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Mythology power point Mythology power point Presentation Transcript

  • Greek Mythology
    • Mr. Pursel’s life for 4 months...
    • Table of Contents
    • Mr. Pursel’s Wikispace
  • Table of Contents
  • My background
    • You should respect authority while questioning it. So that begs the question, “Can you trust me?” Do I really know what I’m talking about?
    • For half a year, I lived in Athens, Greece where I studied Greek Mythology as well as translated Ancient Greek into English for a book. It was an amazing experience and because of it, I have a great understanding of Greek culture, language, and specifically, the mythology.
    • Apollodorus was a famous storyteller. I spent most of my time translating his most famous work – Apolodorus βιβλιοθήκη
  • Welcome to the World of Greek Mythology
  • What is Greek Myth?
    • The simplest definition is the collection of stories that involve the polytheistic anthropomorphic dieties and the nature of the world around us. (Not very simple but it works.)
      • Polytheistic--More than one God/Goddess.
      • Anthropomorphic--Looks and acts like humans.
  • Why should we study Greek Myth?
    • Their culture has been kept alive for thousands of years through mythology.
    • Modern plays, novels, tv shows, movies, and even advertisements refer to gods, goddesses, heroes, and their stories.
    • Greek myth was very concerned with themes--overall moral or message
  • The Myth of Phaeton
  • An example...
    • The Sun was actually a God. That God’s name was Helios. Helios had a son named Phaeton (Φαέθων). Phaeton tries to take his father’s job one morning by driving the Sun Chariot (the chariot led by 4 fire horses that drags the sun through the sky). Phaeton cannot control the Chariot and ends up driving too close to the Earth. He ends up setting the Earth on fire and Zeus (Father of the Gods; Lightning is his greatest weapon) shoots down Phaeton before the whole world is aflame.
  • What was the purpose of Greek Myth?
    • Scholars debate this bitterly. There are many opinions; however, I want you to understand the two that I think are most important:
      • Aetiological Theory: Greek myth was written to explain actual events that otherwise could not have been explained . Basically the myths explained things that we explain using science. Using the Phaeton example, can you figure out the purpose of the myth using Aetiological Theory?
  • What was the purpose of Greek Myth?
    • Allegorical Theory: Greek myth was all allegorical (a story) and meant to be taken as a lesson or moral. Using the Allegorical Theory, what could be the purpose of The Myth of Phaeton?
  • Who were the major “Characters?”
    • There are 12 (13 if you count Hades) main Gods that all lived on Mount Olympus in Greece--because of this, they were named the Olympians . These--along with a few heroes--are the main characters in Greek Mythology.
  • Zeus-King of the Gods
    • He rules over all the Gods.
    • He was the God of the Sky, Lightning, Thunder.
    • His symbol is the lightning bolt.
    • He had a wife--Hera-- but that didn’t stop him from having many children with many different women--moral and immortal.
  • The Birth of Zeus
  • The Birth of Zeus
    • Zeus’s father was nervous about his children rising up and defeating him. His solution? Eat all his children (they don’t die; they just sit in his belly).
  • The Birth of Zeus
    • Zeus’s mother didn’t like that very much. Instead of giving Zeus to his father, she gives him a rock. He swallows this rock and Zeus’s mom raises him to be big and strong in a cave on the island of Crete. He grew up to defeat his father and rule over his siblings who he saved from the belly.
  • Hera
    • Hera was Zeus’s wife and--brace yourself--his sister.
    • Hera was not known to be a nice woman. Her husband often cheated and she harshly punished those women.
    • She was “in charge” of marriage and family.
    • Her symbol was the peacock.
  • Poseidon
    • God of the Sea.
    • ALWAYS represented with the Trident.
    • Brother to Zeus.
    • Fickle and difficult God to please. One minute he liked you and the next he could turn the seas against you.
  • Apollo-God of Light and Sun, Prophecy, Music, and Poetry
    • VERY complex and powerful god.
    • In charge of Delphi, Oracles, and Prophecy.
    • His symbol is the lyre--early form of the harp.
    • He has a twin sister named Artemis.
    Apollo
  • Hermes-God of Travelers & Thieves
    • His main duty was to be the messenger of the Gods.
    • He appears in more myths than any other character.
    • Always wears winged sandals and a helmet with wings.
    • His symbol is the Caduceus, or staff intwined with snakes.
  • The Myth of Pan
  • Pan
    • Hermes had a son and his name was Pan.
    • Pan was a God of Nature.
    • He had legs and horns of a goat and the rest was man.
    • When people would see him, they would run away scared. This is where we get the word “panic.”
  • Pan is in love
    • Like any Greek God, he fell in love.
    • His love interest was named Syrinx.
    • She, however, did not love him. In an attempt to escape him, she turned herself into water reeds.
    • When he saw this and heard the wind rush through the reeds, they made a beautiful sound. He cut the reeds and made pipes to always carry with him. He was then on symbolized by the Pipes of Pan.
  • Hades-God of the Underworld
    • Hades looks just like his brothers Zeus and Poseidon. The only difference is their symbol or weapon. Hades wears the helm of invisibility while Zeus has the lightning bolt and Poseidon has the trident.
    • Although he is not technically an Olympian God (because he lives in Hades), he is still listed among them because of his relationship with the others and because he is a major Greek God.
    • Kidnapped his wife Persephone.
  • Ares--God of War, Hatred, and Bloodshed
    • His chariot is driven by four black immortal horses.
    • He is always prayed to before a war.
    • His sister (Athena) is also a god of war. She is more strategy whereas Ares is all about unpredictable violence.
  • Hestia-Goddess of the Hearth/Home
    • Festivals honored Hestia first and last.
    • She never left Olympia--her home. "Zeus, driving a winged chariot, goes first, arranging all things and caring for all things. He is followed by an army of gods and spirits, arrayed in eleven squadrons; Hestia alone remains in the house of the gods." (Socrates. Plato, Phaedrus 246e).
    • Very revered because she guarded all the “innermost things.”
  • Demeter-Goddess of Seasons, Grain, Fertility
    • Bringer of the Seasons. One of the most powerful goddesses. She was easily capable of ending all life on the planet--she nearly did.
    • Her daughter--Persephone--was kidnapped by Hades.
  • The Myth of the Seasons
  • Persephone’s Kidnapping
    • Demeter’s daughter Persephone was picking flowers one day. Hades drove by and kidnapped her. Demeter was terribly upset when she couldn’t find her daughter. In her depression, Demeter caused the world to be completely barren. Helios--the Sun God--was the only one who saw the kidnapping and he told Zeus.
  • Persephone’s Kidnapping
    • Zeus sent Hermes to get Persephone back from Hades. Unfortunately, Persephone ate some pomegranate seeds. Whenever someone ate in Hades, they were permanently linked to the Underworld. This meant that Persephone must return to Hades for several months out of every year. During these times, Demeter is obviously saddened. This sadness brings winter.
    • Using Aetiological Theory, what could the myth originally have meant?
  • Athena-Goddess of wisdom, strategic battle
    • Athena was heavily involved in the naming of Athens.
    • Born from Zeus’s own head.
    • A very strong-willed and powerful goddess.
    • She is always represented by the helmet she wears.
    • She offered help to many famous warriors.
  • Athena’s Birth
  • Athena’s Birth
    • Zeus is much like his father. Zeus heard a prophecy that if he had a baby with Metis (Goddess of Knowledge), that child would become greater than him. To stop this from happening, Zeus swallowed Metis however she was already pregnant.
  • Athena’s Birth
    • Inside Zeus’s head, Metis gave birth and began making armor for her daughter. This noise gave Zeus the worst headache in history. It was so bad he had a god (who actually did it is uncertain) cut his head open with an ax. Athena lept out of his head fully grown and armed for battle.
  • The Naming of Athens
  • Naming of the City
    • Athena and Poseidon were in a competition to see who the city would be named after. Poseidon struck his trident into the ground and up sprang a small river to show the city would be blessed with naval/fishing strength. Athena struck the ground with her spear and up sprang an olive tree. The people decided Athena’s gift was better.
  • Aphrodite-Goddess of love and beauty
    • She was born from the foam near the island of Cyprus (foam= aphros in greek).
    • Married to Hephaestus so that the other Gods were not jealous and fighting over her.
    • Like Zeus, she often had relationships outside of her marriage
  • Hephaestus-God of Fire and the Forge
    • Not the most attractive god.
    • Skilled craftsman and often gave his gifts to famous warriors.
    • He walked with a limp because of a certain incident with another god.
    • He caught his wife and Ares... together by making a special net that would hold them as punishment.
  • Artemis-Goddess of children and the hunt
    • Artemis was a tough huntress woman.
    • A hunter accidently saw her as she was bathing and she turned him into a deer--he was then torn apart by his hunting dogs.
    • Artemis is Apollo’s twin.
  • Famous Heroes
  • Herakles/Hercules
    • The greatest hero in history.
  • The Labors of Herakles
    • Slay the Nemean Lion and bring back its hide.
    • Slay the 9-headed Lernaean Hydra.
    • Capture the Golden Stag of Artemis.
    • Capture the Erymanthian Boar.
  • The Labors of Herakles
    • Clean the Augean Stables in one day.
    • Slay the Stymphalian Birds.
    • Capture the Cretan Bull.
    • Steal the Mares of Diomedes.
  • The Labors of Herakles
    • Obtain the Girdle of the Amazon warrior queen.
    • Obtain the Cattle of the Monster Geryon.
    • Steal the Apples of Hesperides.
    • Capture Cerberus--guardian dog of Hades.
  • Atalanta
    • A strong woman in a literary tradition dominated by men.
  • The Race to her Heart
    • Atalanta did not want to marry. She decided to only marry the man that could beat her in a race. If the man could not, he would be killed by Atalanta. Hippomenes was a smart guy that wanted to marry Atalanta. He prayed to Aphrodite for help. Aphrodite gave him 3 golden apples. She told him to throw these apples during the race to distract Atalanta. Hippomenes won the race and Atalanta’s heart.
  • The Argonautica
    • The greatest heroes in Greek myth unite with a talking boat to help Jason steal the Golden Fleece.
  • Journey for the Golden Fleece
    • Jason leads an All-Star lineup of Greek warriors to find and collect the Golden Fleece which is guarded by a monster that has 100 eyes and never sleeps.
    • Jason meets a woman--Medea. She is an enchantress or witch. She helps Jason and the Argonauts complete their quest.
  • Nike-Goddess of Victory
  • Nike
    • Goddess of victory and strength.
    • She is a close friend of Athena--goddess of intelligence.
    • Since 1928, Olympic medals have Nike on the back.
  • Bibliography
    • Apollodorus, Apollodorus, Michael Simpson, and Leonard Baskin. Gods Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1976. Print.
    • Skidmore, Joel. Greek Mythology. Fleet Gazelle. Web. 14 Apr. 2010. <http://www.mythweb.com/>.