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Respiration

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  • - Different organisms have several alternative ways of getting energy from food, without using oxygen, but all are less efficient than aerobic respiration, and do not break food down fully into the simplest substances.Some organisms they live in places where there is very little oxygen such as these muddy soils. So how do they get energy? To survive in this habitat, the microbes have to adapt by using anaerobic respiration to provide them with energy. Although anaerobic respiration is a primitive and inefficient form of energy release, deriving from the period when oxygen was missing from the atmosphere, it can also be seen as an adaptation. To survive in some habitats, such as the muddy bottom of a polluted river, an organism must be to a large extent independent of oxygen; such habitats are said to be anoxic. In the thick mud at the bottom of this pond, there is very little oxygen. Some bacteris live in this mud. They break down glucose without using osygen. So they respire anaerobically. During anaerobic respiration, less energy is released than aerobic, because the glucose molecule is only partly broken down. Co2 is released, alcohol may be formed as a waste product. And we call this fermentation to make alcoholic drinks.
  • What is this? This is used to make your wine and bread. Yeast are a type of fungi. Yeasts are characterized by a wide dispersion of natural habitats. Common on plant leaves and flowers, soil and salt water. Yeasts are also found on the skin surfaces and in the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, where they may live symbiotically or as parasites.Use of anaerobic respiration in industryIn plants, yeasts, and bacteria, anaerobic respiration results in the production of alcohol and carbon dioxide, a process that is exploited by both the brewing and the baking industries (see fermentation).Many industries have made use of the waste pdts from yeast’s ananerobicresoiration(c02 and ethanol) to make useful pdts. Can you make a guess to what they are?
  • If u look closely at many fruits e.g grapes, there are yeast living on their surface. And we know yeast respire anerobically and grapes is made up of sugar. So if you were to store these fruits with yeast on it for a while, u will taste alcohol. Becos the yeast can undergo anaerobic respiration and breakdown the sugar to give alcohol. Another term for anaerobic respiration is fermentation, or alcoholic fermentation, since it produces alcohol. So what brewery industry does is they add yeast to food such as rice, barley, corn whereby yeast will ferment the sugar in these food to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer.
  • in the baking industry the bakers also use yeast to make bread. And the yeast used is called baker’s yeast. Bakers are more interested in the carbon dioxide released rather than the alcohol.Yeast is added to dough, the yeast starts to feed on he sugar in the flour, fermenting the sugar to give co2, which expand and cause dough to be raised. So when its put in the oven, the heat will kill the yeast and evaporate the alcohol, leaving behind light bread with light, fluffy texture. Some of the bread u eat is made with yeast.
  • Besides some bacteria and yeast which respire anaerobically, larger organisms like humans too! Who ran for last sat’s sports day? How did you feel when you were running during the race? Were u breathing very hard? After the race, were you panting?During an intensive exercise such as sprinting, initially, your body undergo aerobic respiration to provide energy to power the run. But if you are exercising so intensely, you may reach a point where you cannot take in oxygen any faster. You are making energy by aerobic respiration as fast as you can, but your body still needs more energy. So where does your body get more energy from to sustain your run? At this point, some of the glucose will be broken down anaerobically, due to insufficient oxygen, to provide a bit of extra energy.And in this case, for human, the waste product is not alcohol; bit lactic acid. So after your run, u will usually see the runners, breathing heavily and catching their breath even though they have stopped running. That’s because, during the run, lactic acid has build up in the leg muscle, so the runners need to breath fast and gard to get extra energy to break down the accumulated lactic acid to pay back the oxygen debt built up during the sprint.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Respiration
      The Breath of Life
    • 2. Lesson OutLine
      RESPIRATION
      Aerobic Vs Anaerobic Respiration
      Anatomy of the Respiratory System
      Smoking and Lung Diseases
      Physiology of the Respiratory System
      Mechanism of Breathing
      Aerobic Respiration
      Anaerobic Respiration
    • 3. Learning Objectives
      By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
      Define aerobic respiration as the release of a relatively large amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen
      State the equation (in words and symbols) for aerobic respiration
      Define anaerobic respiration as the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen
      State the equation (in words only) for anaerobic respiration in humans
    • 4. Energy Makes the World Goes Round
      Everything in the world works only because they could use energy.
      and Life is no exception…
    • 5. Burning Food… …
      Early Earth is a tough neighbourhood
      Earth was borne out of the solar nebula without oxygen.
      Why is this so?
      If there was no oxygen, how did life begin?
    • 6. A Thirst for Energy -An Ancient Battle
      Life didn’t really need oxygen, but there is one thing that all life needs… and that is Energy.
      The battle for energy is an ancient one, and even today, people war with one another for sources of energy such as fossil fuel.
      Sulphur Bacteria
      Methanogens
    • 7.
    • 8. ENERGY
    • 9. How does body convert energy stored in food  energy for body use?
    • 10. Respiration
      PG 194
      Definition:
      • Respiration is the oxidation of food substances (glucose)with the release of energy in living cells
      • 11. Respiration is a characteristic of life since all living things require energy for essential activities
      2 Types of : Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration
    • 12. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
      C6H12O6  2C3H6O3 + energy
      glucose lactic
      acid
      • Occurs in muscle cells.
      • 13. Leads to fatigue.
      RESPIRATION
      C6H12O6+ 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
      glucose oxygen carbon water
      dioxide
      C6H12O6  2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy
      glucose ethanol carbon
      dioxide
      • Occurs in yeast cells.
      Aerobic Respiration
      Anaerobic Respiration
      Alcoholic Fermentation
      Lactic Acid Production
      Aerobic Respiration
      Alcoholic Fermentation
      Lactic Acid Production
    • 14. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
      • Those who uses oxygen to oxidize food:
      • 15. Those who do not use oxygen to oxidize food:
      Aerobic Respiration
      • is the oxidation of glucose in the presence of oxygen with the release of a large amount of energy.
      • 16. Carbon dioxide and water are released as waste products.
      Anaerobic Respiration
      is the breakdown of food molecules in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic respiration releases less energy than aerobic respiration.
    • 17. Aerobic Respiration
      Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + release large amount of energy
      • Catalysed by enzymes
      • 18. Aerobic respiration generate heat, which is circulated around the body to maintain a constant optimum body temperature
      • 19. Many processes in living organisms require energy:
      • 20. Active transport
      • 21. Muscular contractions
      • 22. Catabolism (Breaking up of complex molecules)
      • 23. Anabolism (Building up of complex molecules)
      • 24. Cell division
      • 25. Transmission of nerve impulses
    • Anaerobic respiration
      Pg 195-196
      Definition:
      Anaerobic respiration is the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in absence of oxygen
      • Glucose is only partially broken down.
      • 26. The ethanol/lactic acid produced still contain much energy.
      • 27. Hence only a small amount of energy is released in the process
      Glucose  Carbon dioxide + ethanol + little energy
      Glucose  Lactic acid + little energy
    • 28. Some microbes living in the mud… low oxygen level …
      Respire ananerobically!
    • 29. Yeast!
      Glucose (with yeast)
      Carbon dioxide +ethanol+ little energy
    • 30. Alcoholic Fermentation
      Anaerobic respiration
      Glucose (with yeast)
      Carbon dioxide + ethanol+ little energy
    • 31. Anaerobic Respiration
      Glucose (with baker’s yeast)
      Carbon dioxide +ethanol+ little energy
    • 32. Anaerobic respiration in humans!
      Highly intensive exercise
      Glucose  Lactic acid + energy
    • 33. Production of lactic acid
      PG 196
      In Muscles
      During strenuous exercise, the breathing rate and heartbeat will be increased so that oxygen can be brought faster to muscles
      There is a limit to rate of breathing and heartbeat
      Extra energy for strenuous exercise is thus produced by anaerobic respiration in muscles
    • 34. What happens when you need more energy but not enough oxygen?
      PG 196
    • 35. Anaerobic Respiration in the Muscles
      Vigorous muscle movement increase rate of aerobic respiration (oxidation of glucose) to release more energy.
      Prolonged muscular contraction
      2. Insufficient oxygen available leads to muscle cells undergoing anaerobic respirationto release even more energy.
      3. Lactic acid accumulates in muscles causing fatigue, muscle pain, cramps.
      4. Muscle cells incur oxygen debt.
      PG 196
    • 36. PG 196-197
      During recovery…
      Breathing rate continues to be fast.
      Provides oxygen to repay oxygen debt.
      Oxygen can break down lactic acid:
      to produce energy
      Convert lactic acid back into glucose
      Oxygen debt is repaid when lactic acid is used up.
      “Repaying” oxygen debt
    • 37. Oxygen debt
      PG 196-197
      The amount of oxygen needed to dispose of the lactic acid is called oxygen debt
      The time taken to remove all the lactic acid is called the recovery period
    • 38. PG 196
      Energy needed for vigorous exercise
      Aerobic respiration
      Glucose + oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water + energy
      Anaerobic respiration
      Glucose + Oxygen  Lactic acid + little energy
      Total amount of energy needed for vigorous muscular contractions
    • 39. Investigation 10.3 (page 199)
      3 To allow oxygen to diffuse in and carbon dioxide to diffuse out of the flask.
      5 The reading should be higher than room temperature for flask A. Germinating seeds release heat during respiration.
      6 Advantages are:
      a) fewer seeds need to be used.
      b) the thermometers need not be inserted too deeply into the flask so that they can be read more easily.
    • 40. Test Yourself (Page 200)
      Test Yourself! (page 200)
      1(a) The solution would turn yellow. The snail would respire and give out carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide would dissolve in the water to form carbonic acid.
      (b) The solution would turn purple. The green plant would photo synthesise and remove carbon dioxide from the solution.
      (c) Any carbon dioxide released by the snail is used up by the plant for photosynthesis. The rate of photosynthesis = the rate of respiration in both organisms.
      No. It serves as a control.
      23(a) Rate of oxygen uptake
      (b) To absorb carbon dioxide
      (c) To the left
      (d) Rate of oxygen uptake = (100 X (  X 12)/2) mm2/minute
      4 Refer to Investigation 10.2 (page 199).
    • 41. 2(a) The set-up would be similar to that in question 3, if the boiling tube in
      question 3 were replaced by the conical flask containing germinating bean seeds. The tube of sodium hydroxide could be suspended within the flask.
      (b) The sodium hydroxide would absorb any carbon dioxide produced as a result of respiration, therefore any change in the volume of air inside the flask would be due to the uptake of oxygen by the seeds. As oxygen is taken up by the seeds, the droplet of coloured water would move along the capillary tube. The position of the coloured droplet would indicate the volume of oxygen taken in. Readings would be taken at suitable time intervals, e.g. 5 s, 10 s, 15 s and then averaged to find out the rate of oxygen uptake by the germinating seeds.
      (c) Changes in the temperature of the surroundings may affect the rate of oxygen uptake by the germinating bean seeds. The temperature of the surroundings should be kept constant (set-up should be placed in a warm environment as the seeds are germinating).
    • 42. How do organisms obtain oxygen for aerobic respiration?
      • Gaseous exchange: Exchange of gases between an organism and the environment
      How do human carry out gaseous exchange?
    • 43. Learning Objectives
      By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
      identify on diagrams and name the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and associated capillaries
      state the characteristics of, and describe the role of, the exchange surface of the alveoli in gaseous exchange
      describe the role of cilia, diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles in breathing
    • 44. Adaptations to Land Living
      • Oxygen must be dissolved before it can be absorbed.
      • 45. As such all respiratory surfaces must be moist.
      • 46. This is no problem for an aquatic animal such as a fish.
      • 47. What about terrestrial animals?
    • Respiratory surfaces
      The surface through which respiratory gases are exchanged between the organism’s internal and external environment
      The actual design of the surface depends on factors like habitat, size and activity of organism
      E.g. Lungs –mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians
      Gills –Fish, amphibians
      Tracheoles – Arthropods
      Leaf cells – Plants
      Body covering- small animals (amoeba, earthworm)
    • 48. Adaptations to Land Living
      • As the first vertebrate animal venture onto land, obtaining oxygen becomes a gargantuan task.
      • 49. There is little moisture for the respiratory surface to function properly.
    • Respiratory Surfaces
      • Moist respiratory surface (air sacs are located in body cavity)
      • 50. Allow animal to dissolve oxygen from the air directly into the moist respiratory surfaces.
    • Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
      Moist surface for oxygen to dissolve
      Large surface area to volume ratio for gasesous exchange
      Thin-walled ensure a faster rate of diffusion/exchange of gases
      Close association with circulatory system:
      Richly supplied with blood capillaries (continuous blood flow maintains steep diffusion gradient)
       Rate of diffusion of gases across respiratory surfaces is increased
    • 51. Anatomy of the Human Respiratory System
    • 52. Anatomy of the Human Respiratory System
    • 53. 6 August 2011
      Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
      Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
      atmosphere
    • 54. 6 August 2011
      Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
      Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
      atmosphere
      external nostril
      external nostril
    • 55. 6 August 2011
      Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
      Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
      atmosphere
      external nostril
      nasal passages (lined with moist mucus membrane)
      nasal passages
      external nostril
    • 56. Nasal Passages (Nasal cavity)
      Lined with moist mucus membrane.
      Advantages of breathing through nose:
      Hairsand moist mucous membrane lining alls of external nostrils filter air, trap dust and foreign particles
      Blood capillaries and mucuswarm and moisten air respectively before entry into lungs.
      Sensory cells(small receptor cells) in mucous membrane may detect harmful chemicals in the air (sense of smell)
    • 57. Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
      atmosphere
      external nostril
      nasal passages
      Pharynx (throat)
      nasal passages
      pharynx
      external nostril
       Located behind the mouth cavity, air passes through it on the way to glottis
    • 58. 6 August 2011
      Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
      Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
      atmosphere
      external nostril
      nasal passages
      pharynx
      Larynx (Adam’s Apple)
      nasal passages
      pharynx
      external nostril
      larynx
      • Situated at top of trachea
      • 59. Has cartilage to keep it open
      • 60. Is the voicebox with vocal chords stretched across it
    • 6 August 2011
      Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
      atmosphere
      external nostril
      nasal passages
      pharynx
      larynx
      Trachea (Windpipe)
      nasal passages
      pharynx
      external nostril
      larynx
      trachea
      • A long tube supported by C-shaped rings of cartilage to keep it open.
      • 61. Inner wall lined with cilia and mucous membrane
      • 62. Cilia beat rhythmically and move particles away from lungs
    • Trachea or Windpipe
    • 63. Trachea
      Contains C-shaped cartilage
      Keeps airways opened and prevent it from collapsing
    • 64. 6 August 2011
      Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
      Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
      atmosphere
      external nostril
      nasal passages
      pharynx
      larynx
      trachea
      bronchi
      nasal passages
      pharynx
      external nostril
      larynx
      trachea
      bronchi
    • 65. Adaptations of the Trachea & Bronchi WALL
      • Gland cells secrete mucus
      to trap dust particles and bacteria
      • Lined with epithelium bearing cilia
       Cilia: sweeps particles upwards to pharynx
    • 66. Adaptations of the Trachea & Bronchi
    • 67. 6 August 2011
      Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
      Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
      atmosphere
      external nostril
      nasal passages
      pharynx
      larynx
      trachea
      bronchi
      Bronchioles (Not supported by cartilage)
      nasal passages
      pharynx
      external nostril
      larynx
      trachea
      bronchi
      bronchioles
    • 68. Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
      atmosphere
      external nostril
      nasal passages
      pharynx
      larynx
      trachea
      bronchi
      bronchioles
      Alveoli (For gaseous exchange)
      nasal passages
      pharynx
      external nostril
      larynx
      trachea
      bronchi
      cluster of alveoli (air sacs)
      bronchioles
    • 69. Structure of Alveolus (Plural:alveoli)
    • 70. Passage of air through respiratory system
    • 71.
    • 72. One-cell thick wall
      Oxygen
    • 73. Adaptations of the alveoli for efficient gaseous exchange
    • 74. How does the breathing mechanism works?
    • 75. PG 205
      What causes air movement into the lungs?
      Vertebral column
      sternum
      ribcage
      lung
      Internal intercostal muscle
      External intercostal muscle
      Diaphragm
    • 76. The workings of the intercoastal muscles and the diaphragm changes the volume of the thoracic cavity
      PG 205
      Mechanism of Breathing
    • 77. PG 206
      Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
      When you breathe in or inhale, the following events take place:
      Movement of rib cage during inhalation
      Front view
      Side view
      TB PG
      vertebral column
      sternum
      rib
      rib cage
    • 78. PG 206
      Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
      • Your diaphragm contracts and flattens.
      Movement of rib cage during exhalation
      Front view
      Side view
      vertebral column
      sternum
      rib
      rib cage
      diaphragm contracts and flattens
    • 79. PG 206
      Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
      • Your external intercostal muscles contract while your internal intercostal muscles relax.
      Movement of rib cage during inspiration
      Front view
      Side view
      vertebral column
      sternum
      rib
      rib cage
      diaphragm contracts and flattens
    • 80. PG 206
      Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
      • Your ribs move upwards and outwards. Your sternum also moves up and forward.
      Movement of rib cage during inspiration
      Front view
      Side view
      vertebral column
      ribs and sternum raised
      sternum
      rib
      ribs and sternum raised
      rib cage
      diaphragm contracts and flattens
      Ribs swing up
    • 81. PG 206
      Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
      • The volume of your thoracic cavity increases.
      Movement of rib cage during inspiration
      Front view
      Side view
      volume of thorax increases
      vertebral column
      ribs and sternum raised
      sternum
      rib
      ribs and sternum raised
      rib cage
      diaphragm contracts and flattens
      Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax
    • 82. PG 206
      Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
      • Air pressure in your lungs causes them to expand to fill up the enlarged space in your thorax.
      Movement of rib cage during inspiration
      Front view
      Side view
      volume of thorax increases and lungs expand
      vertebral column
      ribs and sternum raised
      sternum
      rib
      ribs and sternum raised
      rib cage
      diaphragm contracts and flattens
      Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax
    • 83. PG 206
      Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
      • Expansion of your lungs causes the air pressure inside them to decrease.
      Movement of rib cage during inspiration
      Front view
      Side view
      Side view
      lungs expand, causing air pressure inside lungs to decrease
      vertebral column
      ribs and sternum raised
      sternum
      rib
      ribs and sternum raised
      rib cage
      diaphragm contracts and flattens
      Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax
    • 84. PG 206
      Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
      • Atmospheric pressure is now higher than the pressure within your lungs. This causes air to rush into your lungs.
      Movement of rib cage during inspiration
      Front view
      Side view
      Side view
      lungs expand, causing air pressure inside lungs to decrease
      air enters lungs
      vertebral column
      ribs and sternum raised
      sternum
      rib
      ribs and sternum raised
      rib cage
      diaphragm contracts and flattens
      Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax
    • 85. PG 206
      Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
      What causes air movement into the lungs?
      Diaphragm contracts
      External Intercostal Muscles contract
      Internal Intercostal Muscles Relax
      Rib cage and sternum move upwards and forward
      Volume of thoracic cavity increase
      Pressure of thoracic cavity decrease
      Lungs expand and air pressure in lungs lower than atmospheric air pressure
      Air rush in from atmosphere to lungs
      Biomechanical
      Physical Parameters
    • 86. PG 206
      Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
      Demonstration of Changes in Physical Parameters
      Volume in thoracic cavity increase
      Pressure in thoracic cavity decrease
      Pressure in Lungs > Pressure in thoracic cavity
      Lungs expand
      Pressure in lungs drop
      Atmospheric pressure > Pressure in lungs
      Air rushes in
    • 87. PG 207
      Mechanism of Breathing -Exhalation
      When you breathe out or exhale, the following events take place:
      Movement of rib cage during expiration
      Side view
      Front view
      vertebral column
      sternum
      rib
      rib cage
    • 88. PG 207
      Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
      • Your diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards.
      Movement of rib cage during expiration
      Side view
      Front view
      vertebral column
      sternum
      rib
      rib cage
      diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
    • 89. PG 207
      Mechanism of Breathing- Exhalation
      • Your internal intercostal muscles contract while your external intercostal muscles relax.
      Movement of rib cage during expiration
      Side view
      Front view
      vertebral column
      sternum
      rib
      rib cage
      diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
    • 90. PG 207
      Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
      • Your ribs move downwards and inwards. Your sternum also moves down to its original position.
      Movement of rib cage during expiration
      Front view
      Side view
      vertebral column
      ribs and sternum returned to original position
      sternum
      rib
      ribs and sternum raised
      rib cage
      diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
      Ribs swing down
    • 91. PG 207
      Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
      • The volume of your thoracic cavity decreases.
      Movement of rib cage during expiration
      Front view
      Side view
      vertebral column
      volume of thorax decreases
      ribs and sternum returned to original position
      sternum
      rib
      ribs and sternum raised
      rib cage
      diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
      Ribs swing down and decrease volume of thorax
    • 92. 6 August 2011
      PG 207
      Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
      • Your lungs are compressed and air pressure inside them increases as the volume decreases.
      Movement of rib cage during expiration
      Front view
      Side view
      vertebral column
      lungs are compressed, causing air pressure inside lungs to increase
      ribs and sternum returned to original position
      sternum
      rib
      ribs and sternum raised
      rib cage
      diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
      Ribs swing down and decrease volume of thorax
    • 93. 6 August 2011
      PG 207
      Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
      • Air pressure within the lungs is now higher than atmospheric pressure. The air is forced out of your lungs to the exterior.
      Movement of rib cage during expiration
      Front view
      Side view
      air expelled from lungs
      vertebral column
      lungs are compressed, causing air pressure inside lungs to increase
      sternum
      rib
      ribs and sternum raised
      rib cage
      diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
      Ribs swing down and decrease volume of thorax
    • 94. 6 August 2011
      Mechanism of Breathing
      What happens to your intercostal muscles when you are breathing?
    • 95. PG 207
      Mechanism of Breathing
      What happens to your intercostal muscles when you are breathing?
      R
      When you inhale, you…
      Relax your
      Internal intercostal muscles and
      Contract your
      External intercostal muscles
      I
      C
      E
    • 96. PG 207
      Mechanism of Breathing
      What happens to your intercostal muscles when you are breathing?
      R
      When you inhale, you…
      Relax your Internal intercostal muscles and Contract your External intercostal muscles
      I
      C
      E
      When you exhale, your…
      External intercostal muscles Relax and your Internal intercostal muscles Contract
      E
      R
      I
      C
    • 97. Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
      Demonstration of Changes in Physical Parameters
      Volume in thoracic cavity decrease
      Pressure in thoracic cavity increase
      Pressure in Lungs < Pressure in thoracic cavity
      Lungs contract
      Pressure in lungs drop
      Atmospheric pressure < Pressure in lungs
      Air rushes out
    • 98. PG 207
      Summary of Breathing Mechanism
    • 99. Learning Objectives
      By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
      State the characteristics and role of alveoli in gaseous exchange
      Describe the removal of carbon dioxide from the lungs, including the function of carbonic anhydrase.
    • 100. Breathing and Gaseous Exchange
      Breathing
      Gaseous Exchange
      Between alveolus & blood capillary
      Oxygen
      Inhalation
      (Inspiration)
      Carbon Dioxide
      Exhalation
      (Expiration)
      Breathing
      Oxygen
      Carbon Dioxide
      Inhalation
      (Inspiration)
      Exhalation
      (Expiration)
    • 101. Mechanics of Breathing - Expiration
      What causes air movement out of the lungs?
      Diaphragm ________________ .
      External Intercostal Muscles _______________ .
      Internal Intercostal Muscles _______________ .
      Rib cage and sternum move _____________ and _____________ .
      Volume of thoracic cavity ______________ .
      Pressure of thoracic cavity ____________ .
      Lungs ___________ and air pressure in lungs ___________ than atmospheric air pressure
      Air flows from ___________ to _______________ .
      Biomechanical
      relaxes
      relaxes
      contracts
      downwards
      inwards
      Physical Parameters
      decreases
      increases
      collapse
      higher
      lungs
      atmosphere
    • 102. Pg 208
      Breathing and Gaseous Exchange
      Breathing
      Gaseous Exchange
      Between alveolus & blood capillary
      Oxygen
      Inhalation
      (Inspiration)
      Carbon Dioxide
      Exhalation
      (Expiration)
      Oxygen
      Carbon Dioxide
    • 103. Gaseous exchange at alveolus
      Pg 208
    • 104. Gaseous exchange
      Pg 208
      Alveolus
      Cells
      Capillaries
    • 105. Pg 208
      Gaseous Exchange- Oxygen
      How is oxygen taken into the blood capillaries during inspiration?
      PART 1 – Diffusion
      Atmospheric air
       higherconcentration of oxygen.
      Deoxygenated blood arriving at the alveoli from the pulmonary artery
       a lower concentration of oxygen.
      This sets up a concentration gradient for oxygen in the alveolar cavity and the blood in the capillaries.
    • 106. Gaseous Exchange- Oxygen
      Pg 208
      How is oxygen taken into the blood capillaries during inspiration?
      PART 2 – Structure
      Oxygen thus diffusesfrom the alveolar cavity into the blood capillaries,
      By dissolving in the thin film of moisture along the alveolar walls.
      And crossing the one-cell thick membrane of the alveolar wall and blood capillary.
    • 107. Gaseous Exchange- Oxygen Transport in body
      Pg 208
      How is oxygen taken into the blood capillaries during inspiration?
      PART 3 – Association with Haemoglobin
      Haemoglobin in red blood cells bind reversibly with oxygen:
      Oxygen concentration higher in lungs.
      Hb binds O2.
      Hb + O2HbO(oxyhaemoglobin)
    • 108. Pg 209
      Gaseous Exchange- Carbon Dioxide Transport in body
      In Actively Respiring Tissues & Blood plasma
      CO2 diffuses into blood capillaries from actively respiring tissues.
      CO2 dissolved in blood plasma then combines with water to form carbonic acid:
      This reaction is catalysed by an enzyme known as carbonic anhydrase.
      Carbonic acid then dissociates further into hydrogen carbonate anions in blood plasma
      MOST OF THE CO2 is carried as hydrogencarbonate ions in blood plasma
      CO2 + H2O H2CO3
      Carbonic anhydrase(from RBC)
      H2CO3H+ + HCO3-
    • 109. Gaseous Exchange- Carbon Dioxide
      In Lung Tissues
      Hydrogen carbonate anions in blood recombines with H+ to form carbonic acid.
      Carbonic acid converted back to CO2 and H2O.
      CO2 diffuses across capillary and alveolar walls into alveolar cavity.
      Expelled out of lungs by expiration.
    • 110. Gaseous Exchange- Carbon Dioxide
    • 111. Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration gradient between alveolar air and blood are maintained by:-A continuous flow of blood through blood capillaries- Breathing air in and out of alveoli
    • 112. Pg 211
      Comparing Inspired & Expired Air
      Why is it important to compare inspired and expired air?
      • Because these differences are tell-tale signs of whether something is respiring!
      • 113. See experiments on page 210-211
    • Pg 212
      Stimulus for Breathing
      What causes the breathing?
      High concentration of CO2 in blood or alveolar air , NOT concentration of O2.
    • 114. Test Yourself (Page 213)
      INCREASE Rate of diffusion of oxygen from the lungs into the blood and of carbon dioxide out of blood into the lungs.
      This result in a lower concentration of carbon dioxide in blood or in alveolar air, which lessen the stimulus to breathe.
      (b) Increasing the carbon dioxide in the air to 8%, even with a 71% increase above normal in oxygen concentration, still increases the rate of breathing greatly. This shows that the stimulus to breathing is carbon dioxide.
    • 115. Learning Objectives
      By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
      identify on diagrams and name the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and associated capillaries
      state the characteristics of, and describe the role of, the exchange surface of the alveoli in gaseous exchange
      describe the role of cilia, diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles in breathing
    • 116. Learning Objectives
      By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
      describe the effects of constituents of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components – nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide, on human health
      describe how smoking results in respiratory diseases such as emphysema, bronchitis, and lung cancer
    • 117.
    • 118. Smoking & Lung Diseases
    • 119. Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke
      Properties of Chemical
      • Addictive Drug
      • 120. Causes release of hormone adrenaline
      • 121. Make blood clot easily
      Effects on body
      • Increase heartbeat and blood pressure
      • 122. Increase risk of blood clotting in vessels
      Properties of Chemical
      • Combines with Hb to form carboxyhaemoglobinirreversibly
      • 123. Increase rate of fat deposition on arterial walls
      • 124. Damage lining of blood vessels
      Effects on body
      • Death if concentrations in air increased by 1%
      • 125. Increased risk of atherosclerosis
      • 126. Increased risk of blood clotting
      Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke
      Nicotine
      Carbon Monoxide
      Tar
      Irritants
    • 127. Smoking and pregnancy
      • Smoking has immediate effect on unborned child
      • 128. Cause higher rate of miscarriages, still-births and early death of infants
      • 129. Pregnant smokers may affect the growth of their unborn child as smoking reduces oxygen available for foetus
      Passive smoking
      • Non-smokers exposed to cigarette smoke frequently have increased chance of lung cancer
    • Chronic Bronchitis
    • 130. Chronic Bronchitis
      • Caused by tiny particles in cigarette smoke
      • 131. Tracheal and bronchial walls become inflamed leading to over-production of mucus and reduced activity of cilia
      • 132. Tubes become swollen and clogged by mucus
      • 133. Collection of mucus in bronchial tubes causes persistent coughing  smoker’s cough
      • 134. Passageways become narrowed.
    • Emphysema
    • 135. Emphysema
    • 136. Emphysema
      Healthy Alveolar air sac Alveolar air sac with walls destroyed
    • 137. Emphysema
      • Condition in which alveolar walls are destroyed
      • 138. Victim gets very short breath as there is a decrease in alveolar surface for gaseous exchange
      • 139. Lung tissue is destroyed
      • 140. Alveoli becomes fewer in number and larger in size than normal
    • Lung Cancer
    • 141. Lung cancer
      • Lung cancer may be caused by a certain cancer producing agent in cigarette smoke
      • 142. The agent causes the rapid abnormal growth of cells in bronchial tube wall
      • 143. If growth is unchecked or destroyed, cancer may spread to neighbouring cells and organs
      • 144. Growth also blocks the bronchial tube so that breathing becomes more and more difficult
      • 145. Life expectancy is usually decreased by smoking, especially if smoking was started at a young age
      • 146. Smokers who stop smoking increases their life expectancy e.g reduce chances of contracting lung cancer
    • Respiration in green plants
      Plants undergo respiration too! Not just human. In fact, any living things must respire to stay alive!
    • 147. Respiration in green plants
      Gaseous exchange between plant and environment
      1. Oxygen
      • Diffuses into intercellular spaces among cells of leaves and stems
      • 148. Oxygen dissolve in moisture on the walls of the cells and diffuses into the cells
      • 149. Oxygen diffuses from cell to cell to reach tissues not directly in contact with air
    • Respiration in green plants
      2. Carbon dioxide
      Produced by tissue respiration, diffuse out of the cells through the system of intercellular spaces into the atmosphere via stomata
      3. Root hair
      Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between root hair and soil water
      4. Respiration of plants only detected at night or when plant is in darkness.
    • 150. Respiration in Green Plants
      5. Photosynthesis
      • Oxygen released  used partially for tissue respiration
      • 151. Photosynthesis rate is higher than respiration rate in bright sunlight  oxygen in excess  diffuse out through stomata
      • 152. Amount of carbon dioxide produced during tissue respiration is insufficient for food-making  more oxygen diffuse into leaf from atmosphere
    • Respiration vs Photosynthesis

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