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  • - Different organisms have several alternative ways of getting energy from food, without using oxygen, but all are less efficient than aerobic respiration, and do not break food down fully into the simplest substances.Some organisms they live in places where there is very little oxygen such as these muddy soils. So how do they get energy? To survive in this habitat, the microbes have to adapt by using anaerobic respiration to provide them with energy. Although anaerobic respiration is a primitive and inefficient form of energy release, deriving from the period when oxygen was missing from the atmosphere, it can also be seen as an adaptation. To survive in some habitats, such as the muddy bottom of a polluted river, an organism must be to a large extent independent of oxygen; such habitats are said to be anoxic. In the thick mud at the bottom of this pond, there is very little oxygen. Some bacteris live in this mud. They break down glucose without using osygen. So they respire anaerobically. During anaerobic respiration, less energy is released than aerobic, because the glucose molecule is only partly broken down. Co2 is released, alcohol may be formed as a waste product. And we call this fermentation to make alcoholic drinks.
  • What is this? This is used to make your wine and bread. Yeast are a type of fungi. Yeasts are characterized by a wide dispersion of natural habitats. Common on plant leaves and flowers, soil and salt water. Yeasts are also found on the skin surfaces and in the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, where they may live symbiotically or as parasites.Use of anaerobic respiration in industryIn plants, yeasts, and bacteria, anaerobic respiration results in the production of alcohol and carbon dioxide, a process that is exploited by both the brewing and the baking industries (see fermentation).Many industries have made use of the waste pdts from yeast’s ananerobicresoiration(c02 and ethanol) to make useful pdts. Can you make a guess to what they are?
  • If u look closely at many fruits e.g grapes, there are yeast living on their surface. And we know yeast respire anerobically and grapes is made up of sugar. So if you were to store these fruits with yeast on it for a while, u will taste alcohol. Becos the yeast can undergo anaerobic respiration and breakdown the sugar to give alcohol. Another term for anaerobic respiration is fermentation, or alcoholic fermentation, since it produces alcohol. So what brewery industry does is they add yeast to food such as rice, barley, corn whereby yeast will ferment the sugar in these food to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer.
  • in the baking industry the bakers also use yeast to make bread. And the yeast used is called baker’s yeast. Bakers are more interested in the carbon dioxide released rather than the alcohol.Yeast is added to dough, the yeast starts to feed on he sugar in the flour, fermenting the sugar to give co2, which expand and cause dough to be raised. So when its put in the oven, the heat will kill the yeast and evaporate the alcohol, leaving behind light bread with light, fluffy texture. Some of the bread u eat is made with yeast.
  • Besides some bacteria and yeast which respire anaerobically, larger organisms like humans too! Who ran for last sat’s sports day? How did you feel when you were running during the race? Were u breathing very hard? After the race, were you panting?During an intensive exercise such as sprinting, initially, your body undergo aerobic respiration to provide energy to power the run. But if you are exercising so intensely, you may reach a point where you cannot take in oxygen any faster. You are making energy by aerobic respiration as fast as you can, but your body still needs more energy. So where does your body get more energy from to sustain your run? At this point, some of the glucose will be broken down anaerobically, due to insufficient oxygen, to provide a bit of extra energy.And in this case, for human, the waste product is not alcohol; bit lactic acid. So after your run, u will usually see the runners, breathing heavily and catching their breath even though they have stopped running. That’s because, during the run, lactic acid has build up in the leg muscle, so the runners need to breath fast and gard to get extra energy to break down the accumulated lactic acid to pay back the oxygen debt built up during the sprint.

Respiration Respiration Presentation Transcript

  • Respiration
    The Breath of Life
  • Lesson OutLine
    RESPIRATION
    Aerobic Vs Anaerobic Respiration
    Anatomy of the Respiratory System
    Smoking and Lung Diseases
    Physiology of the Respiratory System
    Mechanism of Breathing
    Aerobic Respiration
    Anaerobic Respiration
  • Learning Objectives
    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
    Define aerobic respiration as the release of a relatively large amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen
    State the equation (in words and symbols) for aerobic respiration
    Define anaerobic respiration as the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen
    State the equation (in words only) for anaerobic respiration in humans
  • Energy Makes the World Goes Round
    Everything in the world works only because they could use energy.
    and Life is no exception…
  • Burning Food… …
    Early Earth is a tough neighbourhood
    Earth was borne out of the solar nebula without oxygen.
    Why is this so?
    If there was no oxygen, how did life begin?
  • A Thirst for Energy -An Ancient Battle
    Life didn’t really need oxygen, but there is one thing that all life needs… and that is Energy.
    The battle for energy is an ancient one, and even today, people war with one another for sources of energy such as fossil fuel.
    Sulphur Bacteria
    Methanogens
  • ENERGY
  • How does body convert energy stored in food  energy for body use?
  • Respiration
    PG 194
    Definition:
    • Respiration is the oxidation of food substances (glucose)with the release of energy in living cells
    • Respiration is a characteristic of life since all living things require energy for essential activities
    2 Types of : Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration
  • Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
    C6H12O6  2C3H6O3 + energy
    glucose lactic
    acid
    • Occurs in muscle cells.
    • Leads to fatigue.
    RESPIRATION
    C6H12O6+ 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
    glucose oxygen carbon water
    dioxide
    C6H12O6  2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy
    glucose ethanol carbon
    dioxide
    • Occurs in yeast cells.
    Aerobic Respiration
    Anaerobic Respiration
    Alcoholic Fermentation
    Lactic Acid Production
    Aerobic Respiration
    Alcoholic Fermentation
    Lactic Acid Production
  • Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
    • Those who uses oxygen to oxidize food:
    • Those who do not use oxygen to oxidize food:
    Aerobic Respiration
    • is the oxidation of glucose in the presence of oxygen with the release of a large amount of energy.
    • Carbon dioxide and water are released as waste products.
    Anaerobic Respiration
    is the breakdown of food molecules in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic respiration releases less energy than aerobic respiration.
  • Aerobic Respiration
    Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + release large amount of energy
    • Catalysed by enzymes
    • Aerobic respiration generate heat, which is circulated around the body to maintain a constant optimum body temperature
    • Many processes in living organisms require energy:
    • Active transport
    • Muscular contractions
    • Catabolism (Breaking up of complex molecules)
    • Anabolism (Building up of complex molecules)
    • Cell division
    • Transmission of nerve impulses
  • Anaerobic respiration
    Pg 195-196
    Definition:
    Anaerobic respiration is the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in absence of oxygen
    • Glucose is only partially broken down.
    • The ethanol/lactic acid produced still contain much energy.
    • Hence only a small amount of energy is released in the process
    Glucose  Carbon dioxide + ethanol + little energy
    Glucose  Lactic acid + little energy
  • Some microbes living in the mud… low oxygen level …
    Respire ananerobically!
  • Yeast!
    Glucose (with yeast)
    Carbon dioxide +ethanol+ little energy
  • Alcoholic Fermentation
    Anaerobic respiration
    Glucose (with yeast)
    Carbon dioxide + ethanol+ little energy
  • Anaerobic Respiration
    Glucose (with baker’s yeast)
    Carbon dioxide +ethanol+ little energy
  • Anaerobic respiration in humans!
    Highly intensive exercise
    Glucose  Lactic acid + energy
  • Production of lactic acid
    PG 196
    In Muscles
    During strenuous exercise, the breathing rate and heartbeat will be increased so that oxygen can be brought faster to muscles
    There is a limit to rate of breathing and heartbeat
    Extra energy for strenuous exercise is thus produced by anaerobic respiration in muscles
  • What happens when you need more energy but not enough oxygen?
    PG 196
  • Anaerobic Respiration in the Muscles
    Vigorous muscle movement increase rate of aerobic respiration (oxidation of glucose) to release more energy.
    Prolonged muscular contraction
    2. Insufficient oxygen available leads to muscle cells undergoing anaerobic respirationto release even more energy.
    3. Lactic acid accumulates in muscles causing fatigue, muscle pain, cramps.
    4. Muscle cells incur oxygen debt.
    PG 196
  • PG 196-197
    During recovery…
    Breathing rate continues to be fast.
    Provides oxygen to repay oxygen debt.
    Oxygen can break down lactic acid:
    to produce energy
    Convert lactic acid back into glucose
    Oxygen debt is repaid when lactic acid is used up.
    “Repaying” oxygen debt
  • Oxygen debt
    PG 196-197
    The amount of oxygen needed to dispose of the lactic acid is called oxygen debt
    The time taken to remove all the lactic acid is called the recovery period
  • PG 196
    Energy needed for vigorous exercise
    Aerobic respiration
    Glucose + oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water + energy
    Anaerobic respiration
    Glucose + Oxygen  Lactic acid + little energy
    Total amount of energy needed for vigorous muscular contractions
  • Investigation 10.3 (page 199)
    3 To allow oxygen to diffuse in and carbon dioxide to diffuse out of the flask.
    5 The reading should be higher than room temperature for flask A. Germinating seeds release heat during respiration.
    6 Advantages are:
    a) fewer seeds need to be used.
    b) the thermometers need not be inserted too deeply into the flask so that they can be read more easily.
  • Test Yourself (Page 200)
    Test Yourself! (page 200)
    1(a) The solution would turn yellow. The snail would respire and give out carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide would dissolve in the water to form carbonic acid.
    (b) The solution would turn purple. The green plant would photo synthesise and remove carbon dioxide from the solution.
    (c) Any carbon dioxide released by the snail is used up by the plant for photosynthesis. The rate of photosynthesis = the rate of respiration in both organisms.
    No. It serves as a control.
    23(a) Rate of oxygen uptake
    (b) To absorb carbon dioxide
    (c) To the left
    (d) Rate of oxygen uptake = (100 X (  X 12)/2) mm2/minute
    4 Refer to Investigation 10.2 (page 199).
  • 2(a) The set-up would be similar to that in question 3, if the boiling tube in
    question 3 were replaced by the conical flask containing germinating bean seeds. The tube of sodium hydroxide could be suspended within the flask.
    (b) The sodium hydroxide would absorb any carbon dioxide produced as a result of respiration, therefore any change in the volume of air inside the flask would be due to the uptake of oxygen by the seeds. As oxygen is taken up by the seeds, the droplet of coloured water would move along the capillary tube. The position of the coloured droplet would indicate the volume of oxygen taken in. Readings would be taken at suitable time intervals, e.g. 5 s, 10 s, 15 s and then averaged to find out the rate of oxygen uptake by the germinating seeds.
    (c) Changes in the temperature of the surroundings may affect the rate of oxygen uptake by the germinating bean seeds. The temperature of the surroundings should be kept constant (set-up should be placed in a warm environment as the seeds are germinating).
  • How do organisms obtain oxygen for aerobic respiration?
    • Gaseous exchange: Exchange of gases between an organism and the environment
    How do human carry out gaseous exchange?
  • Learning Objectives
    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
    identify on diagrams and name the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and associated capillaries
    state the characteristics of, and describe the role of, the exchange surface of the alveoli in gaseous exchange
    describe the role of cilia, diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles in breathing
  • Adaptations to Land Living
    • Oxygen must be dissolved before it can be absorbed.
    • As such all respiratory surfaces must be moist.
    • This is no problem for an aquatic animal such as a fish.
    • What about terrestrial animals?
  • Respiratory surfaces
    The surface through which respiratory gases are exchanged between the organism’s internal and external environment
    The actual design of the surface depends on factors like habitat, size and activity of organism
    E.g. Lungs –mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians
    Gills –Fish, amphibians
    Tracheoles – Arthropods
    Leaf cells – Plants
    Body covering- small animals (amoeba, earthworm)
  • Adaptations to Land Living
    • As the first vertebrate animal venture onto land, obtaining oxygen becomes a gargantuan task.
    • There is little moisture for the respiratory surface to function properly.
  • Respiratory Surfaces
    • Moist respiratory surface (air sacs are located in body cavity)
    • Allow animal to dissolve oxygen from the air directly into the moist respiratory surfaces.
  • Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
    Moist surface for oxygen to dissolve
    Large surface area to volume ratio for gasesous exchange
    Thin-walled ensure a faster rate of diffusion/exchange of gases
    Close association with circulatory system:
    Richly supplied with blood capillaries (continuous blood flow maintains steep diffusion gradient)
     Rate of diffusion of gases across respiratory surfaces is increased
  • Anatomy of the Human Respiratory System
  • Anatomy of the Human Respiratory System
  • 6 August 2011
    Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
    atmosphere
  • 6 August 2011
    Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
    atmosphere
    external nostril
    external nostril
  • 6 August 2011
    Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
    atmosphere
    external nostril
    nasal passages (lined with moist mucus membrane)
    nasal passages
    external nostril
  • Nasal Passages (Nasal cavity)
    Lined with moist mucus membrane.
    Advantages of breathing through nose:
    Hairsand moist mucous membrane lining alls of external nostrils filter air, trap dust and foreign particles
    Blood capillaries and mucuswarm and moisten air respectively before entry into lungs.
    Sensory cells(small receptor cells) in mucous membrane may detect harmful chemicals in the air (sense of smell)
  • Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
    atmosphere
    external nostril
    nasal passages
    Pharynx (throat)
    nasal passages
    pharynx
    external nostril
     Located behind the mouth cavity, air passes through it on the way to glottis
  • 6 August 2011
    Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
    atmosphere
    external nostril
    nasal passages
    pharynx
    Larynx (Adam’s Apple)
    nasal passages
    pharynx
    external nostril
    larynx
    • Situated at top of trachea
    • Has cartilage to keep it open
    • Is the voicebox with vocal chords stretched across it
  • 6 August 2011
    Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
    atmosphere
    external nostril
    nasal passages
    pharynx
    larynx
    Trachea (Windpipe)
    nasal passages
    pharynx
    external nostril
    larynx
    trachea
    • A long tube supported by C-shaped rings of cartilage to keep it open.
    • Inner wall lined with cilia and mucous membrane
    • Cilia beat rhythmically and move particles away from lungs
  • Trachea or Windpipe
  • Trachea
    Contains C-shaped cartilage
    Keeps airways opened and prevent it from collapsing
  • 6 August 2011
    Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
    atmosphere
    external nostril
    nasal passages
    pharynx
    larynx
    trachea
    bronchi
    nasal passages
    pharynx
    external nostril
    larynx
    trachea
    bronchi
  • Adaptations of the Trachea & Bronchi WALL
    • Gland cells secrete mucus
    to trap dust particles and bacteria
    • Lined with epithelium bearing cilia
     Cilia: sweeps particles upwards to pharynx
  • Adaptations of the Trachea & Bronchi
  • 6 August 2011
    Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
    atmosphere
    external nostril
    nasal passages
    pharynx
    larynx
    trachea
    bronchi
    Bronchioles (Not supported by cartilage)
    nasal passages
    pharynx
    external nostril
    larynx
    trachea
    bronchi
    bronchioles
  • Path of Air Through the Respiratory System
    atmosphere
    external nostril
    nasal passages
    pharynx
    larynx
    trachea
    bronchi
    bronchioles
    Alveoli (For gaseous exchange)
    nasal passages
    pharynx
    external nostril
    larynx
    trachea
    bronchi
    cluster of alveoli (air sacs)
    bronchioles
  • Structure of Alveolus (Plural:alveoli)
  • Passage of air through respiratory system
  • One-cell thick wall
    Oxygen
  • Adaptations of the alveoli for efficient gaseous exchange
  • How does the breathing mechanism works?
  • PG 205
    What causes air movement into the lungs?
    Vertebral column
    sternum
    ribcage
    lung
    Internal intercostal muscle
    External intercostal muscle
    Diaphragm
  • The workings of the intercoastal muscles and the diaphragm changes the volume of the thoracic cavity
    PG 205
    Mechanism of Breathing
  • PG 206
    Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
    When you breathe in or inhale, the following events take place:
    Movement of rib cage during inhalation
    Front view
    Side view
    TB PG
    vertebral column
    sternum
    rib
    rib cage
  • PG 206
    Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
    • Your diaphragm contracts and flattens.
    Movement of rib cage during exhalation
    Front view
    Side view
    vertebral column
    sternum
    rib
    rib cage
    diaphragm contracts and flattens
  • PG 206
    Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
    • Your external intercostal muscles contract while your internal intercostal muscles relax.
    Movement of rib cage during inspiration
    Front view
    Side view
    vertebral column
    sternum
    rib
    rib cage
    diaphragm contracts and flattens
  • PG 206
    Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
    • Your ribs move upwards and outwards. Your sternum also moves up and forward.
    Movement of rib cage during inspiration
    Front view
    Side view
    vertebral column
    ribs and sternum raised
    sternum
    rib
    ribs and sternum raised
    rib cage
    diaphragm contracts and flattens
    Ribs swing up
  • PG 206
    Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
    • The volume of your thoracic cavity increases.
    Movement of rib cage during inspiration
    Front view
    Side view
    volume of thorax increases
    vertebral column
    ribs and sternum raised
    sternum
    rib
    ribs and sternum raised
    rib cage
    diaphragm contracts and flattens
    Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax
  • PG 206
    Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
    • Air pressure in your lungs causes them to expand to fill up the enlarged space in your thorax.
    Movement of rib cage during inspiration
    Front view
    Side view
    volume of thorax increases and lungs expand
    vertebral column
    ribs and sternum raised
    sternum
    rib
    ribs and sternum raised
    rib cage
    diaphragm contracts and flattens
    Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax
  • PG 206
    Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
    • Expansion of your lungs causes the air pressure inside them to decrease.
    Movement of rib cage during inspiration
    Front view
    Side view
    Side view
    lungs expand, causing air pressure inside lungs to decrease
    vertebral column
    ribs and sternum raised
    sternum
    rib
    ribs and sternum raised
    rib cage
    diaphragm contracts and flattens
    Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax
  • PG 206
    Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
    • Atmospheric pressure is now higher than the pressure within your lungs. This causes air to rush into your lungs.
    Movement of rib cage during inspiration
    Front view
    Side view
    Side view
    lungs expand, causing air pressure inside lungs to decrease
    air enters lungs
    vertebral column
    ribs and sternum raised
    sternum
    rib
    ribs and sternum raised
    rib cage
    diaphragm contracts and flattens
    Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax
  • PG 206
    Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
    What causes air movement into the lungs?
    Diaphragm contracts
    External Intercostal Muscles contract
    Internal Intercostal Muscles Relax
    Rib cage and sternum move upwards and forward
    Volume of thoracic cavity increase
    Pressure of thoracic cavity decrease
    Lungs expand and air pressure in lungs lower than atmospheric air pressure
    Air rush in from atmosphere to lungs
    Biomechanical
    Physical Parameters
  • PG 206
    Mechanism of Breathing - Inhalation
    Demonstration of Changes in Physical Parameters
    Volume in thoracic cavity increase
    Pressure in thoracic cavity decrease
    Pressure in Lungs > Pressure in thoracic cavity
    Lungs expand
    Pressure in lungs drop
    Atmospheric pressure > Pressure in lungs
    Air rushes in
  • PG 207
    Mechanism of Breathing -Exhalation
    When you breathe out or exhale, the following events take place:
    Movement of rib cage during expiration
    Side view
    Front view
    vertebral column
    sternum
    rib
    rib cage
  • PG 207
    Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
    • Your diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards.
    Movement of rib cage during expiration
    Side view
    Front view
    vertebral column
    sternum
    rib
    rib cage
    diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
  • PG 207
    Mechanism of Breathing- Exhalation
    • Your internal intercostal muscles contract while your external intercostal muscles relax.
    Movement of rib cage during expiration
    Side view
    Front view
    vertebral column
    sternum
    rib
    rib cage
    diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
  • PG 207
    Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
    • Your ribs move downwards and inwards. Your sternum also moves down to its original position.
    Movement of rib cage during expiration
    Front view
    Side view
    vertebral column
    ribs and sternum returned to original position
    sternum
    rib
    ribs and sternum raised
    rib cage
    diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
    Ribs swing down
  • PG 207
    Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
    • The volume of your thoracic cavity decreases.
    Movement of rib cage during expiration
    Front view
    Side view
    vertebral column
    volume of thorax decreases
    ribs and sternum returned to original position
    sternum
    rib
    ribs and sternum raised
    rib cage
    diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
    Ribs swing down and decrease volume of thorax
  • 6 August 2011
    PG 207
    Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
    • Your lungs are compressed and air pressure inside them increases as the volume decreases.
    Movement of rib cage during expiration
    Front view
    Side view
    vertebral column
    lungs are compressed, causing air pressure inside lungs to increase
    ribs and sternum returned to original position
    sternum
    rib
    ribs and sternum raised
    rib cage
    diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
    Ribs swing down and decrease volume of thorax
  • 6 August 2011
    PG 207
    Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
    • Air pressure within the lungs is now higher than atmospheric pressure. The air is forced out of your lungs to the exterior.
    Movement of rib cage during expiration
    Front view
    Side view
    air expelled from lungs
    vertebral column
    lungs are compressed, causing air pressure inside lungs to increase
    sternum
    rib
    ribs and sternum raised
    rib cage
    diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
    Ribs swing down and decrease volume of thorax
  • 6 August 2011
    Mechanism of Breathing
    What happens to your intercostal muscles when you are breathing?
  • PG 207
    Mechanism of Breathing
    What happens to your intercostal muscles when you are breathing?
    R
    When you inhale, you…
    Relax your
    Internal intercostal muscles and
    Contract your
    External intercostal muscles
    I
    C
    E
  • PG 207
    Mechanism of Breathing
    What happens to your intercostal muscles when you are breathing?
    R
    When you inhale, you…
    Relax your Internal intercostal muscles and Contract your External intercostal muscles
    I
    C
    E
    When you exhale, your…
    External intercostal muscles Relax and your Internal intercostal muscles Contract
    E
    R
    I
    C
  • Mechanism of Breathing - Exhalation
    Demonstration of Changes in Physical Parameters
    Volume in thoracic cavity decrease
    Pressure in thoracic cavity increase
    Pressure in Lungs < Pressure in thoracic cavity
    Lungs contract
    Pressure in lungs drop
    Atmospheric pressure < Pressure in lungs
    Air rushes out
  • PG 207
    Summary of Breathing Mechanism
  • Learning Objectives
    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
    State the characteristics and role of alveoli in gaseous exchange
    Describe the removal of carbon dioxide from the lungs, including the function of carbonic anhydrase.
  • Breathing and Gaseous Exchange
    Breathing
    Gaseous Exchange
    Between alveolus & blood capillary
    Oxygen
    Inhalation
    (Inspiration)
    Carbon Dioxide
    Exhalation
    (Expiration)
    Breathing
    Oxygen
    Carbon Dioxide
    Inhalation
    (Inspiration)
    Exhalation
    (Expiration)
  • Mechanics of Breathing - Expiration
    What causes air movement out of the lungs?
    Diaphragm ________________ .
    External Intercostal Muscles _______________ .
    Internal Intercostal Muscles _______________ .
    Rib cage and sternum move _____________ and _____________ .
    Volume of thoracic cavity ______________ .
    Pressure of thoracic cavity ____________ .
    Lungs ___________ and air pressure in lungs ___________ than atmospheric air pressure
    Air flows from ___________ to _______________ .
    Biomechanical
    relaxes
    relaxes
    contracts
    downwards
    inwards
    Physical Parameters
    decreases
    increases
    collapse
    higher
    lungs
    atmosphere
  • Pg 208
    Breathing and Gaseous Exchange
    Breathing
    Gaseous Exchange
    Between alveolus & blood capillary
    Oxygen
    Inhalation
    (Inspiration)
    Carbon Dioxide
    Exhalation
    (Expiration)
    Oxygen
    Carbon Dioxide
  • Gaseous exchange at alveolus
    Pg 208
  • Gaseous exchange
    Pg 208
    Alveolus
    Cells
    Capillaries
  • Pg 208
    Gaseous Exchange- Oxygen
    How is oxygen taken into the blood capillaries during inspiration?
    PART 1 – Diffusion
    Atmospheric air
     higherconcentration of oxygen.
    Deoxygenated blood arriving at the alveoli from the pulmonary artery
     a lower concentration of oxygen.
    This sets up a concentration gradient for oxygen in the alveolar cavity and the blood in the capillaries.
  • Gaseous Exchange- Oxygen
    Pg 208
    How is oxygen taken into the blood capillaries during inspiration?
    PART 2 – Structure
    Oxygen thus diffusesfrom the alveolar cavity into the blood capillaries,
    By dissolving in the thin film of moisture along the alveolar walls.
    And crossing the one-cell thick membrane of the alveolar wall and blood capillary.
  • Gaseous Exchange- Oxygen Transport in body
    Pg 208
    How is oxygen taken into the blood capillaries during inspiration?
    PART 3 – Association with Haemoglobin
    Haemoglobin in red blood cells bind reversibly with oxygen:
    Oxygen concentration higher in lungs.
    Hb binds O2.
    Hb + O2HbO(oxyhaemoglobin)
  • Pg 209
    Gaseous Exchange- Carbon Dioxide Transport in body
    In Actively Respiring Tissues & Blood plasma
    CO2 diffuses into blood capillaries from actively respiring tissues.
    CO2 dissolved in blood plasma then combines with water to form carbonic acid:
    This reaction is catalysed by an enzyme known as carbonic anhydrase.
    Carbonic acid then dissociates further into hydrogen carbonate anions in blood plasma
    MOST OF THE CO2 is carried as hydrogencarbonate ions in blood plasma
    CO2 + H2O H2CO3
    Carbonic anhydrase(from RBC)
    H2CO3H+ + HCO3-
  • Gaseous Exchange- Carbon Dioxide
    In Lung Tissues
    Hydrogen carbonate anions in blood recombines with H+ to form carbonic acid.
    Carbonic acid converted back to CO2 and H2O.
    CO2 diffuses across capillary and alveolar walls into alveolar cavity.
    Expelled out of lungs by expiration.
  • Gaseous Exchange- Carbon Dioxide
  • Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration gradient between alveolar air and blood are maintained by:-A continuous flow of blood through blood capillaries- Breathing air in and out of alveoli
  • Pg 211
    Comparing Inspired & Expired Air
    Why is it important to compare inspired and expired air?
    • Because these differences are tell-tale signs of whether something is respiring!
    • See experiments on page 210-211
  • Pg 212
    Stimulus for Breathing
    What causes the breathing?
    High concentration of CO2 in blood or alveolar air , NOT concentration of O2.
  • Test Yourself (Page 213)
    INCREASE Rate of diffusion of oxygen from the lungs into the blood and of carbon dioxide out of blood into the lungs.
    This result in a lower concentration of carbon dioxide in blood or in alveolar air, which lessen the stimulus to breathe.
    (b) Increasing the carbon dioxide in the air to 8%, even with a 71% increase above normal in oxygen concentration, still increases the rate of breathing greatly. This shows that the stimulus to breathing is carbon dioxide.
  • Learning Objectives
    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
    identify on diagrams and name the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and associated capillaries
    state the characteristics of, and describe the role of, the exchange surface of the alveoli in gaseous exchange
    describe the role of cilia, diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles in breathing
  • Learning Objectives
    By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
    describe the effects of constituents of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components – nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide, on human health
    describe how smoking results in respiratory diseases such as emphysema, bronchitis, and lung cancer
  • Smoking & Lung Diseases
  • Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke
    Properties of Chemical
    • Addictive Drug
    • Causes release of hormone adrenaline
    • Make blood clot easily
    Effects on body
    • Increase heartbeat and blood pressure
    • Increase risk of blood clotting in vessels
    Properties of Chemical
    • Combines with Hb to form carboxyhaemoglobinirreversibly
    • Increase rate of fat deposition on arterial walls
    • Damage lining of blood vessels
    Effects on body
    • Death if concentrations in air increased by 1%
    • Increased risk of atherosclerosis
    • Increased risk of blood clotting
    Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke
    Nicotine
    Carbon Monoxide
    Tar
    Irritants
  • Smoking and pregnancy
    • Smoking has immediate effect on unborned child
    • Cause higher rate of miscarriages, still-births and early death of infants
    • Pregnant smokers may affect the growth of their unborn child as smoking reduces oxygen available for foetus
    Passive smoking
    • Non-smokers exposed to cigarette smoke frequently have increased chance of lung cancer
  • Chronic Bronchitis
  • Chronic Bronchitis
    • Caused by tiny particles in cigarette smoke
    • Tracheal and bronchial walls become inflamed leading to over-production of mucus and reduced activity of cilia
    • Tubes become swollen and clogged by mucus
    • Collection of mucus in bronchial tubes causes persistent coughing  smoker’s cough
    • Passageways become narrowed.
  • Emphysema
  • Emphysema
  • Emphysema
    Healthy Alveolar air sac Alveolar air sac with walls destroyed
  • Emphysema
    • Condition in which alveolar walls are destroyed
    • Victim gets very short breath as there is a decrease in alveolar surface for gaseous exchange
    • Lung tissue is destroyed
    • Alveoli becomes fewer in number and larger in size than normal
  • Lung Cancer
  • Lung cancer
    • Lung cancer may be caused by a certain cancer producing agent in cigarette smoke
    • The agent causes the rapid abnormal growth of cells in bronchial tube wall
    • If growth is unchecked or destroyed, cancer may spread to neighbouring cells and organs
    • Growth also blocks the bronchial tube so that breathing becomes more and more difficult
    • Life expectancy is usually decreased by smoking, especially if smoking was started at a young age
    • Smokers who stop smoking increases their life expectancy e.g reduce chances of contracting lung cancer
  • Respiration in green plants
    Plants undergo respiration too! Not just human. In fact, any living things must respire to stay alive!
  • Respiration in green plants
    Gaseous exchange between plant and environment
    1. Oxygen
    • Diffuses into intercellular spaces among cells of leaves and stems
    • Oxygen dissolve in moisture on the walls of the cells and diffuses into the cells
    • Oxygen diffuses from cell to cell to reach tissues not directly in contact with air
  • Respiration in green plants
    2. Carbon dioxide
    Produced by tissue respiration, diffuse out of the cells through the system of intercellular spaces into the atmosphere via stomata
    3. Root hair
    Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between root hair and soil water
    4. Respiration of plants only detected at night or when plant is in darkness.
  • Respiration in Green Plants
    5. Photosynthesis
    • Oxygen released  used partially for tissue respiration
    • Photosynthesis rate is higher than respiration rate in bright sunlight  oxygen in excess  diffuse out through stomata
    • Amount of carbon dioxide produced during tissue respiration is insufficient for food-making  more oxygen diffuse into leaf from atmosphere
  • Respiration vs Photosynthesis