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History proj.
 

History proj.

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  • Bomb- from Latin bombus deep hollow soundUranium comes from Uranus idk why Plutonium- from Pluto idk why
  •  It was like a kid who can’t have a bowel of ice cream. And later that night he snakes downstairs and eats the whole bowl. Later on he feels sick and regrets his actions. That was how it was with the atomic bomb. No one was doing much thinking about what they were really doing all they were thinking about was if this was possible and how to do it.
  • The # major components were:SaterPrayers and duck tape
  • PhisicsLatin physica, plural, natural science, from Greek physika, from neuter plural of physikos of nature, from physis growth, nature, from phyein to bring forth
  • was endorsed in a letter than Einstein sent to Franklin Rooseveltin 1939Lizard dude knew that one that Pence did her presentation on sent the letter along with Edward teller (Jewish theoretical physicist )Lizard couldn’t drive so he got teller to drive him to Einstein's summer home on long island
  • General groves was disgusted that he had to take it over he said it would never work He’s (Oppenheimer) a genius a real genus he can talk to you about anything you want, well not really he doesn’t know anything about sports Groves
  • The Manhattan project also worked on tempers which shielded from radiation and allowed for more efficiency in the bomb, this lead to bunker tec. We didn’t really partner up with Britain we just exchanged infoOn December 2, 1942 the first self sustained chin reaction pile was operated by EnricoFarme
  • The trinity site is now the white sands missile range Ok ridge made uranium Hanford Washington would later make plutonium
  • Los Alamos-Other buildings at site destroyed by the Cerro Grande fire in May 2000. There were a great deal of children being born here but the project was so secretive that there birth certificate read “PO Box 1663 in Santa Fe”Conspirators think these site was later used to test night vision tec. from aliensOakridge- consumed one 10th of the power produced in the us and was the 5th largest town in Tennessee
  • He also allegedly had access to the Roswell crash siteConcerns over clearance b/c his girl friend (Jean Talock) bro and his bros wife were comunists, he however never was and the FBI took 30 years to prove thatThe black hole thing and the cemeteric explosion- explain similarity People thought he shouldn’t have the job b/c he didn’t have a Nobel prize He had never really directed anything After the creation of the atomic bomb he was put on trial in a shabby court room in DC, security concerns were heightened by the out break of the cold warWhile working on the project he lived on cigarettes and martinis
  • Picked on, shielded by knowledge- they called him a boob And at the age of 10 he wrote to the mineralogical center, they then asked him unknowingly (age 10) to give a lecture He was arrogantGraduated Harvard in 3 years He wasn’t really coordinated for a laboratoryHe went on to research theoretical physics in Germany He was ambidextrous – cigarette & chalk story He also wrote poems “Hot dog” was a small cabin in New Mexico that his father leased for him and his brother There he was more adventurous and happyHe once wrote that his two loves were physics and desert country He wasn’t really affected by the depression and politics seemed gorse to him- just like in his childhood he didn’t understand humanityBut that all changed when he met Jean Talock, who was very involved politically and also a communist She was also as Oppenheimer found out after she dumped him, probably gayWhile working on the project he found out she still loved him and 6months after they met again she killed herself 5 weeks after seeing her groves forcibly gave him security clearance Meet kitty Harrison (communist), in 1940 Oppenheimer became kitties 4th husband Later they had their first son, Peter was born and they began cutting communist tiesThey later had another child, a girlAnd a dog
  • Each scientist working on the project would be responsible for about 100 deaths
  • 98 percent of earth uranium is 238Uranium is more common than tinUses uranium in as gas form, previous to this they could only use a magnet to shed the needed 235 off the 238 they would have a trackEnriching uranium requires 1000’s of centrifuges working for months or years Before this tec. they used the magnetic diffusion and the gaseous diffusionOne uranium nugget=149 gal of oil or 1 ton of coal or 17,000 cubic ft of gas France German Japan the soviet union and every capable country began to try and achieve nuclear fusion after the news leaked out (security wasn’t tight and would later be urged to change)
  • over a million pounds of pleasure and, vaporizing the tower and everything with in a half a mileThe light for the blast would of caused temporary blindness to an 10 mile away observerJust before the atomic explosion Oppenheimer was reeding French poems and the scientists herd the frogs croaking and having sex
  • Oppenheimer studied Hindu scriptures
  • An EMP reacts with the heavy metals in the air which knockout electronics
  • The us government actually prevented Hiroshima from being reg. bombed so they could destroy it laterThis was done for scientific reasons
  • Enola Gay was the name of Tibbets mom After the bomb was released 2 shockwave hit the plain while it made its turn away mover Tinian was used for various reasons including:It was close enough The runways were long enoughAnd the runways could be fitted to load the bombsThe B-29 was a Japanese work horse it had four propellers that allowed it to fly at an altitude of 40,000ft. It had a maximum carrying capacity of 9 tons and a range of 3,750 miles
  • Purple=only man to fly on both missions yellow/gold= the people who knew the perpous of the mission * Are regulars
  • It joined a ball and a plug so there was maximum contact
  • The compression waves (2) pushed the plain 9 milesThe Enola gay crew could see the city of fire from 30 miles awayPeople flocked to the river, the death and bodies turned it into stixThe area had 200 doctors before the attackThe area also had 45 hospitals, only 3 were usable
  • The first bullet is relative to 2 foot ball fields
  • Blues are additional membersPurple attended both missions
  • It was an implosion bomb a bunch of explosive lenses surrounded a ball of plutonium that would detonate and squeeze it togetherScientists didn’t know it would work: it would have to be timed exactlyisotopeis- + Greek topos place
  • Germany discovered this first
  • The medical college stood 600 yd from the center and 198 died in it The penitentiary stood 300 yd from the center and 140 prisoners died in their cells
  • The broadcast was the first time the Japanese ever herd there emperors voice
  • Oppenheimer opposed the test and even wrote a letter to TrumanTruman disowned the letter and caller him “that crybaby scientist”Bikini is between Japan and HawaiiThey actually had to ask the native people to move his people It was June 30th 1946 at 5:30Smoke was 90 miles high
  • The placed these animals here to test how a person could shield himself from the blast
  • Project names sometimes are like car model names, they don’t mean any (legacy, avenger)
  • An EMP reacts with the heavy metals in the air which knockout electronics
  • In 1949 Russia gets the bomb and every one in scared, for years there has been a balanceRussia had the men and we had he bombWhen Russia gets the bomb were are kind of like o crap we don’t have our power anymore.Julius Rosenberg and his wife, Etha, gave Russia nuclear knowledge, they were then given the electric chair at sing-sing prisonJulius went first somberly and never said a wordEtha went second and after a shock the straps were taken off only to find she was still alive. She then had to be re-strapped to be killed. A plume of smoke came from her head and after 2 jolts she was dead, officiallyThere 2 children were now orphans
  • SALT= Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Oppenheimer wanted to nationalize the knowledge of atomic weapons for security purposes
  • For people close enough their skin would turn into carbon
  • The radiation burns the back/retna of your eye Fire storms would also form which is when the fire s consume massive amounts of oxygen and the uneven air flow causes a kind of fire tornado
  • the radiation on the edges would of been = to 1,000's of chest x-raysAlfa and Beta partials can only enter through breaks in your skin, cuts mouth ect.if the radiation is intense enough it will look like a burn you could get cancer 20-30 years laterThe vary cells you need to heal are dying Blisters will form- layers of skin will shed off- your body is preparing to shut down

History proj. History proj. Presentation Transcript

  • By : Matt Hutchinson Honors History 9 1936-1940 80 years ago
  • “When you see something that is technically sweet, you goahead and do it, and you argue about what to do about itonly after you have had your technical success. That is theway it was with the atomic bomb.” -J. Robert Oppenheimer“The world is a very different one now. For man holds in hismortal hands the power to abolish all forms of humanpoverty, and all forms of human life.” -Kennedy
  • What are the physics behind the atomic bomb andhow has it changed the world politically?
  •  In the fall of 1939 Edward Teller drove Leo Szilard to Einsteins Long Island house; in his hand he held a letter that urged president Roosevelt to stockpile uranium and further research in radioactivity. despite Einsteins pacifist nature he signed the letter after Szilard reasoned that many more lives would be lost if Germany had the technology upon receiving the letter Roosevelt formed the advisory committee on uranium to determine if a bomb could be constructed our of fissionable material
  •  On October 21, the committee held a meeting and determined that it would be possible to construct a bomb out of uranium and perhaps a workable device could be built by the wars end US Army Corps of Engineers was given the job of construction. And lead by Major General Lesley R. Groves
  •  In June 1942 the Manhattan District was created to test and confirm the feasibility of the theory of an atomic bomb. This theory earlier theorized in the 1930’s It spanned more than 30 sites
  •  Oakridge- contained a Graphite reactor, built in 1943 and produced the first significant amounts of plutonium. It also contained a K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building and Y-12 Beta-3 Racetracks that contained the necessary equipment to separate the uranium isotopes.
  •  Hanford Washington- contained the B Reactor the world’s largest-scale plutonium production reactor and the T plant Los Alamos New Mexico- the main Building site of the Manhattan Project and location of Project-Y Oakridge Tennessee- worked on uranium separation
  •  Oppenheimer was the director of the Manhattan district he was also a theoretical physics teacher at the University of California Aside from his work on the atomic bomb he is recognized for his work on molecular wave functions, the theory of electrons and positrons, the Oppenheimer Phillips process, nuclear fusion, his theorys on Neutron stars and black holes as well as quantum mechanics and more  Given clearance July 20, 1943
  •  He was the child of a German textile owner and a Boston painter He grew up vary secluded and alone as a sickly child He graduated valedictorian and went to Harvard, during with time he never had a date He became fascinated with minerals at the age of 5, specifically crystals He was a chronic depressant and jerk but found peace at “hot dog”
  •  It employed more than 130,000 people at the cost of $2 billion US dollars (in todays terms roughly $24.4 billion) Over 90% of the cost was for building factories and producing the fissionable materials With less than 10% for development and production of the weapons
  •  Scientists had the problem of how to actually obtain the radioactive matter (uranium-235) They tried a multitude of methods for extracting the needed uranium-235 from its chemically identical twin, uranium-238  The ratio from uranium ore to uranium metal is 500:1 and 99% of the uranium is uranium-238 They tried multiple methods such as diffusing it through the means of gas a magnetic methods, but finally succeeded when they tried the use of the centrifuge
  •  On July 16, 1945 at 5:29 am the first atomic weapon was detonated It was dropped from a 100 foot tower producing a yield 200 times grater than the 100 ton TNT test Produced a crater half mile across and fused the desert sand into a green glass that still holds trace amounts of radiation to this day 30,000 ft
  • “few people laughed few people cried most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the book of Bhagavad Gita, Vishnu is trying to persuade the prince to do his duty, and to impress him he takes on his multi armed form and says I have become death the destroyer of worlds I suppose we all thought that one way or another.” - Oppenheimer
  • Fat manLittle Boy
  • NagasakiHiroshima Kokura
  •  Was a uranium-235 bomb weighing in at 8,800 lb. It was carried by a B-29 bomber named Enola Gay from Tinian to the 7th largest Japanese city of Hiroshima on August 6 1945 at 8:15 it was dropped and exploded 3 seconds later It was dropped at an altitude of 31,000ft and detonated at 1,850 ft. 5 square miles were destroyed and an estimated 120,000 died as a result of the blast (40% of the city’s population) Roughly 70,000 buildings were destroyed of the 76,000 buildings “The city was hidden by an awful cloud, boiling up, mushrooming, terrible and incredibly tall” -Colonel Tibbets
  •  Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr. (1915-2007) – Pilot and Aircraft commander Captain Robert A. Lewis (1917-1983) – Co-pilot; Enola Gays assigned aircraft commander* Major Thomas Ferebee (1918–2000) – Bombardier Captain Theodore Van Kirk (1921-) – Navigator U.S. Navy Captain William S. Parsons (1901–1953) – Weaponeer and bomb commander. Lieutenant Jacob Beser (1921–1992) – Radar countermeasures Second Lieutenant Morris R. Jeppson (1922–2010) – Assistant weaponeer Technical Sergeant George R. Caron (1919-1995) – Tail gunner* Technical Sergeant Wyatt E. Duzenberry – Flight engineer* Sergeant Joe S. Stiborik (1914-1984) – Radar operator* Sergeant Robert H. Shumard (1920-1967) – Assistant flight engineer* Private First Class Richard H. Nelson (1925-2003) – VHF radio operator*
  •  A=TriNitroToluene B=plutonium The energy source is a mass of radioactive material such as uranium or plutonium. This material is very unstable; every atoms nucleus is ready to fall apart or decay at the slightest metaphorical bump, releasing the energy that was used to hold the atom together and extra neutrons. (B) is given that bump by the outer casing (A), which explodes all around it.
  •  In order to drop the bomb the “gun” method was utilized  It involved a uranium plug being shot by an artillery gun into a stationary uranium sphere at 3,000ft per second to achieve critical mass  The 2 halves of the critical mass are joined together to result in an explosionCritical mass=the minimum amount of energy needed for a nuclear reaction
  •  Within an 1,000 yard radius human bodies literally melted in a temperature of about 5,432 degrees Fahrenheit Further away a compression wave destroyed their internal organs Survivors would have staggered around, stripped of their cloths and their skin flayed. Some fell dead as they walked 90% of the doctors were killed Each day 2,000 people died
  •  The bomb exploded within 550 ft of its target The width of the fire ball = 18,000 ft 4 miles square, in the 40,000ft high citys center the ground was charred
  •  President Truman was eating lunch when he was handed a decoded message “results clear cut, successful in all respects.” That afternoon Truman gave a warning to the Japanese  "If they do not now accept our terms, they may expect a reign of ruin from the air the like of which has never been seen on this earth.”
  •  3 days after Hiroshima was bombed the Soviet Red army entered the Japanese healed territory of Manchuria.  They did this not to cease hostilities but to gain territory. Defeat was imminent for Japan Emperor Hirohito even admitted “it is necessary to study and decide the termination of the war”
  •  Was an plutonium-239 bomb weighing in at 10,200 lb It was carried by a B-29 named the Bocks Car from Tania and was intended to be dropped on the city of Kokura on August 9 1945 11:02 Due to the obscuring cloud cover the bomb had to be dropped on its secondary target, the southwestern port of Nagasaki The city was sheltered by hills but it still killed an estimated 74,000 from a population of only 270,000
  •  Maj Charles W. Sweeney, aircraft commander Capt Charles Donald Albury, co-pilot (pilot of Crew C-15) 2nd Lt Fred Olivi, regular co-pilot Capt James van Pelt, navigator Capt Kermit Beahan, bombardier Master Sergeant John D. Kuharek, flight engineer SSgt Ray Gallagher, gunner, assistant flight engineer SSgt Edward Buckley, radar operator Sgt Abe Spitzer, radio operator Sgt Albert Dehart, tail gunner CDR Frederick L. Ashworth (USN), weaponeer LT Philip Barnes (USN), assistant weaponeer 2nd Lt Jacob Beser, radar countermeasures
  •  B=the central core made up of trillions hydrogen isotopes called deuterium and tritium. A= Small atomic bombs cause the deuterium and tritium to be squeezed into a very dense mass, which causes nuclear fusion, releasing great quantities of energy. C= bomb casing, which is made from uranium, undergoes fission, creating even more energy. In other words, an atomic bomb sets off a fusion bomb, which also triggers another atomic bomb!
  •  The block of deuterium and tritium atoms are squeezed into a super-dense mass. Nuclei of these two isotopes are squeezed together by the force of the explosion. The force is so great that it causes the nuclei to combine. But this new nucleus requires less energy to keep it together, and there is one less neutron needed. This excess energy, and the neutron, escapes as radiation. Example; not always as shown
  •  The bomb exploded several miles from its target 45,000ft high
  •  The same day of the Nagasaki attack the Japanese prime minister asked emperor Hirohito to decide on the issue of surrender On August 14 the emperor made a radio broadcast telling the Japanese to lay down their arms On August 28 Douglas McArthur, supreme Allied commander of the Pacific, arrived at Japan with his occupying army “Something huge had just cracked… the proud dream of greater Japan” -Robert Guillino (French reporter)
  •  On September 2 the Japanese instrument of surrender was signed the battleship the USS Missouri Japan was no longer a sovereign nation its own administration was in the hands of the occupying government Representatives came from Britain, Australia and New Zealand, the empire was to be broken up
  •  The US was to have authority in several strategic Pacific islands and to supervise the South Korean Government they also provided the effective distribution of supplies The soviet union was allowed to keep its conquests in Manchuria, North Korea and Kuril The Republic of China was to take Taiwan A tribunal was established to put leading Japanese military leaders on trial for war crimes
  •  11 months after the detonation of “Fat Man” operation crossroads was put into action. The test was carried out in order to determine if an American naval fleet could survive an atomic blast. They situated 200 German, Japanese and American ships and 140 planes in Bikini bay and waited to detonate atomic bombs number 4 and 5  Able- would be dropped from a B-29  Baker-would be detonated 90ft below the water
  •  200 goats 200 pigs 4,000 rats
  •  They positioned the ships and placed animals on oars in order to test the effect the blasts would have on organic mater. After the bombs were dropped and detonated they concluded that no organism could survive the blast and that a submerged bomb did much more damage.  They also concluded that when a atomic bomb goes off the area becomes a bit radioactive
  •  The objective was to test and perfect atomic bomb designs An island 200 miles west of Bikini was used as a research facility. They gathered samples for ground 0 in order to test the radiation content.
  •  These samples played a curtail role in design improvisation, the fat man and little boy designs were soon obsolete. Projects:  Green house  Ivy- full scale H bomb  Ob shot knot hole- a series of 11 atomic bomb tests in Nevada, including the first atomic canon  Castle-bravo- the largest atmospheric bomb ever detonated in U.S. history  Operation wigwam- the deep underwater portion of Operation Cross Roads (11 years later)
  •  Today 9 countries have nuclear weapons amongst those countries are the Koreans, Russians, Americans and the French After the Cuban Missile crisis, the USSR and United States along with the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency opened negotiations aimed at limiting the threat of nuclear war. They started negotiating a way to limit the scope and dangers posed by the global atomic arms race.
  •  1945 US- 9,400 1849 Russia-13,000 1952 UK-185 1960 France- 300 1964 China-240 1967 Israel-80 1974 India-70 1990 Pakistan-70 2006 North Korea-<10
  •  Partial Test Ban Treaty – 1963-prohibits nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and underwater. (not France or China) Non-Proliferation Treaty – 1968-Made it illegal for possessing countries to share info. Or technology on nuclear bombs SALT I- 1969-1972- aimed to limit and restrain land and submarine based nuclear weapons, a 5year agreement to limit construction of intercontinental missile sites ad other nuclear missile sights
  •  Antiballistic Missile Treaty – 1972- between us & Russia, restricted the development of defensive missiles and allowed each country to have only 2 launch stations. SALT II - 1972-1979- intended to lengthen the 5 year treaty from SALT I, and also put a more long lasting agreement in place Threshold Test Ban Treaty – 1974- Prohibited underground nuclear weapons testing exceeding 150 kilotons
  •  In the first millionth of a second the fire ball would be 500 meters across Within 10 seconds it would grow to one mile The temperature would rise to 20 million degrees Fahrenheit (hotter than the surface of the sun) The blast would generate winds traveling at 60 miles an hour, destroying everything in its path (dissipates) 10’s of city blocks would be melted, the trees, the people the cars even the upper level of the earth Everyone within a 5 mile radius will die
  •  People who are lucky enough to be 8 or 9 miles away would experience it as a blast with window shards traveling at more than 100 miles an hour 100,000’s of fires would join together in one big fire storm for miles across and ignite everything flammable for 11 miles across, devouring massive amounts of oxygen Everyone looking in the direction of the blast would be blinded. Your lungs and eardrums would rupture from the pressure
  •  If doctors could get there in time they would be treating injuries such as broken bones from people being thrown into buildings and crushed form debris, 3rd degree burns The body does have a repair rate for radiation but the doses would be so sudden and great that it would overwhelm the body Their would be public panic with people worrying if there next
  •  Why is it that even though America is the only country that has used the bomb in a war and yet Americans seem to be the ones most concerned about preventing other countries from getting that technology? And Should other countries get nuclear weapons?
  •  Do you think that the A bomb was a good thing and benefited the nation/world?
  • The bomb operates on the fissionable material ofuranium and plutonium to produce a chain reactionof radiation. It has also allowed countries such asChina, North Korea, Russia and America to utilize thefear of nuclear war as a political weapon. Fear after allis the most powerful weapon.