Public and Professional
  Vocabularies: Comparing user
tagging with museum documents
       and documentation


          ...
research question

Can social tagging and folksonomy
   improve online access to art
            collections?
Research Questions


         gilded
         animal
        bejeweled
          antler
         rearing
          deer
  ...
Research Questions
research questions:
social tagging and folksonomy analysis


                    users                 ...
Research Questions




Who tagged What?
Research Questions
research questions:
social tagging and folksonomy analysis


                    users                 ...
Research Questions: Tagging

                              Multi-Institutional Tagger: Works by Institution
              ...
Research Questions: Tagging




Characterizing Tagging: Works Tagged
Research Questions: Tagging
research questions:
social tagging and folksonomy analysis


                    users        ...
Research Questions: Tagging
research questions:
social tagging and folksonomy analysis


                    users        ...
Research Questions: Tagging




        Multi-Institution Tagger                      Single-Institution Tagger

 # of    ...
Research Questions: Tagging


             total tags              distinct tags

 90.0


 67.5


 45.0


 22.5


   0
   ...
Research Questions: Tagging




Characterizing Tagging: Compare Registered | Unregistered
Research Questions: Tagging


                  Multi-Institutional Tagger: Sessions per Registered User


               ...
Research Questions: Tagging
                                           Multi-Institutional Tagger: Tags per Work, Average ...
Research Questions: Tagging




Characterizing Tagging: Vocabulary Stabilization?
Are tags new terms?
Research Questions: Museum Documentation
research questions:
social tagging and folksonomy analysis


                    ...
Research Questions: Museum Documentation




Museum Documentation: Catalogue Records On-line
Research Questions: Museum Documentation
          Museum Data      Definition                                Req. Example...
Research Questions: Museum Documentation




                                       Museum
   New Tags
                  T...
Research Questions: Museum Documentation




Do user tags differ from museum documentation?
Research Questions: Museum Documentation




Do user tags differ from museum documentation?
Research Questions: Museum Documentation




Do user tags differ from museum documentation?
Research Questions: Museum Documentation


                                                   Multi-institutional Tagger:D...
Research Questions: Museum Documentation

                                                                                ...
Research Questions: Extended Museum Documentation


Are Other Forms of Museum Documentation More
Useful?
    Genres
    ✓ ...
Research Questions: Extended Museum Documentation




I. Text mining museum extended
documentation for the sorts of terms ...
Do Museum
Professionals find tags
        useful?
Research Questions: Usefulness
research questions:
social tagging and folksonomy analysis


                    users     ...
Research Questions: Usefulness




if you found this work, using this term in a query,
             would you be surprised?
Research Questions: Usefulness




Would Terms Be Useful for Searching?
Research Questions: Usefulness




In-depth study of a sample
Research Questions: Usefulness




 In-depth study of a sample

Sample Works: Useful terms
What kinds of words
     are tags?
Research Questions: AAT/ULAN
research questions:
social tagging and folksonomy analysis


                    users       ...
Research Questions: AAT/ULAN




Are tags in Museum Vocabulary Sources?
Research Questions: AAT/ULAN




Are tags in Museum Vocabulary Sources?
Research Questions: AAT/ULAN
 Multi-institutional Tagger: Full Matches to AAT by Hierarchy




Are tags in Museum Vocabula...
Research Questions: AAT/ULAN




Are tags in Museum Vocabulary Sources?
Research Questions: AAT/ULAN




           ULAN Name: Green Terms are Unambiguous


Are tags in Museum Vocabulary Sources?
Are tags useful for
    searching?
Research Questions: Searching
  research questions:
  social tagging and folksonomy analysis


                      users...
Research Questions: Searching

                                                   New Tags




                       Tags...
Summary




85%+ Tags are Not Found in Museum Documentation
         60%+ don’t Match Vocabularies
   Most Tags Can’t Be M...
Summary




Public Vocabulary is
     Different.
   Tagging does
    Contribute.
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public and professional vocabularies: comparing user tagging with museum documents and documentation

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a presentation of research results from the steve.museum experiments, given at the NKOS workshop @ ECDL2008

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  • lots of possibility: no real answers


















































































  • term review: “if you found this work using a search on this term, would you be surprised?” Tagging tags to understand tagging

  • what are the relationships between the terms used for searching (found in logs), the tags assignedto works of art, and the words in museum documentation?


































  • what are the relationships between the terms used for searching (found in logs), the tags assignedto works of art, and the words in museum documentation?







  • Transcript of "public and professional vocabularies: comparing user tagging with museum documents and documentation"

    1. 1. Public and Professional Vocabularies: Comparing user tagging with museum documents and documentation J. Trant + D. Bearman Archives & Museum Informatics
    2. 2. research question Can social tagging and folksonomy improve online access to art collections?
    3. 3. Research Questions gilded animal bejeweled antler rearing deer Artist woman (Nationality, Dates) Title, Date Medium action Dimensions hunting Ownership Notes museum ... luxury documents dog bow horse object leaping huntress users tag J. Trant, Jan 28, 2008 based on Wyman et al. 2006, Fig.2 a model of tagging
    4. 4. Research Questions research questions: social tagging and folksonomy analysis users folksonomy vocabulary sources who assigns what kinds of terms are terms found in... how many terms? are assigned? Art and Architecture Thesaurus terms tag works of art assigned 1 museum (AAT) records Union List of Artists Names how does users' terms (ULAN) tagging differ? assigned 2 searches of art image databases works of art J. Trant, February 2008 are terms applicable to based on Trant 2006 Research Process
    5. 5. Research Questions Who tagged What?
    6. 6. Research Questions research questions: social tagging and folksonomy analysis users folksonomy vocabulary sources who assigns what kinds of terms are terms found in... how many terms? are assigned? Art and Architecture Thesaurus terms tag works of art assigned 1 museum (AAT) records Union List of Artists Names how does users' terms (ULAN) tagging differ? assigned 2 searches of art image databases works of art J. Trant, February 2008 are terms applicable to based on Trant 2006 What was tagged?
    7. 7. Research Questions: Tagging Multi-Institutional Tagger: Works by Institution [all works] 1,784 works of art The Metropolitan Museum of Art Boston Museum of Fine Arts 14% 13% Cleveland Museum of Art Tate Modern 7% 3% Skirball Denver Art Museum 1% 9% Indianapolis Museum of Art 13% San Francisco Museum of Modern Art 9% Rubin Los Angeles County Museum 6% Minneapolis Institute of Arts of Art 14% 11% J. Trant created from Sept 8, 2008 tagsPerWork-080828.xls Characterizing Tagging: Works Tagged
    8. 8. Research Questions: Tagging Characterizing Tagging: Works Tagged
    9. 9. Research Questions: Tagging research questions: social tagging and folksonomy analysis users folksonomy vocabulary sources who assigns what kinds of terms are terms found in... how many terms? are assigned? Art and Architecture Thesaurus terms tag works of art assigned 1 museum (AAT) records Union List of Artists Names how does users' terms (ULAN) tagging differ? assigned 2 searches of art image databases works of art J. Trant, February 2008 are terms applicable to based on Trant 2006 Characterizing Tagging
    10. 10. Research Questions: Tagging research questions: social tagging and folksonomy analysis users folksonomy vocabulary sources who assigns what kinds of terms are terms found in... how many terms? are assigned? Art and Architecture Thesaurus terms tag descriptive statistics: works of art (AAT) assigned 1 museum records tagger velocity Union List of Artists how does users' terms tag variation Names (ULAN) tagging differ? assigned 2 searches of art image databases Tags per work works of art # of tags # of taggers # tags per tagger J. Trant, February 2008 are terms distinct total applicabletotal to total tags distinct tags based on Trant 2006 high low average std. dev. high low average std. dev. all works work 1 work 2 work 3 Characterizing Tagging
    11. 11. Research Questions: Tagging Multi-Institution Tagger Single-Institution Tagger # of # of # of # of tags # of users # of tags works works users total distinct total total distinct total 1,784 36,981 11,944 1,621 251 56,399 21,557 690 Characterizing Tagging: Basic Descriptive Statistics
    12. 12. Research Questions: Tagging total tags distinct tags 90.0 67.5 45.0 22.5 0 multi-institution single institution Characterizing Tagging: Basic Descriptive Statistics
    13. 13. Research Questions: Tagging Characterizing Tagging: Compare Registered | Unregistered
    14. 14. Research Questions: Tagging Multi-Institutional Tagger: Sessions per Registered User 4 or more sessions 6% 3 sessions 6% 2 sessions 20% 1 session 68% J. Trant Sept. 10, 2008 created from steve_termset4-view_user080909.xls Characterizing Tagging: Sessions per Registered User
    15. 15. Research Questions: Tagging Multi-Institutional Tagger: Tags per Work, Average by Object Type number of tags per object type divided by number of works of that object type highlighted values for samples of fewer than 10 works 45 41.0 40 Average Tags / Work With Coverage: Average Tags / Work 35 Linear (Average Tags / Work) 33.4 29.8 30 28.1 27.0 26.3 24.9 25.1 24.4 25 27.1 27.0 22.3 22.2 25.1 21.2 23.4 23.7 20 22.2 21.6 20.7 17.3 20.1 16.0 15.0 15 16.4 16.0 14.5 13.4 10 5 1.5 0 s rs ks ts s gs o ia ns s s ry re er e ile h t ok de ur ed ec lo in el u th or tin ap tio xt pt ct Bo co Vi Pr w bj O M lW r in la Te ite ul Je o- og er O d al Pa Sc Al di ch at e ot n d st ix ia Au an W Ph Ar In M ar d e lit an m tli tu s U s g Co in d an w ra ts D Ar created from e iv J. Trant tagsPerWork-080828.xls at or Aug 28, 2008 ec D Characterizing Tagging: Tags Per Work by Object Type
    16. 16. Research Questions: Tagging Characterizing Tagging: Vocabulary Stabilization?
    17. 17. Are tags new terms?
    18. 18. Research Questions: Museum Documentation research questions: social tagging and folksonomy analysis users folksonomy vocabulary sources who assigns what kinds of terms are terms found in... how many terms? are assigned? Art and Architecture Thesaurus terms tag works of art assigned 1 museum (AAT) records Union List of Artists Names how does users' terms (ULAN) tagging differ? assigned 2 searches of art image databases works of art J. Trant, February 2008 are terms applicable to based on Trant 2006 Do user tags differ from museum documentation?
    19. 19. Research Questions: Museum Documentation Museum Documentation: Catalogue Records On-line
    20. 20. Research Questions: Museum Documentation Museum Data Definition Req. Example Institution The display version of your museum's name y The Metropolitan Museum of Art Image filename The name of the image file that matches this y aps854.jpg object. Institution An identifying number assigned to the object n 11479 ObjectID in your institution, other than an accession number (e.g. the record number from your collections management system). Title/Object The display for of the work's preferred Title y The Gulf Stream Name or Name. Date The display form of the work's date. y 1899 Maker/Culture The display form of the creator's [or y Winslow Homer, 1836–1910 creators'] name[s] (and dates if desired) Medium The display form of the material, support y oil on canvas and/or techniques used to make the work Dimensions The display form of the work's dimensions y 28 1/8 x 49 1/8 in. (71.4 x 124.8 cm) Object Type The type of work, e.g. painting, sculpture, y painting installation Credit Line The display form of any credit to be shown y Catharine Lorillard Wolfe Collection, Wolfe Fund, with the work of art. 1906 Copyright The Display form of any copyright statement n © Jasper Johns/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY for the work of art. Accession The accession number assigned to the work y 06.1234 Number of art in your museum Notes curatorial or other notes about the work. n The Gulf Stream was based upon studies made during Homer's two winter trips to the Bahamas in 1884–85 and 1898–99. First exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia in 1900, the picture was subsequently reworked and quot;improvedquot; by the artist. Early photographs show changes to the sea and to the back of the ship, making the composition more dramatic and vivid. The painting was shown in this state at the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh in 1900–1901, and then at M. Knoedler and Co. in New York, where the artist placed on the picture the record-asking price of $4,000. There were problems selling the work because of either its high price or its unpleasant subject matter. Homer may have reworked the painting again in the face of this criticism in order to add the rigger on the horizon that signals hope and rescue from the perils of the sea. Museum Documentation: Catalogue Records On-line
    21. 21. Research Questions: Museum Documentation Museum New Tags Tags ? Documentation Redundant tags Do user tags differ from museum documentation?
    22. 22. Research Questions: Museum Documentation Do user tags differ from museum documentation?
    23. 23. Research Questions: Museum Documentation Do user tags differ from museum documentation?
    24. 24. Research Questions: Museum Documentation Do user tags differ from museum documentation?
    25. 25. Research Questions: Museum Documentation Multi-institutional Tagger:Documentation Found in Museum Documentation Museum Terms Not Multi-Institutional Tagger: Terms Not Found in 200 150 Times Assigned 100 50 0 an s gn om si w ic da zo J. Trant created from September 18, 2008 Term termsMuseumDocumentation.xls:musdocNULL-freq Do user tags differ from museum documentation?
    26. 26. Research Questions: Museum Documentation Multi-institutional Tagger: Terms Not Found inTerms Not Found in Museum Documentation Multi-Institutional Tagger: Museum Documentation [terms assigned more than 50 times, by occurrence] 200 150 Times Assigned 100 50 0 he ct es w al an om n st e en an on re al af e y m se te fe r o e n n e ric s ul le an re rse g pe r ee n d it en n ds ye s ue nd lue ld co ck e de rk ew ca re pa w in e e rio er u tiv sk t il on ap ge der ee c ia in re er io ra r llo et a ra go hi hi at da u e va a xt fa ou io tr m m ric et rs om om nu at flo br m as b lig rv w ho tt pt tr rt bl te gr st sc ra m w w st w lig te o flo cl po ab w d sc an de la k ac bl J. Trant Term September 10, 2008 Do user tags differ from museum documentation?
    27. 27. Research Questions: Extended Museum Documentation Are Other Forms of Museum Documentation More Useful? Genres ✓ gallery label text ✓ docent tour talking points / tour scripts ✓ special exhibition catalogue entries ✓ permanent collection guidebook text ✓ curatorial analysis or notes ✓ scholarly article ✓ web site 'feature' texts ✓ audio tours or podcasts ✓ newspaper/popular article
    28. 28. Research Questions: Extended Museum Documentation I. Text mining museum extended documentation for the sorts of terms we get in tagging cannot be algorithmic II. Extended documentation is not better than online museum documentation III. Public genres of documentation are not meaningfully better than scholarly and internal for tag matches. IV. False results from Inapplicable matches if extended documentation was searched for
    29. 29. Do Museum Professionals find tags useful?
    30. 30. Research Questions: Usefulness research questions: social tagging and folksonomy analysis users folksonomy vocabulary sources who assigns what kinds of terms are terms found in... how many terms? are assigned? Art and Architecture Thesaurus terms tag works of art assigned 1 museum (AAT) records Union List of Artists Names how does users' terms (ULAN) tagging differ? assigned 2 searches of art image databases works of art J. Trant, February 2008 are terms applicable to based on Trant 2006 Do Museum Professionals Find Tagging Terminology Useful?
    31. 31. Research Questions: Usefulness if you found this work, using this term in a query, would you be surprised?
    32. 32. Research Questions: Usefulness Would Terms Be Useful for Searching?
    33. 33. Research Questions: Usefulness In-depth study of a sample
    34. 34. Research Questions: Usefulness In-depth study of a sample Sample Works: Useful terms
    35. 35. What kinds of words are tags?
    36. 36. Research Questions: AAT/ULAN research questions: social tagging and folksonomy analysis users folksonomy vocabulary sources who assigns what kinds of terms are terms found in... how many terms? are assigned? Art and Architecture Thesaurus terms tag works of art assigned 1 museum (AAT) records Union List of Artists Names how does users' terms (ULAN) tagging differ? assigned 2 searches of art image databases works of art J. Trant, February 2008 are terms applicable to based on Trant 2006 Are tags in Museum Vocabulary Sources?
    37. 37. Research Questions: AAT/ULAN Are tags in Museum Vocabulary Sources?
    38. 38. Research Questions: AAT/ULAN Are tags in Museum Vocabulary Sources?
    39. 39. Research Questions: AAT/ULAN Multi-institutional Tagger: Full Matches to AAT by Hierarchy Are tags in Museum Vocabulary Sources?
    40. 40. Research Questions: AAT/ULAN Are tags in Museum Vocabulary Sources?
    41. 41. Research Questions: AAT/ULAN ULAN Name: Green Terms are Unambiguous Are tags in Museum Vocabulary Sources?
    42. 42. Are tags useful for searching?
    43. 43. Research Questions: Searching research questions: social tagging and folksonomy analysis users folksonomy vocabulary sources who assigns what kinds of terms are terms found in... how many terms? are assigned? Art and Architecture Thesaurus terms tag works of art assigned 1 museum (AAT) records Union List of Artists Names how does users' terms (ULAN) tagging differ? assigned 2 searches of art image databases works of art J. Trant, February 2008 are terms applicable to based on Trant 2006 Could tagging improve on-line searching for works of art?
    44. 44. Research Questions: Searching New Tags Tags could Tags Redundant improve search Tags ? ? Unsuccessful Search Museum Museum Documentation Searches Terms Documentation not used in search ? Successful searches Could tagging improve on-line searching for works of
    45. 45. Summary 85%+ Tags are Not Found in Museum Documentation 60%+ don’t Match Vocabularies Most Tags Can’t Be Mined From Other Sources
    46. 46. Summary Public Vocabulary is Different. Tagging does Contribute.

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