Literary Elements

19,226 views
20,727 views

Published on

1 Comment
7 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Simple and eye catching. Perfect for teaching LD middle school kids.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
19,226
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11,332
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
251
Comments
1
Likes
7
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Literary Elements

  1. 1. Elements of a Short Story Terms
  2. 2. Plot <ul><li>A series of related events that present and resolve a conflict </li></ul>
  3. 3. Plot Diagram
  4. 4. Exposition and Rising Action <ul><li>Exposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The part of the story, usually near </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the beginning, in which the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>characters are introduced, the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>background is explained, and the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>setting is described. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rising Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The central part of a story during which various problems arise after a conflict is introduced. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Climax, Falling Action and Resolution <ul><li>Climax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most exciting point in the story, when the conflict is decided </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Falling Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The action and dialogue following the climax that lead the reader into the story’s end. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- The conflict is resolved (positively or negatively) and the story is brought to a close </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Also know as “Denouement” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Main characters <ul><li>Protagonist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MAIN CHARACTER of the story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often, hero or character the audience is supposed to feel most sympathetic for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not always…for example, the main character could be a serial killer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Antagonist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primary adversary of the protagonist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes the villain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Again, not always. In the previous example, the policeman who is trying to catch the serial killer (who is the main character, and therefore the protagonist) is the antagonist . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Conflict <ul><li>The Primary struggle between the main character or characters and an adverse character, group or force </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A struggle between a character and him/herself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A struggle between a character and an outside force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. Man </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. Nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. Supernatural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. Society </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Complications <ul><li>Small problems in addition to the conflict that add interest to the story </li></ul>
  9. 9. Suspense <ul><li>The uncertainty or anxiety that a reader feels about what will happen in a story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreshadowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dilemma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mystery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversal </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Foreshadowing <ul><li>Clues (real or false) that hint at a story’s outcome </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dilemma <ul><li>A character that we care about is in peril or must choose between two dangerous courses of action </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mystery <ul><li>The creation of suspense by withholding information or by presenting unusual circumstances </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reversal <ul><li>A sudden change in a character’s situation from good to bad or vice versa </li></ul>
  14. 14. Characterization <ul><li>The technique used by a writer to create and reveal the personalities of the characters in a written work. This may be done by: </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Characterization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The author directly states aspects of the character’s personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. He was a grumpy and unfriendly old man, known for his hatred of young children and puppies . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect Characterization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More common method for most characters, especially major characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We must infer personality traits from the story </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Indirect Characterization <ul><li>Indirect Characterization may be accomplished by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>describing the character’s physical appearance and situation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>revealing a characters thoughts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The character’s words or actions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>showing the reaction of other characters. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Characters <ul><li>Flat Character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shows only one trait </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Round Character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows many different traits, good and bad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Static Character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>character does not change through the course of the story </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>character develops and grows during the course of the story </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Setting <ul><li>The time and place in which the action of a narrative occurs </li></ul>
  18. 18. Theme <ul><li>The underlying meaning of a literary work. </li></ul><ul><li>This differs from the subject in that it involves a statement of opinion about that subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The theme may be stated or implied. </li></ul><ul><li>Not every literary work has a theme, and some have more than one </li></ul>
  19. 19. Point of View <ul><li>The relationship between the narrator of a story and the characters in it </li></ul><ul><li>Narrator is NOT the same as author </li></ul><ul><li>Types of POV: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Person, Omniscient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Person, Limited Omniscient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Person, Objective </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. P.O.V. continued <ul><li>First Person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The narrator offers a personal account of their own experiences or describes what happens to other characters as the narrator sees it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The narrator stands outside the action (non-participatory) and presents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Omniscient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(all-knowing) point of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can see the thoughts & emotions of all (or numerous) characters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited Omniscient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focuses on one character ’s thoughts and viewpoints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes only what can be seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Reporter style” </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Irony <ul><li>Irony: differences in appearance and reality, or expectations and results, or meaning and intention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic Irony: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader or audience knows to be true </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational Irony: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, readers, or audience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Irony: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>words are used to suggest the opposite of what is meant (i.e. sarcasm, double-entendre, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>

×