Curriculum Transition Plan2011-12 Principal Primers: Regional meetings to instruct Principals on new standards.2012-13 . 2013-14 . 2014-15 . Implement Implement Train/Pilot English Math English Social Studies ScienceSocial Studies Train/Pilot Math Science .
How Do You Eat An Elephant? One Bite At A Time! Science Math Social Studies ELA
Session Objectives• Overview of the English Language Arts Common Core Standards• Description of the English Language Arts Model Curriculum• Update on the future of Ohio’s assessment system
First Step: Revised Standards Revised Academic Model Content Curricula: Standards: March 2011 June 2010 Aligned System of Assessments: 2014
Out With The OldOhio: “mile-wide and inch deep”Need improved articulation from grade to grade.Too many standardsNot easily managedNo time to teach in depth
In With The NewFewer Standards Go DeeperCollege and Career ReadinessCreativity and innovationCritical thinking and problem solvingCommunication and collaborationTechnology literacy
PlusPersonal managementProductivity and accountabilityLeadership and responsibilityInterdisciplinary and project-based learning
ELA Common Core Standards Framework The major areas or disciplines of study within Strands each content area. “What” studentsshould know and be able to do at each The main focus of the grade level and content within each Topics strand. band. Standard Standards Standards Statements Statements Statements by Grade Level by Grade Level by Grade Level
English Language Arts Common Core Standards SpeakingReading Writing and Language Strand Strand Listening Strand Strand
English Language Arts Common Core Standards SpeakingReading Writing Language and Strand Strand Strand ListeningTopics Topics Topics Topics (4) (4) (2) (3)
Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure Integration of Knowledge and Ideas Strand ReadingRange of Reading and Level of Text Complexity Text Types and Purposes Production and Distribution of Writing Research to Build Knowledge Writing Strand Range of Writing Comprehension and Collaboration and Presentation of Knowledge Strand Listening Speaking and Ideas English Language Arts Common Core Standards Conventions of Standard English Knowledge of Language Strand LanguageVocabulary Acquisition and Use
Sub Topics Standard Statement 1 StrandsStandards Standard Statement 2 Key Ideas and Details Standard Statement 3 Standard Statement 4 Standard Statement 5 Craft and Structure Standard Statement 6 Standard Statement 7 Integration of Standard Statement 8 Knowledge Reading: Literature and Ideas Standard Statement 9 Range of Reading and Standard Statement 10 Level of Text Complexity Standard Statement 1 Standard Statement 2 Key Ideas and Details Standard Statement 3 Standard Statement 4 Standard Statement 5 Craft and Structure Standard Statement 6 Reading Strand Standard Statement 7 Integration of Standard Statement 8 Knowledge and Ideas Standard Statement 9 Reading: Informational Text Range of Reading and Standard Statement 10 Level of Text Complexity Standard Statement 1 Print Concepts Standard Statement 2 Phonological Awareness Phonics and Word Skills Standard Statement 3 Recognition Reading: Foundational Standard Statement 4 Fluency
Writing Strand Topics Text Types Production and Research and Range and Distribution of Presentation of of Purposes Writing Knowledge WritingStandards Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Speaking and Listening StrandTopics Comprehension Presentation of and Collaboration Knowledge and IdeasStandards Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6
Language StrandTopics Knowledge Conventions of of Vocabulary Acquisition and Use Standard English Language Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6Standards
ELA Common Core Format Strands Topics Standard Statement
Common Core Coding• RL = Reading for Literature• RI = Reading for Information• RF = Reading Foundations• W = Writing• SL = Speaking and Listening• L = Language
Sample Code ReadingLiterature Standard 1 RL.1.1 Grade 1
CCSS Coding Quiz W.4.3 Writing, Grade 4, Standard 3 RF.2.4Reading Foundations, Grade 2, Standard 4 L.10.3aLanguage, Grade 10, Standard 3a
Practice #1Complete questions 1-9 in the Understandingthe English Language Arts Common Core StateStandards and Model Curriculum handout.
Additional Components of theCommon Core State Standards
Anchor Standards• Broad, foundational standards that define skills that students must demonstrate in order to be college and career ready. – Example: CCR.R.6 • Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Anchor Standards• Each strand has a set of College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards (CCR) – Reading – 10 Anchor Standards – Writing – 10 Anchor Standards – Speaking and Listening – 6 Anchor Standards – Language – 6 Anchor Standards
Anchor Standards Writing Standard 8Anchor Standard: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digitalsources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate theinformation while avoiding plagiarism. Grade 3: Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. Grade 6: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source, and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. Grade 9: Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
Practice #2Complete questions 10-12 in the Understandingthe English Language Arts Common Core StateStandards and Model Curriculum handout.
Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects • Standards for reading and writing in: – Science – Social Studies – History – Other Technical Subjects**A course devoted to a practical study, such asengineering, technology, design, business, or other workforce-related subject;a technical aspect of a wider field of study, such as art or music. (CCSSGlossary)
To What Grade Levels Do They Apply?• Grades 6 – 12• Why not K – 5? – The Literacy Standards are predicated on the assumption that K-5 teachers teach reading and writing across content areas.
Where Are They Located?• The Introduction – pp. 1 – 8• K – 5 Standards – pp. 9-33• 6-12 Standards – pp.34 – 58• Literacy Standards – pp.59 - 66
Who is Responsible for Teaching the Literacy Standards?“The Standards insist that instruction inreading, writing, speaking, listening, andlanguage be a shared responsibility within theschool.” Introduction to the CCSS, p. 4
Appendices• Appendix A – Explains the topic and standard statements that focus on text complexity – Research supporting key elements of the standards – Glossary of Key Terms
Appendices• Appendix B – Focuses on texts that can be used to meet the standards • Text Exemplars • Sample Performance Tasks
Appendices• Appendix C – Offers writing exemplars that highlight the standard statements • Student writing exemplars
Next Step: Model Curricula Revised Academic Model Content Curricula: Standards: March 2011 June 2010 Aligned System of Assessments: 2014
What is the Model Curriculum?A Web-based tool, aligned to the standards, that:• Presents information specific to the content area by grade level, grade band, and course• Provides curricular and instructional guidance• Includes instructional strategies and resources• Informs assessment development
Progressions – these statements provide educators with a general description of the content students had prior to that grade band and the contentMODEL CURRICULUM students are expected to master in the next grade band. Standard Statements Content Elaborations – Information for the teacher designed to clarify and extend understanding of the content standards. Content elaborations are specific to topics and grade/grade bands. Enduring Understanding – Jay McTighe (Understanding by Design, 1998) developed this definition, enduring understandings provide a larger purpose for learning the targeted content, and they implicitly answer the question, “Why is this topic worth studying?”
Instructional Strategies – Suggestions of research based instructional methods that can be used to address the content standards and topics. Instructional Resources – Materials (print and nonprint) designed forMODEL CURRICULUM use in instruction or to provide professional development/ enrichment that address the content standards. Technology – ideas for authentic and ethical use of technology and multimedia tools to increase content understanding as well as enhance productivity and communication for both students and classroom teachers. Diverse Learners--ideas for adapting instruction and content to meet the needs of all students.
Practice #3Complete questions 13-16 in the Understandingthe English Language Arts Common Core StateStandards and Model Curriculum handout.
4-Square ActivitySquare 1 Square 2 Strand, topic, sub-topic, standard statements): What must students know (knowledge – concepts, vocabulary, processes)?Square 3 Square 4 What must students be able to do What are the significant understandings (performance and skills)? students should develop? What are the best way(s) for students to demonstrate what they know and can do? 46
4-Square ActivityActivityWe will go through the squares one at a time toexplain them, providing you with guided practice.Then, you will use the blank analysis sheet in smallgroups, for practice. 47
4-Square Activity What must students know (knowledge – concepts, vocabulary, processes)?Knowledge Factual Conceptual Procedural Metacognitive 49
4-Square Activity Thinking skillsWhat must students be able to do (performanceand skills)?What are the best way(s) for students todemonstrate what they know and can do? Demonstration 50
4-Square Activity Enduring Relevant What are the significant understandings students should develop?Inferential Significant 51
4-Square ActivityDirections1. Select group members to serve as recorder, timekeeper and reporter.2. With your group, select a strand, topic and content statement that might link to the content in a unit that you brought.3. Complete Square 14. Complete the remaining squares.5. Share responses. 53
4-Square ActivityThink – Pair - ShareHow can the 4-Square Activity assist incurriculum development? 54
Part II 55
Session Objectives• To promote a deeper understanding of the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards by examining the instructional shifts in – Reading – Writing Curriculum Revision – Language• To provide an update on assessment 56
READING: KEY SHIFTS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS 57
Standard Statement 1 Standard Statement 2 Key Ideas and Details Standard Statement 3 Standard Statement 4 Standard Statement 5 Craft and Structure Standard Statement 6 Standard Statement 7 Integration of Standard Statement 8 Knowledge Reading: Literature and Ideas Standard Statement 9 Range of Reading and Standard Statement 10 Level of Text Complexity Standard Statement 1 Standard Statement 2 Key Ideas and Details Standard Statement 3 Standard Statement 4 Standard Statement 5 Craft and Structure Standard Statement 6 Reading Strand Standard Statement 7 Integration of Standard Statement 8 Knowledge and Ideas Standard Statement 9 Reading: Informational Text Range of Reading and Standard Statement 10 Level of Text Complexity Standard Statement 1 Print Concepts Standard Statement 2 Phonological Awareness Phonics and Word Skills Standard Statement 3 Recognition Reading: Foundational Standard Statement 4 Fluency58
Reading Shifts• A new understanding of close reading• A focus on considerations of text complexity• The inclusion of literary nonfiction at grades 6-12 59
Close Reading: What is it? Teach students to “Read like Detectives.” interrogating what texts tell us about the way things are and whyDiscussion Question: What does a detective do that can be compared to a reader engaging with a text? 60
By engaging students effectively with rich texts that challenge them to do increasingly more complex cognitive work, we help students become more skilled at getting more out of texts. Close reading helps students learn to analyze the world around them and look to texts for information that they can question and interpret on their own. 61
Close Reading: How?1. Don’t summarize what the text is about; allow students the luxury of discovering this for themselves. (Make them think!)2. Allow the text to reveal itself to them as readers/detectives.3. Lavish time and attention on text that deserves it.• Remember: the teacher is not the expert; the text is. 62
Close Reading: How?1. Allow them to read text to themselves.2. Read text aloud to them so they can hear the language as it is meant to be heard.3. Analyze text by using text-dependent discussion questions.4. Discuss author’s use of academic vocabulary. 63
Close Reading: Resource Bringing Common Core to Life video:• http://vimeo.com/27056255• one hour demonstration by David Coleman (one of the key authors of CCSS)• video and handouts available on ODE Web site• highly recommended as PD for ELA departments 64
Text Complexity: What?Strand: ReadingTopic: Range of Reading and Level of Text ComplexityStandard 10: Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. 65
Text Complexity: Why?• Research shows a steady decline in the level of text complexity in classroom instruction over the last half century. (Appendix A, p.2)• Research indicates that the demands college, careers, and citizenship place on readers have either held steady or increased over the last half century. (Appendix A, p. 1) 66
Text Complexity: How? 67
Quantitative Features of Text ComplexityDimensions such as• Word Frequency• Sentence Length• Word Length• Text Length• Text Cohesion 68
Qualitative Features of Text Complexity Dimensions such as: • Levels of meaning • Levels of purpose • Structure/Organization • Language conventionality • Language clarity • Prior knowledge demands 69
Reader and Task Consideration Considerations such as: • Motivation • Knowledge and experience • Purpose for reading • Complexity of task assigned regarding text • Complexity of questions asked regarding text 71
introducing background knowledge immersing students in more complex language exposure and usage that makes a difference in their ability to access knowledge engaging students with carefully selected or constructed graphic organizers that make the structure of the text visible modeling how to interpret the meaning of texts that use more complex approaches, like satire or rhetorical argument engaging pairs or teams of students with more challenging texts as “buddies” and giving them opportunities to reflect on those texts through discussions with each other or through “buddy” journalsmaking 20 percent of their class reading “stretch” texts that help them reachbeyond their reading level 72
Literary Nonfiction: Why?Reading Informational TextStandard 10Grade 6 & 7By the end of the year, read and comprehendliterary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 textcomplexity band proficiently, with scaffolding asneeded at the high end of the range. 73
Literary Nonfiction: What?“…creative nonfiction” describes what the form isall about. The word creative simply refers to the useof literary craft in presenting nonfiction - thatis, factually accurate prose about real people andevents – in a compelling and vivid manner. To put itanother way, creative nonfiction writers do notmake things up; they make ideas and informationthat already exist more interesting and often moreaccessible.” Lee Guskind 74
Literary Nonfiction: NAEP’S Definition• May include elements of narration and exposition and is often referred to as mixed text• Includes essays; speeches; opinion pieces, biographies; journalism; and historical scientific or other documents written for a broad audience• It uses literary techniques usually associated with fiction or poetry and also presents information or factual material 75
Lexile ScoresScantron can produce lexilescores that can link to thespecific text complexity of thestudent.
Practice #4Answer questions 17-21 77
WRITING: KEY SHIFTS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS 78
Writing Strand Text Types Production and Research and Range and Distribution of Presentation of of Purposes Writing Knowledge Writing Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard StandardStatement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 79
Writing Shifts• An increase in writing to sources• Emphasis on writing that marshals arguments (using evidence, evidence, eviden ce)• A significant increase in the amount of research writing (short and frequent projects) 80
Writing to Sources: What?• CCR.W.9 – draw evidence from literary or informational text to support analysis, reflection, and research• Teachers must be able to: – Create text-dependent writing prompts that require students to rely primarily on the text to support their arguments/responses• Students must be able to: – Analyze and synthesize text – Present careful analysis, well-defended claims, and clear information through their writing 81
What does it look like in grade 3? Text Dependent Non-Text DependentAsk and answer questions One of the themes in theregarding the plot of Patricia book, Sarah, Plain and Tall, isMacLachlan’s Sarah, Plain and loss. Write about a time whenTall, explicitly referring to the you or someone you knowbook to form the basis for experienced the loss of atheir answers. [RL.3.1] loved one. 82
What does it look like in grade 6? Text Dependent Non-Text DependentAnalyze in detail how the early years Create a story in which theof Harriet Tubman (as related by main character is on theauthor Ann Petry) contributed to her underground railroad. Whatlater becoming a conductor on theUnderground Railroad, attending to would life be like for thishow the author introduces, character?illustrates, and elaborates upon theevents in Tubman’s life. [RI.6.3] 83
What does it look like in grades 9-10? Text Dependent Non-Text DependentAnalyze in detail the theme of Explore the ways that bothrelationships between mothers and Chinese and Americandaughters and how that theme superstitions drive thoughtsdevelops over the course of AmyTan’s The Joy Luck Club. Students and choices. Does superstitionsearch the text for specific details help generations connect, orthat show how the theme emerges does it separate them?and how it is shaped and refinedover the course of the novel. [RL.9–10.2] 84
Writing to Sources: How?Three practices for strengthening readingthrough writing: 1. Have students write about the text they read (taking notes, answering questions, learning logs, summaries, or extended response) 2. Teach students the writing skills and processes that go into creating text 3. Increase the amount of time students write. 85
Marshaling Arguments: What?• CCR.W.1 – Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.• The ability to write logical arguments based on substantive claims, sound reasoning, and relevant evidence 86
Argument vs. Persuasion in the Common Core Persuasion ArgumentAppeals to the credibility, Convinces the audience becausecharacter, or authority of the of the perceived merit andwriter (speaker) reasonableness of the claims andAppeals to the audience’s self- proofs offered rather thaninterest and sense of identity evoking emotions.Relies on emotional appeals Requires evidenceEvokes emotions 87
Marshaling Arguments: Why?When students consider two or moreperspectives on a topic or issue, something far beyond surface knowledge is required . They must – Think critically and deeply – Assess the validity of their own thinking – Anticipate counterclaims in opposition to their own assertions 88
Marshaling Arguments: How?• Students must be able to effectively arrange their thoughts to support their reasoning.• Writing must reflect evidence of close analytic reading of complex text.• Writing must show evidence of either advancing an argument or explaining an idea. 89
Research: What?• CCR.W.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation• Should have a meaningful, focused connection to the text (where possible)• Should encourage students to read closely to compare concepts and synthesize ideas across multiple texts 90
Research as the Vehicle Research projects allow for and promote: • Close reading • Text complexity increase • Increase in literary nonfiction • Writing to sources • Exposure to academic vocabulary • Presentation skills (Speaking and Listening) 91
Research: Why?The new assessments will assess the research standards. 92
Research: How?• Students should have multiple opportunities for research (short, as well as sustained projects).• Students should utilize multiple forms of technology to produce, publish, and collaborate with others. 93
Writing PracticeAnswer Question 22Trace the progressions of CCR.W.6-9 from K-CCR.Pay particular attention to your grade level.Consider the following: – What specific skills are needed to meet these standard statements? – What other strands should be incorporated to help support this shift? – What do these standard statements look like in your classroom? – In the standard statements that remain the same from grade to grade, how do you plan to increase the complexity? 94
Writing Reflection TakeawayAfter examining the vertical articulation documentfor standard statements 6-9, assess your currentresearch practices/projects. Based on what wasreviewed in the vertical articulationdocument, consider the following: – Where do your projects land on the grade continuum? – Which skills require an increase in complexity? – What specific strategies adequately prepare students for the skills needed in the next grade level/band? 95
Take away: Research InventoryTo determine how well you integrate research into yourinstruction, take an inventory of your classroom planning andinstruction.• What is your approach to teaching research?• Examine your lesson plans. Over the course of two weeks, how many opportunities are given to allow for research?• Take a look at your lessons. How often do you incorporate writing to sources into your literary or informational text selections?• How often are students given the opportunity to share their research with others?• What are the various forms of technology integrated into your 96 research project?
LANGUAGE: KEY SHIFTS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS 97
Language Strand Knowledge Conventions of of Vocabulary Acquisition and Use Standard English Language Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard StandardStatement Statement Statement Statement Statement Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 98
Vocabulary Shift• Increased emphasis on academic vocabulary as a critical component of college and career readiness.• Information in the following slides has been taken from Isabel Beck’s book, Bringing Words to Life. 99
Vocabulary – What to teach?• Not all words have equal importance in language instruction.• The CCSS considers three types of vocabulary words or three tiers of vocabulary – for teaching and assessing word knowledge.• A word’s frequency of use, complexity, and meaning determines into which tier it will fall. 100
Tier 1 –Basic Vocabulary• The words of everyday speech, usually learned in the early grades.• These words are not considered a challenge to the average native speaker.• Words in this tier rarely require direct instruction and typically do not have multiple meanings.• Examples: clock, baby, happy, walk 101
Tier 2 – Academic Vocabulary• Tier 2 words, or academic vocabulary, pervade complex text of all types.• They are an underlying language of complexity that pervades everything complex that students read. 102
Tier 2- Academic VocabularyThe following is a list of characteristics for TierTwo words: – Important for reading comprehension – Contain multiple meanings – Increased descriptive vocabulary (words that allow students to describe concepts in a detailed manner) – Used across a variety of domains, occurs more frequently in literature 103
Tier 3- Low-Frequency, Content- Specific Vocabulary• Specific to a domain or field of study• Far more common in informational texts than in literature.• Explicitly defined by the author of a text• Repeatedly used• Heavily scaffolded (e.g., made part of a glossary) 104
How will the Literacy Standards be assessed?• The expectation is that all content area teachers make use of the Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects standards for instruction.• However, the ELA assessment may include texts based on the Literacy Standards. 105
Informational Text Grades 6 - 12If you are Literary Informational History, Socialusing a Nonfiction Text Studies, Science,selection Technicalwhich is Subjects TextUse these Reading Reading Literacystandards Informational Informational Standards Text Text Standards #1-10 Standards # 1- 9 106
• Answer question 23.
What can teachers do now?• Focus on content depth• Integrate the concepts and skills from reading, writing, speaking and listening, and language into instructional units. Avoid teaching skills in isolation.• Use formative instructional strategies and assessments K-12.• Develop the students’ ability to view themselves as effective readers and writers – as effective communicators.
What can teachers do now?• Use resources that connect the English Language Arts concepts and skills in the classroom to the outside world, which adds relevance to what is being taught.• Become familiar with the Content Elaborations and Enduring Understandings found in the Model Curriculum which is posted online.• Promote performance-based assessment.• Plan and implement appropriate professional development for both teachers and administrators, building both content and pedagogical knowledge for students as well as educators.
Quiz Name the four strands found in theCommon Core State Standards for ELA • Reading (Literature and Informational Text) • Writing • Speaking and Listening • Language
Name the topics found in the Reading Literature Strand• Key Ideas and Details• Craft and Structure• Integration of Knowledge and Ideas• Range and Level of Complex Texts
Where can you find more information about calculating text complexity? Appendix A
Where can you find exemplars of student writing? Appendix C
Where can you find deeper explanationsabout what the standards expect students to know and be able to do? Model Curriculum: Content Elaborations
What type of support can you find at www.cast.org?Resources and strategies for diverselearners including English LanguageLearners, students with disabilities andgifted students