Education & talent became keys to social mobility—reduced the power of the old landowning aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Talented class of bureaucrats were generally loyal to the dynasty and worked to strengthen and preserve the state </li></ul>
  • 15. Tang Dynasty: Innovation & Influence <ul><li>New technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing  moveable-type print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using characters carved on wood blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Porcelain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunpowder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical clocks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More cosmopolitan culture—capital at </li></ul><ul><li>Changan was the largest, wealthiest, and most </li></ul><ul><li>Splendid city in the world at this time </li></ul><ul><li>Reestablished the safety of the Silk Road through use of imperial armies </li></ul><ul><li>Tea comes into China from Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Tang China strongly influenced the cultures of Korea & Japan </li></ul>
  • 16. New Technologies: Printing <ul><li>Became common in Tang era </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest printers used block-printing techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carved a reverse image of an entire page into a wooden block, inked the block, then pressed a sheet of paper on top of it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the mid-eleventh century, printers began to experiment with movable type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fashioned dies in the shape of ideographs, arranged them in a frame, inked them, and pressed the frame over paper sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speeded up the process and allowed printers to make revisions and corrections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitated production and distribution of texts quickly, cheaply, and in large quantities </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. New Technologies: Gunpowder <ul><li>During the Tang era, Daoist alchemists learned it was dangerous to mix charcoal, saltpeter, sulphur, and arsenic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military officials saw possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the tenth-century, the Tang military was using gunpowder in bamboo “fire lances,” a kind of flame thrower and by the eleventh century they had made primitive bombs </li></ul>
  • 18. New Technologies: Porcelain <ul><li>Tang craftsmen discovered how to produce porcelain which was lighter, thinner, and adaptable to more uses than earlier pottery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong enough and attractive enough to serve utilitarian or aesthetic purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tang and Song products gained such a reputation that porcelain is commonly called “chinaware” </li></ul>Tang Marble Glazed Porcelain Figure
  • 19.  
  • 20. Long Decline of the Tang <ul><li>Victim of its own success—expanded beyond its capacity to effectively communicate and administer its territories </li></ul><ul><li>Frontier generals and officials gained too much power—staged revolts creating internal strife in the mid-700s </li></ul><ul><li>Tang ruled for another century but very weak and eventually fell after Changan was sacked and destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>China entered 50 years of political turmoil until the first Song emperor regained imperial control </li></ul>
  • 21. Southern Song Dynasty
  • 22. SONG (Sung) DYNASTY 960-1279 <ul><li>In 960 the general Taizu reunited China and proclaimed himself the first Song emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled a smaller empire than the Han or the Tang—but the Song kept China stable, powerful, and wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>After the early 1100s, northern China fell to the Manchurian people (Jin Empire) </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Song Empire (1127-1279): grand new capital established at Hangzhou—coastal city </li></ul><ul><li>Move to the south brought huge economic growth—became economic heartland of China </li></ul>
  • 23. Song [Sung] Dynasty, 960-1279 C.E. <ul><li>Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased emphasis on education & cheaper availability of printed books. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced understanding of anatomy---perfected the practice of acupuncture to treat a variety of ailments </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic compass makes China a great sea power! </li></ul>
  • 24. New Agricultural Techniques <ul><li>Heavy iron plows </li></ul><ul><li>Harnessed oxen and water buffaloes </li></ul><ul><li>Enriched soil with manure and composted organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoirs, dikes, dams, pumps, water wheels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial irrigation greatly increased agricultural production which led to a rapid population expansion </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Intensive Rice Cultivation after 1000 CE New type of rice from Vietnam allowed for 2 harvests a year—feed a larger population in the cities
  • 26. INDUSTRY & TRADE <ul><li>China lost its monopoly on silk (but still had a superior product) </li></ul><ul><li>China was the sole supplier of porcelain to the world </li></ul><ul><li>China began cotton, tea, and sugar production and export. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced metallurgy and mining </li></ul><ul><li>Sea trade—China’s long coastline had port cities that became big trade centers—ships sailed to Korea, Japan, India, Persian Gulf, Africa </li></ul>
  • 27. Financing Trade <ul><li>The use of a credit system (flying money) </li></ul><ul><li>Government issued paper money. </li></ul><ul><li>Some areas of the economy were privatized during the Song era leading to new innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of cities led to growth of industry, trade, and the empires’ economy—some cities had populations over one million </li></ul>
  • 28. Economic Exchange: Letters of Credit <ul><li>Trade grew so rapidly during the Tang and Song era that copper coin shortages developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traders began issuing letters of credit (“flying cash”) as an alternative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabled merchants to deposit goods or cash at one location and draw the equivalent cash or merchandise somewhere else </li></ul></ul>Coin from Tang Dynasty
  • 29. Economic Exchange: Tea <ul><li>Tea trading flourished during Tang and Song era </li></ul><ul><li>Tea was compressed into bricks and used as money </li></ul>
  • 30. Social Classes in Medieval China <ul><li>Landowners (landed gentry) were at the top of the social class system. </li></ul><ul><li>Scholar-gentry and military leaders were another high class. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants and artisans could acquire a great deal of wealth from industry and trade (but were in the lower class). </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers, peasants, and slaves were at the bottom of the social classes. </li></ul>**China’s new prosperity had big impact on society—rise of cities, educated gentry, social mobility
  • 31. Gender Roles <ul><li>Women’s status slowly declined (despite attempts at reform by several empresses) </li></ul><ul><li>The Song Period saw women at a very low social status—Song rulers thought Buddhism encouraged too much freedom for women </li></ul><ul><li>Seclusion, lack of property rights, foot binding, and exclusion from education are all examples of their lowering status. </li></ul>
  • 32. Foot-Binding in China <ul><li>Broken toes by 3 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Feet are tightly bound resulting in the breaking of the arch and curling under of the toes—creating a “lily-foot” </li></ul><ul><li>Crippled for life </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected wealth and prestige of her husband </li></ul><ul><li>Size 5 ½ shoe on the right </li></ul>
  • 33.  
  • 34. Art and Writing Poet Li Bo Poet Du Fu
  • 35. Golden Age <ul><li>China during the Tang and Song dynasties enjoyed political stability, economic growth, and intellectual and artistic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Two great Song poets: Li Bo and Tu Fu—praised orderliness, Confucian virtues, life’s pleasures </li></ul><ul><li>Porcelain production (called china today) </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape paintings and natural objects </li></ul>
  • 36. “ Crows Calling at Night” by Li Bo <ul><li>Yellow cloud wall beside crow near tower Return fly caw caw branch on call Machine in weave brocade Qin river girl Green yarn like mist separate window speech Stop shuttle disappointed recall far person Alone stay lone room tear like rain Yellow clouds beside the walls; crows near the tower. Flying back, they caw, caw; calling in the boughs. In the loom she weaves brocade, the Qin river girl. Made of emerald yarn like mist, the window hides her words. She stops the shuttle, sorrowful, and thinks of the distant man. She stays alone in the lonely room, her tears just like the rain. </li></ul>
  • 37. Song Dynasty Painting Daoist influences in art—show the beauty of nature, use of simple lines, calm & tranquil landscape scenes
  • 38. “ Black is ten colors” Black ink drawings were often accompanied by poetry
  • 39. China’s Innovative Spirit <ul><li>China was undoubtedly the most technologically advanced civilization of pre-modern time </li></ul><ul><li>Paper, gunpowder, the compass, printing, advances in sailing, medicine, math---all had a huge impact on the development of Asia and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>China’s Tang/Song golden age comes to an end in the 1200s with the arrival of the Mongols </li></ul>

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