Objectives 2.2 / 4.1 Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt <ul><li>Summarize the effects of geography on the development of Egyptian culture </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how Egypt united into a kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Describe ancient Egyptian religion, social structure, technological advances, and science </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why Egypt declined and was conquered by the Hykos </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key developments during the New Kingdom that led Egypt to become an empire </li></ul>
Ancient Egyptian History Periods Time Frame Nile Culture Begins 3900 B. C. E. Unification / Dynasties Begin 3100 – 2650 B. C. E. Old Kingdom 2650 – 2134 B. C. E. Middle Kingdom 2040 – 1640 B. C. E. New Kingdom 1550 – 1070 B. C. E.
The Fertile Nile Valley <ul><li>Nile River—4,100 miles long and flows northward into the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Egypt contains the Nile delta region—broad, marshy area of land formed by deposits of silt (fertile black mud) </li></ul>
The Annual Flooding of the Nile <ul><li>Environmental benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Nile flooding is predictable </li></ul><ul><li>Provides system of transportation (sails needed for southbound boats) </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by vast areas of desert—acted as natural barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental challenges: </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Egyptians to live on small portion of land </li></ul><ul><li>Limited cultural diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Drought could cause starving / too much rain could destroy homes and farms </li></ul>
Unification of Egypt <ul><li>Narmer —recent evidence suggests he was the first king to rule a unified Egypt—conquered Lower Egypt circa 3000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>In ancient tradition, Menes (the Scorpion King) was believed to be the first to rule an unified Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>2920 B.C.—Egyptian date for foundation of the first dynasty </li></ul>Palette of Narmer, 3000 B.C.—tells the tale of Narmer’s conquest of Lower Egypt (used to prepare cosmetics) .
Pharaohs—god-kings <ul><li>Ancient Egypt theocracy : government in which rule is based on religious authority </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaohs controlled religion, the army, and the government </li></ul><ul><li>Well-being of the kingdom depended on the pharaoh </li></ul>
<ul><li>Building the Pyramids: </li></ul><ul><li>Centuries of Innovation </li></ul>
Stepped Pyramid at Saqqara Stepped pyramid for pharaoh Djoser (2,650 B.C.)— Djoser is the first pharaoh to be worshipped as a god Djoser’s royal tomb became a model for later pharaohs—architect (& high priest) Imhotep designed the world’s first pyramid & started a revolution in tomb design using cut granite Link to video segment on Djoser
Imhotep: Famous Architect of Djoser’s Pyramid <ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =nRK6DTpX5Ts&feature= player_embedded # </li></ul>
Red Pyramid: Important Step Forward in Design <ul><li>Built by pharaoh Snafu (circa 2,575 B.C .) </li></ul><ul><li>Movement towards true pyramid shape—sloped smooth sides (this is the pharaoh’s 3 rd pyramid he built trying to achieve perfection) </li></ul>
Glimmering in the Sun: White Limestone Covered Inner Core of the Pyramids
Great Pyramid at Giza <ul><li>Ka: the eternal life force </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaoh’s ka remains alive after death—must have its needs and pleasures met </li></ul><ul><li>Old Kingdom pharaohs had pyramids built as their resting place after death </li></ul><ul><li>Great Pyramid at Giza (center & below)—2,550 B.C. –built for the pharaoh Khufu (one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World—only one still standing) </li></ul><ul><li>4 points are aligned with the 4 cardinal directions; 481 feet high </li></ul>http://voicethread.com/share/681532/
Plan of the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in Greek) http://www.geocities.com/athens/delphi/3499/gp1.htm (facts about the Great Pyramid)
Pyramid & Sphinx of Khafre (son of Khufu) <ul><li>Khafre, Khufu's son, built beside his father's pyramid. His is the smaller pyramid, but as it is built on higher ground, and has a slightly steeper angle, it appears the larger. </li></ul><ul><li>Most complete of the Giza three--retains some of its upper casing stones. </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Sphinx crouches beside Khafre's Valley Temple---consists of the king's head, 22 times life-sized, perched on a massive lion's body. </li></ul>
Pyramid & Sphinx of Khafre http://voicethread.com/share/681724/
<ul><li>Great Pyramid—made of granite and limestone taken from quarries Each block weighed at least 2.5 tons and there are 2 millions blocks used—fitted together with exact precision Pyramids reflected the power of ancient Egypt Economic strength and technological advancement needed to support these massive public works projects </li></ul>The orientation of the pyramids runs east to west—connects the pharaoh to the rising and setting sun Pyramids at Giza—built over an 80 year period
<ul><li>Egyptian Religion: </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation of their culture </li></ul>
Egyptian Mummies Seti I 1291-1278 B. C. E. Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II 1210-1200 B. C. E. Ramses II 1279-1212 B. C. E.
Journey to the Underworld A boat for the journey is provided for a dead pharaoh in his tomb. The dead travel on the “Solar Bark.”
Egyptian Book of the Dead <ul><li>Ancient Egyptian collection of funerary texts made up of spells and charms </li></ul><ul><li>Placed in tombs to aid the deceased in the next world. </li></ul><ul><li>Scribes produced and sold copies, often colorfully illustrated, for burial use. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed to have 200 chapters but none of the surviving copies are complete </li></ul>http:// voicethread.com/share/681135 /
An Egyptian Woman’s “Must-Haves” Perfume Whigs Mirror http://voicethread.com/share/681276
Egyptian Medicine <ul><li>Became masters of human anatomy and healing mostly due to the extensive mummification ceremonies---involved removing most of the internal organs including the brain, lungs, pancreas, liver, spleen, heart and intestine (put in Canopic jars to dry out and then the organs were put back in the body) </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians had (and this is an understatement) a basic knowledge of organ functions </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of anatomy branched into many other medical practices, such as treating fevers and wounds, healing broken bones, surgical procedures </li></ul>http://voicethread.com/share/685051/ http://voicethread.com/share/685051/ http://voicethread.com/share/684373 http:// voicethread.com/share/684373
Egyptian Math & Draftsmanship What number is this? System of numbers—used especially for the collecting of taxes 1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000
Egyptian Technology <ul><li>Calendar system---solar year (365 days)—very accurate prediction of the Nile flooding—based on astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation and canals </li></ul><ul><li>Geometry—used to build pyramids and monuments—advanced engineering/problem solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>First use of cut stone and columns </li></ul>
<ul><li>The New Kingdom: 1570-1025 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>(4.1) </li></ul>
Invaders Rule Egypt <ul><li>The Hykos—invaders from Palestine conquered Egypt using their advanced weaponry, especially chariots </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt had been weakened by internal warfare and poor rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Hebrews—move into the region around 1650 B.C. settling in Egypt with the Hykos </li></ul>
Rise of the New Kingdom <ul><li>Strong, warlike pharaohs came to power in Egypt and eventually expelled the Hykos around 1570 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze weapons and chariots made Egypt a great power—strong army—became conquerors establishing an empire </li></ul><ul><li>According to t he Old Testament, the Hebrews remained in Egypt and were enslaved </li></ul>
Hatshepsut—Make Trade, Not War <ul><li>Woman who declared herself pharaoh while ruling for her young stepson </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged trade—sent ships down the Red Sea to trade with East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Her tomb walls reveal the glories of her reign (a recently discovered mummy is believed to be her) </li></ul><ul><li>Stepson Thutmose III tried to erase her memory from history—may have murdered her </li></ul>http://voicethread.com/share/681814/
The Valley of the Queens Temple of Queen Hatshepsut 1473-1458 B. C. E.
Some Famous Egyptian Pharaohs of the New Kingdom Thutmose III 1504-1450 B. C. E. Ramses II 1279-1212 B. C. E. Tutankhamen 1336-1327 B. C. E.
Thutmose III—Empire Builder <ul><li>Warlike ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered the areas of Palestine and Syria </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with other cultures brought wealth and new ideas (cultural diffusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt reaches the height of its power and influence </li></ul>
The Valley of the Kings <ul><li>New Kingdom pharaohs were grand builders—elaborate temples and great palaces (“pharaoh” means “great house”) </li></ul><ul><li>Grand tombs were built under desert cliffs in the remote Valley of the Kings—good location for security and peace in afterlife </li></ul>
Akhenaton: First Monotheist? 1352-1336 B. C. E. http://voicethread.com/share/680976 <ul><li>He and his wife Nefertiti started a practice of monotheism — worshipped the sun disc god over all others, and seem to have outlawed their subjects' polytheistic devotion — threatened Egypt's priesthood and ensured they would have no shortage of powerful enemies. </li></ul>Shows ideal home life of the pharaoh with the sun disk shining on them
Queen Nefertiti Controversial long-necked Queen of legendary beauty---this famous bust represents the changes in art that Akhenaton instituted during his reign—much more realistic, not rigid, real portrait (if you are ever in Berlin you must go see this bust) http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/nefertiti/nefertiti.html Royal wife of Akhenaton—some scholars argue she was responsible for instituting the monotheistic religion and may have had a hand in the boy king Tutankhamen’s death
Archaeologist, Howard Carter (1922) <ul><li>Discovered the tomb of Tutankhamen (Akhenaton’s son) </li></ul><ul><li>Tomb was undisturbed and contained all of its riches </li></ul>
King Tutankhamen's Death Mask 1336-1327 B. C. E. http:// voicethread.com/share/681389 / Tutankhamun married Ankhesenpaaten, his half sister, the third daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti---he died at age 18/19
Ramses II—Great Builder <ul><li>Preserved his memory through monumental building </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed a temple to Amon-Re at Karnak complete with enormous statues of himself </li></ul><ul><li>Built a major temple carved into the red limestone at Abu Simbel </li></ul>Temple of Karnak—Ramses II additions
Abu Simbel: Monument to Ramses II 1279-1213 B. C. E.
Routes of the “Sea Peoples” The end of the Bronze Age! <ul><li>Mystery as to who the “Sea Peoples” were, but they caused great destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt never fully recovered from these invasions after 1150 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt culture continued to greatly influenced the powers that came to dominate the region, such as Libya and Nubia (south of Egypt where the Nile divides) </li></ul>
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