T H E PA N A M E R I C A N EXPOSITION & T H E WO R L D ’ S FA I R By: Michelle Myers
RESEARCH PROBLEM:How did the Pan American Expositionand the World’s Fair symbolize and triggerthe future of America from the 19th Centuryto the 20th Century?
DATES AND PLACES: Pan American Exposition World’s Fair May 1 through November Opened April 30, 19042, 1901. Closed December 1, 1904 Was held in Buffalo, New Was held in St. Louis,York. Missouri.
EXPOSITION: Statistics: The Exposition: Ticket Cost:U.S. $0.25($7.00 in 2011 dollars) Total Event Expense:U.S. $7 million($184 million in 2011 dollars) Visitors: 8,000,000
WORLD’S FAIR: Statics: The World’s Fair Space:Occupied over 1,200 acres Visitors:Over 12 million people Cost:$50 cents
TRACK EVENTS: One of the participants, Fred Lorz, the apparent winner of the marathon received his crown from none other than Alice Roosevelt. But had it unceremoniously snatched away when a local truck driver confessed he had given Lorz a lift over the last part of the course.Tug of war competition
WILLIAM MCKINLEY’S ASSASSINATION: It was September 16, 1901 at 4 o’clock in the afternoon, McKinley arrived in an open carriage outside the Temple of Music at the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. He walked inside to the head of the receiving line and began shaking the hands of Exposition visitors. His handlers expected him to remain only a short while, and about 10 minutes later, one of them pulled out his pocket watch and made a show of looking at him. He was doing this to signal the Secret Service that the appearance was coming to an end. When the guy did that, the man next in line stepped forward and raised his right hand. Instead of meeting McKinley’s grasp he opened his hand and it held a white bandage. Under the bandage was an Iver Johnson .32-caliber pistol. It was fired twice into the President, which hit him in the chest and stomach.
CONTINUED: McKinley then straightened up, staggered from one potted plant to another and collapsed. Blood seeping through his shirt. In the mean time Secret Service and even bystanders tackled the shooter. One guy grabbed him by the throat and tried choking him. The assailant insisted, “I done my duty” and yet the President still said, “Be easy with him boys.”
MCKINLEY DYING: Mckinley clung to his life though he drifted in and out ofconsciousness. During the days following the operation thatwas hoped had saved his life, confidence was high that thePresident would recover fully. There wasn’t only hope, butmuch suspense and apprehension. However, the most tenderscene of the entire tragedy was the parting of the President andhis wife.
LAST WORDS: After some time, the President regained consciousness again. His eyes fluttered and glanced around the room. When he saw his wife, he weakly smiled at her and clutched her hand. They gazed into each other’s eyes and everyone knew that it was time for him to say good-bye to the woman he loved. McKinley opened his mouth as if to speak and his wife leaned over and put her ear to his quivering mouth.“ God’s will, not ours, be done,” he whispered.“For his sake. For his sake,” she whispered back to him. She took both hishands and smiled at him, tears flowing from her eyes.“ Goodbye, all; goodbye. It is God’s way. His will be done.” These were thelast words McKinley spoke.
MR. AND MRS. MCKINLEY:• It was on September 13, 1901( one week after shooting) at 8 o’clock the President had died.• He was 58 years old, and was the 25th president.
THE MURDERER: Leon Czolgosz was the murderer of President McKinley. On August 31, 1901, Czolgosz moved to Buffalo, New York.There, he rented a room near the site of the Pan American Exposition. He had bought the .32 caliber pistol on September 2 for $4.50. Members of the crowd immediately subdued him before the SignalCorps and police intervened, and beat him so severely it was initiallythought he might not live to stand trial.
PLACES LEON HAD TO GO: Czolgosz was briefly held in a cell at Buffalo’s 13th Precinct house, until he was moved to the city’s police headquarters downtown.• He had also been to the Erie County Women’s Penitentiary, the Erie County Jail, and to the Auburn State Prison.
LEON’S TRIAL: Nine days after McKinley’s death on September 14, was Czolgosz’strial on September 23. Czolgosz’s lawyers were unable to prepare a defense since Czolgoszrefused to speak to either one of them. Therefore, his lawyers argued atthe trial that Czolgosz could not be found guilty for the murder of thepresident because he was insane at the time. Czolgosz refused to testify on his own defense, and did not speak at allin court.
LEON’S DEATH: The jury unanimously recommended the death penalty.• Czolgosz’s last words were: “I killed the President because he was the enemy of the good people- the good working people. I am not sorry for my crime.• When he was strapped into the chair he did say through his clenched teeth, “I am only sorry I could not get to see my father.” Continue
LEON CZOLGOSZ: Twenty-five minutes before Leon was officially declared to be dead..The crowd watched his dying agonies with interest. The excitementamong them was indescribable. After the death, they hadfruit, peanuts, lemonade, sandwiches, and even prize packages of popcornto celebrate.
THE NEXT PRESIDENT: McKinley’s death dropped an uncertain mantle onthe shoulders of the Vice President, who could notknow and would not hope that he would soon becomePresident. Theodore Roosevelt( the 26th president) feltstrongly like an ordinary, helpless citizen. Not quite43, he became the youngest president in history. Hebrought new excitement and power to thePresidency, as he vigorously led Congress and theAmerican public toward progressive reforms and astrong foreign policy.
A L O N G W I T H M C K I N L E Y ’ S D E A T H WA S A CAMERA MAN AND A MYSTERIOUS MAN: A camera man of the Thomas A. Edison Company recorded the scene on film(The scene of McKinley’s death.). One man catches sight of the camera, looksdirectly into the lens-and suddenly smiles before turning away. Whether it was areflex to the camera lens, bloodlust, political cynicism, or nerves, that smile-thatoverwhelming inappropriate, incomprehensible smile had a meaning that remainsinaccessible to us now.
The last of the great Apache warriors, took part in the World’s Fair in St. Louis of 1904. • It was at this fair where he described his first ride on the Ferris wheel.In Geronimo’s words he said,"One time the guards took me into a little house that had four windows. When we wereseated the little house started to move along the ground. Then the guards called myattention to some curious things they had in their pockets."Finally they told me to look out, and when I did so I was scared, for our little house hadgone high up in the air, and the people down in the Fair Grounds looked no larger thanants. The men laughed at me for being scared, then they gave me a glass to look through.(I often had such glasses which I took from dead officers after battles in Mexico andelsewhere), and I could see rivers, lakes and mountains."But I had never been so high in the air….Then they said, "Get out!" and when I lookedwe were on the street again. After we were safe on the land, I watched many of theselittle houses going up and coming down, but I cannot understand how they travel."
MAJOR FOODS: Many foods became popularized during the World’s Fair. • Those foods are some of America’s favorites. Without the World’s fair we wouldn’t have known about these foods until later years in our history. We might have possibly not even known about them at all.(waffle-style) ice creamcones, hamburgers, hotdogs, peanut butter, icetea, cotton candy, Puffed Wheat cereal and Dr.Pepper
A N S W E R I N G R E S E A R C H P RO B L E M : How did the Pan American Exposition and the World’s Fair symbolize andtrigger the future of America from the 19th Century to the 20th Century? • It helped to shape the way our country is today. So many people became popular at these events. Not only that, but having these events even changed you who ran our country. For example, President McKinley was murdered and Theodore Roosevelt became President. Many inventions and products had also been popularized. The World’s Fair and the Pan American Exposition were huge parts in our world’s history.
ORAL HISTORY: Questions answered by Josh Jones
QUESTION ONE: What did you think of the Pan American Exposition and theWorlds Fair being put together? I think that putting the Exposition and the Worlds Fair together was a magnificent idea. It brought people and inventions from all over the world. Those inventions and people were then found.(They were popularized.) It gave small time business people, and inventors the chance to come out with their products, or to get their name out there.
QUESTION TWO: Answers: Questions: I think it was a tragedy, one of the many tragedies in American History. What did you think of William I was upset about it and do not feel it’sMcKinley’s death? right for assassinations to happen. How did you feel about it? Yes, because of McKinley’s death the U.S. Congress put the U.S. Secret Service in Did you think there was going to be charge of protecting future presidents.major changes to be made? I think he was not expecting this, and How did you feel about Theodore that he was a good Vice President. ThereforeRoosevelt becoming president? that would make him a great President because he was very intelligent and worked in many other fields.
TOPIC THREE:-Many foods became popular at the Worlds Fair in St. Louis,(waffle-style) icecream cones, hamburgers, hotdogs, peanut butter, ice tea, cotton candy,Puffed Wheat cereal and Dr. Pepper were first introduced to a nationalaudience at the fair.
CONTINUED: What do you think about these foods? “The other foods I love, especially Dr. Pepper, and am glad the became well known throughout this country.”
CONTINUED AGAIN: Do you think these foods would have been as popular in the U.S.even if the Worlds Fair had not have been established?
QUESTION FOUR: What do you think about all of the technology that was introduced?
CONTINUED: What do you think of the x-ray machine?
M C K I N L E Y A N D T H E X - R AY M AC H I N E : Do you think this invention could have saved William McKinley’s life?“I don’t think it would have saved hislife. It would have been helpful to findthe bullet, however a fatal woundwould only have been reversed(fixed)by future advancements liketechnology(computers, MRImachines) and medicaladvancements.”
QUESTION FIVE: How do you think life would have been today, if the Expositionand the Fair had not have happened?
QUESTION SIX: ( R E S E A R C H P RO B L E M ) How did the Pan American Exposition and the Worlds Fairsymbolize and trigger the future of America from the 19th century tothe 20th century?
CITATIONS:"Leon Czolgosz." Leon Czolgosz-Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. WikimediaFoundation, Inc., 31 Oct. 2011. Web. 06 Nov. 2011.<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Czolgosz>."The Last Days of a President: Films of McKinley and the Pan-AmericanExposition, 1901." President McKinley and the Pan-American Exposition of 1901.The Library of Congress, 15 Apr. 1999. Web. 15 Oct. 2011.<memory.loc.gov/ammem/papr/mckpanex.html>."Progress Made Visible: American Worlds Fairs and Expositions." Pan-AmericanExposition, Buffalo, 1901. University of Delaware Library, 21 Dec. 2011. Web. 15 Oct.2011. <http://www.lib.udel.edu/ud/spec/exhibits/fairs/pan.htm>.
MORE CITATIONS:"Pan-American Exposition." Pan-American Exposition-Wikipedia, the FreeEncyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 12 Oct. 2011. Web. 15 Oct. 2011.<en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan-American_Exposition>.Time-Life Books, ed. This Fabulous Century, 1900-1910. Vol. 1. New York:Time-Life, 1969. Print. This Fabulous Century Sixty Years of American Life.Phillips, Kevin. William McKinley. New York: Times, 2003. Print.
MORE CITATIONS:Rauchway, Eric. Murdering McKinley(The Making of Theodore RooseveltsAmerica). New York: Hill and Wang, A Division of Farrar, Straus andGiroux, 2003. Print.Leech, Margaret. In The Days of Mckinley. Tennessee: Kingsport, 1959. Print.
MORE CITATIONS: Florence, Fabricant. "Food Stuff; At the 1904 Worlds Fair, Cotton Candy and Cottolene." New York Times, June 16, 2004., 2, Newspaper Source, EBSCOhost (accessed November 8, 2011).ROBERT, SIEGEL. "Analysis: President William McKinleys assassination andhow it changed the conduct of all future American presidents." All ThingsConsidered (NPR) (n.d.): Newspaper Source, EBSCOhost (accessed November 8,2011). Mr. Tripodi.DVD. The World’s Greatest Fair, “World’s Fair St. Louis 1904”