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Chapter 4   Solutions
 

Chapter 4 Solutions

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    Chapter 4   Solutions Chapter 4 Solutions Presentation Transcript

    • Chemical Interactions
      • Chapter 4: Solutions
    • Section 4.1 A Solution is a Type of Mixture
    • The parts of a solution are mixed evenly.
      • A solution is a homogeneous mixture: all portions have identical properties.
      • The solute is the substance that is dissolved.
      • The solvent dissolves the solute.
    • Page 112
      • Solutes, solvents, and solutions can be liquids, solids, or gases.
      • The solute and solvent can be in the same or in different physical states.
    • Page 113
      • A suspension is a mixture with large particles.
        • The particles do not dissolve.
        • The mixture is not a solution.
    • Solvent and solute particles interact.
      • When a solid dissolves in a liquid, the solute breaks apart.
      • Solute particles are surrounded by solvent particles and are evenly distributed in the solution.
    • Page 114
    • Page 114
      • Ionic compounds break up into individual ions when they dissolve.
      • When covalent compounds dissolve, the molecules separate from each other, but covalent bonds remain intact and the individual molecules remain whole.
    • Properties of solvents change in solutions.
      • A solute changes the physical properties of a solvent.
        • The freezing point of a solution is lower than the freezing point of the pure solvent.
        • The boiling point of a solution is higher than the boiling point of the pure solvent.
    • Section 4.2 The Amount of Solute That Dissolves Can Vary.
    • A solution with a high concentration contains a large amount of solute.
      • The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute dissolved in it at a particular temperature.
      • Solutions can be made more concentrated by adding solute.
      • Solutions can be made more dilute by adding more solvent .
    • Page 118 Degrees of Concentration Low Solubility High Solubility
    • Page 118
      • A saturated solution holds as much of a given solute as it can at a given temperature.
        • If it holds more solute than normal, it is supersaturated .
          • Very unstable
          • Disturbing the solution could cause excess solute to come out of the solution as a precipitate.
    • Page 119
    • Page 119
      • Every substance has a characteristic solubility , the amount that will dissolve in a certain amount of a certain solvent at a given temperature.
    • The solubility of a solute can be changed.
      • Changes in temperature will change the solubility.
    • Page 121
    • Page 122
      • The solubility of liquid and solid solutes are not usually affected by changes in pressure.
    • Solubility depends on molecular structure.
      • Solubility depends on changes of solute particles.
      • Molecules with regions of electrical charge (polar molecules) and ions dissolve in polar solvents such as water.
      • Nonpolar molecules (oils) do not have charged regions and do not dissolve in polar solvents, but they dissolve in nonpolar solvents.
    • Page 123
    • Section 4.3 Solutions can be Acidic, Basic, or Neutral
    • Acids and bases have distinct properties.
      • Acids:
        • A substance that can donate a hydrogen ion to another substance when the acid is dissolved in water.
          • HCl is an acid and donates a H + ion in a water solution.
    • Page 126
      • Acids also:
        • Taste sour
        • React with carbonates to form CO 2 .
        • React with many metals.
        • Turn litmus red.
      • Common acids:
        • Milk, beer, cheese, sauerkraut, wine, vinegar, lemon juice
    • Page 126
      • Bases:
        • A substance that can accept a hydrogen ion from another substance.
        • In water, the base NaOH releases a hydroxide ion, which can accept a hydrogen ion.
    • Page 126
      • Bases also:
        • Taste bitter
        • Feel slippery or soapy
        • Turn litmus blue.
      • Common bases:
        • Borax, milk of magnesia, ammonia, oven cleaner, peroxide
    •  
    • The strength of acids and bases can be measured.
      • Strong acids and bases break apart completely into individual ions.
        • No complete molecules of the acid or base remain in the solution
    • Page 129
      • Weak acids and bases don’t break apart completely into ions.
        • It contains both molecules of the acid/base and its ions.
    • Page 128
      • The acidity of a solution is measured on the pH scale.
        • Acids produce higher hydrogen ion concentration and have a low pH – from 0 – 7.
        • Bases produce a low hydrogen ion concentration and have a high pH – from 7 – 14.
        • Solutions of pH 7 are neutral.
    • Acids and bases neutralize each other.
      • When an acid and base come into contact, they undergo a neutralization reaction.
        • The hydrogen ion from the acid and the hydroxide ion from the base combine to form water.
        • The negative ion from the acid and the positive ion from the base combine to form a salt.
        • The products of a neutralization reaction – water and salt – are both neutral substances.
    • Section 4.4 Metal Alloys are Solid Mixtures
    • Humans have made alloys for thousands of years.
      • Alloy: a solid mixture that has many of the characteristics of a solution.
        • In an alloy, a solid (usually a metal) solute is mixed with a solid metallic solvent.
        • Made by melting the metal components and mixing them in the liquid state.
        • The physical properties of the alloy are different from those of the solvent metal.
    • Page 135
      • Two types of alloys:
        • Substitutional alloy: atoms of one metal are replaced by the other metal (brass).
        • Interstitial alloy: (Steel) Carbon atoms occupy the gaps between the iron atoms.
    • Page 135
    • Alloys have many uses in everyday life.
      • Automotive - pistons, cylinder blocks and liners, sliding bearings, wheels.
      • Aerospace - actuators and gears, structural elements, bearings and wheels, gas turbines.
      • Oil, gas and chemical - valves, pumps, hydraulic and pneumatic systems.
      • Cookware - frying pans, saucepans, knife sharpeners.
      • Medical - prostheses.
      • Printing - anilox rolls.