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The decline and fall of the roman republic
The decline and fall of the roman republic
The decline and fall of the roman republic
The decline and fall of the roman republic
The decline and fall of the roman republic
The decline and fall of the roman republic
The decline and fall of the roman republic
The decline and fall of the roman republic
The decline and fall of the roman republic
The decline and fall of the roman republic
The decline and fall of the roman republic
The decline and fall of the roman republic
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The decline and fall of the roman republic

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  • 1. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic 82b.c.- 27 b.c. FROM SULLA TO AUGUSTUS
  • 2. Historical Background
    • ~1100 B.C Aeneas Founds what would become Rome. Descended from the goddess Venus.
    • 753b.c. Rome founded by Romulus – begins “Etruscan line of Kings”.
    • Romans despise Monarchy – depose last of Etruscan kings “Tarquinius Superbus” by force.
    • In place of of Monarchy – establish a Republican form of gov’t 509b.c. – that is - 2 consuls and a senate. System of “checks and balances”. No one person could have too much power.
  • 3. Rome as World Leader
    • Punic Wars (264-202b.c.) Rome Established a “World” superpower.
    • Occupied Hispania, Gallia, Britannia, Italia, Africa, Graecia, and Asia(minor)
  • 4. Political Turmoil
    • Even though the Republic had a system of “checks and balances” – there was always constant struggle over how much control or power a leader could gain – without being too powerful or “Kingly”.
  • 5. Rise of Sulla
    • 83-82b.c. L. Cornelius Sulla wages a civil war on Rome.
    • 81b.c. Sulla appointed dictator and reforms the constitution .
    • Remember Cinicinnatus!
    • 79b.c. Sulla resigns the dictatorship – over amount of turmoil it created – yet the precedent was set.
  • 6. Pirates and Spartacus
    • 75 b.c. Caesar captured by pirates .
    • 73-71b.c. Slave war of Spartacus .
    • Forms a bond with Pompey the Great – one of the generals who helped defeat Spartacus – important political union.
    • The 6,000 survivors are crucified down the length of the Via Appia.
  • 7. Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great
    • 67b.c. The tribune A. Gabinius passes a law. This gives a command to Gn. Pompeius Magnus , who is given unlimited imperium on water to fight against the growing pirate menace .
  • 8. Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great
    • 62b.c .Pompey settles matters in the east, returns to Italy and disbands his army.
    • 59b.c. Caesar elected Consul and the First Triumvirate is formed by M. Licinius Crassus , Gn. Pompeius Magnus and G. Julius Caesar.
    • Pompey marries daughter of Caesar. (Julia) 59b.c.
  • 9. Caesar and The Gallic Wars 58-51b.c.
    • Caesar elected Consul in 59b.c.
    • He has risen to unparalleled authority in Rome.
    • Must serve a as a Pro-consular governor in Gaul for 1 year before he can return to Rome.
    • He decides to invade Gaul – so that he is not forgotten.
    • “ Gallic Commentaries” are reports sent back to Rome as “Propaganda”.
    • Caesar’s legend and popularity grows back in Rome.
  • 10. Caesar “Crosses the Rubicon”
    • 52b.c. Caesar builds two sets of fortifications 42 miles and lays Siege to Alesia . With approximately 42,000 men, Caesar besieges 100,000 Gauls within the fort and holds out 250,000 men in a relief force on the outside. This ends war.
    • Caesar still must serve his one year of Pro-consular governorship before going back to Rome.
    • Faces a big decision (Sulla) whether or not to declare civil war on Rome.
  • 11. Caesar “Crosses the Rubicon”
    • 49b.c Caesar crosses the Rubicon . Declares Civil War.
    • 49-45b.c Civil War between Populares “outlaw” Caesar and Optimates forces of Pompey.
    • Pompey defeated at Battle of Pharsalus in 48b.c. Pompey escaped but was captured and decapitated by King Ptolemy XII of Egypt.(Cleopatra)
    • 45b.c. Civil War ends at Battle of Munda – Caesar back in control of Rome.
  • 12. End of the Republic – Beginning of the Empire
    • 44b.c Caesar appoints himself “Dictator Perpetuum” – Dictator for Life.
    • 44b.c. Ides of March . March 15, Caesar murdered by Brutus, Cassius, and their co-conspirators acting for the Optimates. Octavian returns from Greece.
    • 27b.c. Octavian named Augustus and is officially the first Emperor of Rome.

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