Chapter 4 Solutions

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  • 1. Chemical Interactions
    • Chapter 4: Solutions
  • 2. Section 4.1 A Solution is a Type of Mixture
  • 3. The parts of a solution are mixed evenly.
    • A solution is a homogeneous mixture: all portions have identical properties.
    • The solute is the substance that is dissolved.
    • The solvent dissolves the solute.
  • 4. Page 112
    • Solutes, solvents, and solutions can be liquids, solids, or gases.
    • The solute and solvent can be in the same or in different physical states.
  • 5. Page 113
    • A suspension is a mixture with large particles.
      • The particles do not dissolve.
      • The mixture is not a solution.
  • 6. Solvent and solute particles interact.
    • When a solid dissolves in a liquid, the solute breaks apart.
    • Solute particles are surrounded by solvent particles and are evenly distributed in the solution.
  • 7. Page 114
  • 8. Page 114
    • Ionic compounds break up into individual ions when they dissolve.
    • When covalent compounds dissolve, the molecules separate from each other, but covalent bonds remain intact and the individual molecules remain whole.
  • 9. Properties of solvents change in solutions.
    • A solute changes the physical properties of a solvent.
      • The freezing point of a solution is lower than the freezing point of the pure solvent.
      • The boiling point of a solution is higher than the boiling point of the pure solvent.
  • 10. Section 4.2 The Amount of Solute That Dissolves Can Vary.
  • 11. A solution with a high concentration contains a large amount of solute.
    • The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute dissolved in it at a particular temperature.
    • Solutions can be made more concentrated by adding solute.
    • Solutions can be made more dilute by adding more solvent .
  • 12. Page 118 Degrees of Concentration Low Solubility High Solubility
  • 13. Page 118
    • A saturated solution holds as much of a given solute as it can at a given temperature.
      • If it holds more solute than normal, it is supersaturated .
        • Very unstable
        • Disturbing the solution could cause excess solute to come out of the solution as a precipitate.
  • 14. Page 119
  • 15. Page 119
    • Every substance has a characteristic solubility , the amount that will dissolve in a certain amount of a certain solvent at a given temperature.
  • 16. The solubility of a solute can be changed.
    • Changes in temperature will change the solubility.
  • 17. Page 121
  • 18. Page 122
    • The solubility of liquid and solid solutes are not usually affected by changes in pressure.
  • 19. Solubility depends on molecular structure.
    • Solubility depends on changes of solute particles.
    • Molecules with regions of electrical charge (polar molecules) and ions dissolve in polar solvents such as water.
    • Nonpolar molecules (oils) do not have charged regions and do not dissolve in polar solvents, but they dissolve in nonpolar solvents.
  • 20. Page 123
  • 21. Section 4.3 Solutions can be Acidic, Basic, or Neutral
  • 22. Acids and bases have distinct properties.
    • Acids:
      • A substance that can donate a hydrogen ion to another substance when the acid is dissolved in water.
        • HCl is an acid and donates a H + ion in a water solution.
  • 23. Page 126
    • Acids also:
      • Taste sour
      • React with carbonates to form CO 2 .
      • React with many metals.
      • Turn litmus red.
    • Common acids:
      • Milk, beer, cheese, sauerkraut, wine, vinegar, lemon juice
  • 24. Page 126
    • Bases:
      • A substance that can accept a hydrogen ion from another substance.
      • In water, the base NaOH releases a hydroxide ion, which can accept a hydrogen ion.
  • 25. Page 126
    • Bases also:
      • Taste bitter
      • Feel slippery or soapy
      • Turn litmus blue.
    • Common bases:
      • Borax, milk of magnesia, ammonia, oven cleaner, peroxide
  • 26.  
  • 27. The strength of acids and bases can be measured.
    • Strong acids and bases break apart completely into individual ions.
      • No complete molecules of the acid or base remain in the solution
  • 28. Page 129
    • Weak acids and bases don’t break apart completely into ions.
      • It contains both molecules of the acid/base and its ions.
  • 29. Page 128
    • The acidity of a solution is measured on the pH scale.
      • Acids produce higher hydrogen ion concentration and have a low pH – from 0 – 7.
      • Bases produce a low hydrogen ion concentration and have a high pH – from 7 – 14.
      • Solutions of pH 7 are neutral.
  • 30. Acids and bases neutralize each other.
    • When an acid and base come into contact, they undergo a neutralization reaction.
      • The hydrogen ion from the acid and the hydroxide ion from the base combine to form water.
      • The negative ion from the acid and the positive ion from the base combine to form a salt.
      • The products of a neutralization reaction – water and salt – are both neutral substances.
  • 31. Section 4.4 Metal Alloys are Solid Mixtures
  • 32. Humans have made alloys for thousands of years.
    • Alloy: a solid mixture that has many of the characteristics of a solution.
      • In an alloy, a solid (usually a metal) solute is mixed with a solid metallic solvent.
      • Made by melting the metal components and mixing them in the liquid state.
      • The physical properties of the alloy are different from those of the solvent metal.
  • 33. Page 135
    • Two types of alloys:
      • Substitutional alloy: atoms of one metal are replaced by the other metal (brass).
      • Interstitial alloy: (Steel) Carbon atoms occupy the gaps between the iron atoms.
  • 34. Page 135
  • 35. Alloys have many uses in everyday life.
    • Automotive - pistons, cylinder blocks and liners, sliding bearings, wheels.
    • Aerospace - actuators and gears, structural elements, bearings and wheels, gas turbines.
    • Oil, gas and chemical - valves, pumps, hydraulic and pneumatic systems.
    • Cookware - frying pans, saucepans, knife sharpeners.
    • Medical - prostheses.
    • Printing - anilox rolls.