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Respiration
 

Respiration

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  • - Different organisms have several alternative ways of getting energy from food, without using oxygen, but all are less efficient than aerobic respiration, and do not break food down fully into the simplest substances.Some organisms they live in places where there is very little oxygen such as these muddy soils. So how do they get energy? To survive in this habitat, the microbes have to adapt by using anaerobic respiration to provide them with energy. Although anaerobic respiration is a primitive and inefficient form of energy release, deriving from the period when oxygen was missing from the atmosphere, it can also be seen as an adaptation. To survive in some habitats, such as the muddy bottom of a polluted river, an organism must be to a large extent independent of oxygen; such habitats are said to be anoxic. In the thick mud at the bottom of this pond, there is very little oxygen. Some bacteris live in this mud. They break down glucose without using osygen. So they respire anaerobically. During anaerobic respiration, less energy is released than aerobic, because the glucose molecule is only partly broken down. Co2 is released, alcohol may be formed as a waste product. And we call this fermentation to make alcoholic drinks.
  • What is this? This is used to make your wine and bread. Yeast are a type of fungi. Yeasts are characterized by a wide dispersion of natural habitats. Common on plant leaves and flowers, soil and salt water. Yeasts are also found on the skin surfaces and in the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, where they may live symbiotically or as parasites.Use of anaerobic respiration in industryIn plants, yeasts, and bacteria, anaerobic respiration results in the production of alcohol and carbon dioxide, a process that is exploited by both the brewing and the baking industries (see fermentation).Many industries have made use of the waste pdts from yeast’s ananerobicresoiration(c02 and ethanol) to make useful pdts. Can you make a guess to what they are?
  • If u look closely at many fruits e.g grapes, there are yeast living on their surface. And we know yeast respire anerobically and grapes is made up of sugar. So if you were to store these fruits with yeast on it for a while, u will taste alcohol. Becos the yeast can undergo anaerobic respiration and breakdown the sugar to give alcohol. Another term for anaerobic respiration is fermentation, or alcoholic fermentation, since it produces alcohol. So what brewery industry does is they add yeast to food such as rice, barley, corn whereby yeast will ferment the sugar in these food to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer.
  • in the baking industry the bakers also use yeast to make bread. And the yeast used is called baker’s yeast. Bakers are more interested in the carbon dioxide released rather than the alcohol.Yeast is added to dough, the yeast starts to feed on he sugar in the flour, fermenting the sugar to give co2, which expand and cause dough to be raised. So when its put in the oven, the heat will kill the yeast and evaporate the alcohol, leaving behind light bread with light, fluffy texture. Some of the bread u eat is made with yeast.
  • Besides some bacteria and yeast which respire anaerobically, larger organisms like humans too! Who ran for last sat’s sports day? How did you feel when you were running during the race? Were u breathing very hard? After the race, were you panting?During an intensive exercise such as sprinting, initially, your body undergo aerobic respiration to provide energy to power the run. But if you are exercising so intensely, you may reach a point where you cannot take in oxygen any faster. You are making energy by aerobic respiration as fast as you can, but your body still needs more energy. So where does your body get more energy from to sustain your run? At this point, some of the glucose will be broken down anaerobically, due to insufficient oxygen, to provide a bit of extra energy.And in this case, for human, the waste product is not alcohol; bit lactic acid. So after your run, u will usually see the runners, breathing heavily and catching their breath even though they have stopped running. That’s because, during the run, lactic acid has build up in the leg muscle, so the runners need to breath fast and gard to get extra energy to break down the accumulated lactic acid to pay back the oxygen debt built up during the sprint.

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