What was the Apartheid in South Africa?O Racial Segregation between the 4 main racial groups O White (Afrikaans), Native (Blacks) , Colored, and Indian O Colored-Mixed European and African O Native-BlacksO Identity Cards given to 18 and older O Prevent migration & Control the Population
Goals of the ApartheidO Placement of People by race O Coloreds were affected by this because it broke families apartO In 1951 the government allowed whites to destroy black’s slums O For Blacks who were permitted to live there OR O Reserved for Whites
Goals of the Apartheid continuedO Prohibited interracial marriageO Interracial sex was a criminal offenseO Municipal Grounds were reserved for a Race
Goals of the Apartheid continuedO Education was segregated O 1953 Bantu Education Act O Aimed blacks to be laboring class O Worse Education than the AfrikaansO Proposed African self government… Never went through
Goals of the Apartheid continuedO Black Homeland Citizenship Act of 1970 O Black were no longer citizens O Only of the 20 autonomous territories O Lebowa, QwaQwa, Bophuthatswana, KwaZul a, KaNgwane, Transkei, Ciskei, GazanKula, V end, and KwaNolebete
Goals of the Apartheid continuedO Black women had few to no rights O Worked as agricultural or domestic O Jobs hard to find O Low wagesO Children suffered from disease from malnutrition & sanitary problemsO Sports O First divided by race O Soccer leagues
CensorshipTo end the extra-parliamentarymovement, African National Congress(AFC), and to erase public memory.O TV was introduced in 1976 O English programming was a so-called threat to their African language
Nelson Mandela’s tacticsO Joined the African National Congress in 1944 O Resistance of the Apartheid O Outlawed in 1960 O He co-founded The Umkhonto We Sizwe in 1961 (means Spear of the Nation) O Wanted to solve political issues O In 1961, guerrilla attacks were initiated, but he was put on trial. ANC eventually became the main mass resistance again.
ArrestO Mandela was on the run for 17 monthsO on august 5, 1962 he was arrested in the Johannesburg Fort. O The CIA helped locate himO On October 25, 1962 he was sentenced to 5 years in prison O Members of the ANC were arrested during his imprisonment
The Rivoni TrialO The government proposed that the Umkhonto We Sizwe had too many violent tactics and plotted to overthrow the government.O June 12, 1964, 8 members & Mandela were convicted to life in prison.
ChargesO Recruitment of training of those who were going to create acts of sabotage O Mandela organized sabotage campaigns against military & the governmentO Aid of foreign military unites when they invaded the republicO Further objects of CommunismO Receiving and Soliciting money in other African nations
Statement at Docks Summary He was a prisoner for leaving the country without the permit and telling people to go on strike. The statement that the country is notunder the influence of foreigners or communists is incorrect. He did what he did because of his experience as an African, not when an outsider did. Stories he listened to when he was a boy inhis tribe, and heard all of the powerful names of his people who protected the entire Africannation. He wanted to make his own contribution of their freedom struggle. He did plan to sabotage as a result of a calm and sober assessment of his people by the whites
Statement at Docks SummaryHe thought the cruelty and violence towards his people was inevitable. He said that it would eventually lead to terrorism andbitterness throughout all races of the nation. There had to be violence so the African can succeed. He tried at first to avoid violence, but he had to fight violence with violence when the whites used that tactic against them. They were not engaging interrorism. He believes that Africa belongs to all groups and not a specific race.
Life in PrisonO Endure hard labor for the first 5 yearsO Blacks and political prisoners received the fewest rations of food O Political Prisoners- someone who s imprisoned due to opposing or criticizing the government.O Became a national symbol as an anti- apartheid movement
Release from Prison 27 years laterO Released on February 11, 1990 in Cape Town O Apartheid laws were not so strict anymoreO He celebrated in front of a crowd of thousandsO He was quickly elected president of the ANCO “Our march to freedom is irreversible”
Aftermath for South Africa/MandelaO Chris Hani (a leader of the ANC) was assassinated in 1993 O Riots in the streets broke out O Mandela told them that South Africans need to stand together as nation right now so we bring him to justice.
Aftermath for South Africa/MandelaO Nelson Mandela served a one term presidency from 1994 to 1999 (75-80 age) O 1st person who was not black to be head of state O 1st multi-racial election O Election ended the Apartheid O Won 62% of the voteO Retired before a second term because of his old age
Mandela’s ReformsO Free health care (to those who needed it)O Increase of spending on educationO The Land Restitution Act made blacks get their land lost from them the Natives Land Act back.O Easier availability for O water, medicines, free meals for students, construction of 750,000 houses, social assistance, and a number of others
Was the Apartheid like The Civil Rights Movement?
The Albany MovementO 1961- 1962O Martin Luther King J.R. and more than a thousand blacks were jailed
GoalsO To desegregate Albany, GeorgiaO To set up voter registration boothsO To gain control of the local governmentO Improvement of black neighborhoods
How it BeganO Charles Sherrod, Cordell Reagon, and Charles Jones arrived to set up a voter register drive O Part of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) O SNCC challenged segregation policiesO Meetings and protests O 500 jailed
In TroubleO Decided to call Martin Luther king Jr. O To keep the protester’s desire O To create an even bigger crowdO Spoke at a meeting and marched to City Hall O Next day he was jailed
ReleaseO Accepted bail O Whites in power refused to agree to the movement’s goalsO Returned to Albany the next summer for the convictions O Chose jail instead the payment of the fines O White lawyer paid their fines O Along with Ralph Abernathy ( a civil rights leader)
King’s StayO King brought his SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) to help the movementO The chief of Police (Laurie Pritchett) knew of King’s non-violent acts O Decided to retaliate the same way O Instead jailed more and more marchers O No more room for them in Albany or other counties O City refused to jail King
Aftermath for KingO King said it was a lost victory O Helped motivate and learn from his mistakes to prepare for the Birmingham that eventually became a success
Aftermath for AlbanyO Businessman Thomas Chatman got enough votes for a city commission O Forced a run off election O Next spring, racism was removed form books
Aftermath for GeorgiaO In Southwest Georgia, cities and towns challenged the white powerO Segregation laws were overturned O Ex: courts made buses available for everyoneO In the 60s and 70s schools integrated O White families started to attend private academies
Research Question How has the imprisonment of NelsonMandela and his anti-apartheid movementcompare to the Civil Rights Movement in America throughout the 60s?
Research Question AnswerNelson Mandela wanted equal rights between the 4race groups of the South African Nation. He wantedthe social, economic, and physical hardships to stopso everyone can have a brighter future, and a betterreason to live. He fought so hard, that he wasimprisoned for 18 years. Although he stumbled uponthis obstacle, the South African Apartheid ended withthe help of his organizations.Like the civil rights movement throughout Americain the 60s, leaders and activists wanted to stop theseracist antics as well. They were punished with jailtime like Mandela and even death, but theyeventually ended racist laws in America.
Oral History of Mr. Richard WilsonMandela’s struggle to achieve rights for “Bantu” people inSouth Africa is very similar to that of the Civil Rights of“Blacks” in America in a number of ways. First Mandelamuch like Malcolm X chose a path of public resistance toachieve his goal. Like the Malcolm X phrase “by any meansnecessary” Mandela was prepared to die for the cause (onecould argue the same about Dr. King however he pushed fora more nonviolent approach as did Desmund Tutu). The useof government forces to brutally suppress the resistance andtorture those who fought against the government’s raciallybiased polices convinced the many that a violent solutioncould succeed where non-violence had failed. Secondly, hewas an advocate for desegration and pushed for democraticsolutions to achieve equality. Finally Mandela’simprisonment (Like Dr. King and other Civil Rightsadvocates) became a symbol of the struggle uniting manythat would have otherwise abandoned the cause.
Did the African National Congress and eventually the UmkhontoWe Sizwe, help the South Africans end this apartheid movementor only create a bigger problem between the Natives, Afrikaans, Coloreds, and the Indians of the nation? First and foremost this organization was classified as a “terrorist group.” That label certainly shed a dark shadow on their overall cause, “desegration” thus further dividing those who favored a more non-violent approach. Afrikaaners certainly used this to demonstrate the need to keep the races separate. The ANC did (at least on paper) bring about the desegration in South Africa. The larger issue was the development of SOWETO’s that segregated based on economics. However in reality the poor in South Africa were indeed “Black.” This became a type of instutionalized segregation based on economics but certainly reflected color. As in America instutionalized segregation causes the poor to become frustrated and disinfranchized and their protest methods usually involve violence. Therefore my contention is that it actually did little to change much of anything in South Africa.
Was the Albany Movement successful for Albany, Georgia, or was it a fail like Dr. Martin Luther King said? Why?The SNCC (Student Nonviolent CoordinatingCommittee) encouraged black activism and gavelegitimacy to the movement. However, very fewconcessions were given by local governmentagencies to the black population. In my opinion themovement attempted to focus not on specific issuesbut segregation as a whole. In other words it wastoo big of a topic and thus meet with resistancefrom state and local governments. Thus I tend tosupport Dr. Kings assertion that the movementfailed it achieved little to change the serrationspractices in Albany.
Oral History for Matt RehmnNelson Mandela was imprisoned by thegovernment in an attempt to reduce his influenceand the influence of the ANC in the same way thatstate and federal governments attempted toreduce the influence of the leaders of the civilrights movement in the United States. There wereplots by the government to assassinate Mandelaand many people believe that the government wasinvolved in some of the political assassinationsthat occurred in the United States during the civilrights movement.
Did the African National Congress and eventually the UmkhontoWe Sizwe, help the South Africans end this apartheid movement or only create a bigger problem between the Natives, Afrikaans, Coloreds, and the Indians of the nation? That’s very difficult to say and there is no definitive answer. The African National Congress clearly helped but there is debate about Umkhonto we Sizwe. Mandela made it clear that the support of MK policies of violence came only after all efforts at peaceful protest and efforts at change had failed. The violence used by MK definitely created problems for them in that they lost some support from other groups. At the same time, others would say that a people can only be expected to tolerate oppression for so long and it is to be expected that they will take-up arms against their oppressors eventually.
Was the Albany Movement successful for Albany, Georgia, or was it a fail like Dr. Martin Luther King said? Why?I think whether you feel the movement failed or notdepends on your perspective. From Dr. King’sperspective in the moment and while the majorachievements of the civil rights movement were stillwell-off in the future, it is easy to understand why aperson might look at the movement as a failure. Iflooked-at from a current perspective, I think themovement was one step that had to happen in order tobegin the erosion of racist and oppressive policies andopinions. While the movement didn’t achieve all of itsgoals, it played a significant role in drawing publicattention to the wrongs that were occurring and setthe wheels of change in motion.