PREPARED FOR REPRESENTATIVE HENRY WAXMAN (CA), REPRESENTATIVE MIKE DOYLE (PA),REPRESENTATIVE LEE TERRY (NE) & REPRESENTATI...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingTable of ContentsI.       Executive Summary .....................
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingFigure 1: Commodity Flows - Truck (DOT 1998) ....................
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking  I.     Executive SummaryAt the turn of the century, the U.S....
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking    4. Hydrogen fuel cell-powered trucks outperform a conventi...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking II.     Port System DefinedIn order to understand the complex...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingMovement of Goods DefinedIn a typical port setting, the moveme...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingIn 2011, cleantech solutions are available in both the make-up...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingDiesel Engines DefinedA diesel engine is an internal combustio...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking1. Hydrogen fuel is fed into the anode of the fuel cell. Helpe...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingIII.      Problem DomainStates with relevant deep-water ports ...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingIt is not without coincidence, that the regions around the top...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingIV.      The Solution Domain: Technology that solves the dilem...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingThe heart of the hybrid hydrogen/electric truck is the softwar...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingValue Proposition 4: Lower Lifetime Cost of Ownership         ...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking           In a braking situation, an electric vehicle can    ...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingEndorsements and Validation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell-Powered Truc...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking V.         The RecommendationThe Cleantech Alliance of TTSI a...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingFigure 8: Hydrogen Pipeline Port of LA | Long Beach           ...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingThe Program CostTable 5: Itemization of Program CostItemizatio...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingRecommended State for ImplementationBased on dangerous ozone l...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingVI.     Endorsed byIn a separate communique, we will provide l...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingVII.    About the PartiesTotal Transportation Services, Inc. (...
The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingBibliographyAgency, U. S. (2008). Counties With Monitors Viola...
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Congressional Brief: Case for zero emission technology in heavy duty trucking

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Congressional Brief: U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Energy and Commerce - Case for zero-emission technology in heavy-duty trucking

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Congressional Brief: Case for zero emission technology in heavy duty trucking

  1. 1. PREPARED FOR REPRESENTATIVE HENRY WAXMAN (CA), REPRESENTATIVE MIKE DOYLE (PA),REPRESENTATIVE LEE TERRY (NE) & REPRESENTATIVE GARY MILLER (CA). The case for zero-emission technology in heavy-duty trucking A Cleantech Alliance of Total Transportation Services, Inc. & Vision Industries Corporation 12/18/2011This brief explains why deploying a fleet of zero-emission hydrogen fuel cell-powered trucks in thenation’s largest deep-water ports, to move containerized cargo, to be the only viable solution thatsolves: (a) the environmental concerns of poor air quality caused by diesel-powered trucks; (b) whileallowing the Port Systems to continue their economic relevance to the State in which they reside.
  2. 2. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingTable of ContentsI. Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................... 3II. Port System Defined ............................................................................................................................. 5 Stakeholders ............................................................................................................................................. 5 Movement of Goods Defined ................................................................................................................... 6 Trucking Defined ....................................................................................................................................... 6 Drayage Defined ....................................................................................................................................... 7 Diesel Engines Defined.............................................................................................................................. 8 Hydrogen Fuel Cells Defined ..................................................................................................................... 8III. Problem Domain ............................................................................................................................. 10 Diesel’s Negative Health Effects ............................................................................................................. 10 Environmental Impact of a Port System ................................................................................................. 10 Economic Importance of a Port to a State Government ........................................................................ 11IV. The Solution Domain: Technology that solves the dilemma .......................................................... 12 The Hydrogen Fuel Cell/Electric Hybrid Truck Explained ........................................................................ 12 Value proposition 1: Better Performance ............................................................................................... 13 Value Proposition 2: Zero-Emissions ...................................................................................................... 13 Value Proposition 3: No Noise ................................................................................................................ 13 Value Proposition 4: Lower Lifetime Cost of Ownership ........................................................................ 14 Value Proposition 5: Hydrogen Fuel Cells - A Portable Power Supply .................................................... 14 Endorsements and Validation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell-Powered Trucks .................................................. 16V. The Recommendation ......................................................................................................................... 17 The Environmental and Health Benefit................................................................................................... 17 The Benefit of Promoting the Use of a Sustainable & Alternative Energy Source ................................. 17 The Economic Benefit ............................................................................................................................. 18 The Program Cost.................................................................................................................................... 19 Recommended State for Implementation .............................................................................................. 20VI. Endorsed by .................................................................................................................................... 21VII. About the Parties ............................................................................................................................ 22Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 23 1
  3. 3. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingFigure 1: Commodity Flows - Truck (DOT 1998) ........................................................................................... 3Figure 2: A Typical Port System..................................................................................................................... 5Figure 3: Good Movement in a Typical Port (Woods, 2011) ........................................................................ 6Figure 4: 4-Stroke Diesel Engine (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011) ............................................................... 8Figure 5: Hydrogen Fuel Cell ......................................................................................................................... 8Figure 6: Air Quality Rankings (Methods, 1996) ......................................................................................... 11Figure 7: Port-wide Emissions by Source (Starcrest Consulting Group, 2011) ........................................... 17Figure 8: Hydrogen Pipeline Port of LA | Long Beach ................................................................................. 18Figure 9: Counties with Monitors Violating Primary 8-hour Ground-level Standards (0.060 –0.070 parts per million)............................................................................................................................... 20Figure 10: Proposed Zero-Emission Gate -- Attractive Adoption Catalyst .................................................. 20 2
  4. 4. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking I. Executive SummaryAt the turn of the century, the U.S. economy accounted for one-fourth (1/4) of the world’s grossdomestic product, including $4 trillion of import and export activity. The bulk of goods, enter thecountry as containerized cargo at major ports of entry.According to a U.S. Department of Transportation report, the bulk of the goods enters the United Statesfrom the West Coast and is dispersed nationally through major trucking arteries.Figure 1: Commodity Flows - Truck (DOT 1998)In the United States, the largest and busiest deep-water ports are the twin Ports of Los Angeles and LongBeach, which accounts for over $306 billion of commercial cargo, 40% of the nation’s goods movement.To move this cargo are over 16,000 heavy-duty diesel-powered trucks performing drayage service in andaround the port systems.Unfortunately, the price of this industrial production and global trade has been toxic emissions fromdiesel truck exhaust -- the leading cause of respiratory and cancer causing illnesses in the tradecorridors.Due to its economic relevance, contributing over billions of dollars in State and Local Taxes, a State, likeCalifornia, faces the dilemma of how to allow the port system to continue expanding (in order togenerate higher revenues) while complying with federal, state and local mandates to reduce harmfulemissions.The solution brought before this Congressional Subcommittee is Hydrogen fuel cell-powered trucks, forthe following reasons: 1. Hydrogen fuel cell-powered trucks are already being tested at the Port of Long Beach. 2. Hydrogen is in abundant supply at major port areas. 3. Hydrogen as a fuel, promotes the use of an alternative and sustainable energy source. 3
  5. 5. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking 4. Hydrogen fuel cell-powered trucks outperform a conventional diesel in terms of horsepower and torque. 5. Hydrogen as a fuel is half (1/2) the price of diesel, if piped-in from a nearby gas or oil refinery – a common occurrence at deep-water ports. 6. Most importantly, they emit zero-emissions.The Cleantech Alliance of Total Transportation Systems, Inc. and Vision Industries Corporation isrequesting funding assistance for one hundred Class 8 Hydrogen fuel cell / electric hybrid trucks and afueling station to service the fleet.While the initial deployment of this program is Southern California, the relevance of the cleantechsolution can be easily deployed to other national ports of entry where hydrogen is readily available, suchas Houston, Oakland, Seattle, NY|NJ and Savannah GA.This brief has the full support of fellow members of Congress, State Assemblymembers, the Mayors ofLos Angeles and Long Beach, Environmental Groups and other interested stakeholders. 4
  6. 6. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking II. Port System DefinedIn order to understand the complexity of the port problem, we must first understand the underpinningsof goods movement as it relates to the port system, truck categorization, the characteristics of drayageservice, and the technology of propulsion and power supply choices.StakeholdersThe key stakeholders within a port system: 1. Port Authorities 2. Licensed Motor Carriers (trucking fleet operators) 3. Trade Corridors 4. Communities in the trade corridors Trade Corridor Trade Corridor Port AuthoritiesFigure 2: A Typical Port SystemA typical port system has ships entering terminals to load or unload containerized cargo to licensedmotor carriers, who then take these goods to intermodal facilities and warehouses for nationaldistribution. The transportation workhorse at these port systems have been diesel-powered trucks, whomove these containers on a 24/7 basis. 5
  7. 7. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingMovement of Goods DefinedIn a typical port setting, the movement of containerized cargo comes in three categories: 1. Direct— Ship to truck to a local warehouse (or distribution center). 2. Transloaded – Ship to truck to warehouse for repackaging. 3. Intermodal – Ship to truck to a rail yard.Figure 3: Good Movement in a Typical Port (Woods, 2011) 2 3 1At a major port system, a typical truck driver spends a majority of their time waiting to load or unloadtheir cargo. Over 70% of their duty cycle is in idle mode. Unfortunately, a diesel engine does not stopemitting harmful particulates while a driver waits in line. Depending on the shipping terminal, it cantake up to one (1) hour to pick-up a single container.Trucking DefinedTrucks are defined by their combined gross vehicle weight rating (CGVWR1). In the movement ofcontainerized cargo are performed by Class 8 vehicles, CGVWR of 80,000 lbs. In its simplest form, Class8 trucks can be further broken-down into propulsion systems (motor type) and power sources thatdeploy cleantech (non-cleantech) components.1 Gross Combination Vehicle Weight Rating (GCVWR) – the maximum allowable combined weight of the towvehicle and the attached cargo container. 6
  8. 8. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingIn 2011, cleantech solutions are available in both the make-up and configuration of the propulsion(motor type) and power source.Table 1: Power Supply & Motor Choices in TruckingEnvironmental Power Supply Propulsion (motor) ChassisFactorNot Cleantech Diesel Fuel Internal CombustionCleantech Batteries ElectricCleantech Liquid Natural GasCleantech Hydrogen Fuel CellThe selection of the propulsion system and power source has everything to do with duty-cycle:  Distance traveled  Payload  Route  Idling time  Fuel availability  Fuel prices  Emission standards  Returning to a central hubDrayage DefinedIn the case of drayage service, the movement of containerized cargo is over short distances, usuallyfrom the Port to a rail yard and back.Table 2: Drayage CharacteristicsDistance traveled: < 50 milesPayload: ~60,000 lbs.Route: Port to Rail YardIdling time: 75% of duty-cycleFuel availability: Diesel (abundant)Returning to a central hub: every day 7
  9. 9. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingDiesel Engines DefinedA diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition ofa fuel mixture injected into the combustion chamber. Once the fuel has been ignited and a powerstroke has happened, emissions are expelled from the chamber. The expelled gases are carbonmonoxide, NOx and unburned hydrocarbon (HC).Figure 4: 4-Stroke Diesel Engine (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011) Toxic Exhaust NOx CO unburned hydrocarbonsAn air/fuel mixture drawn Air/fuel mixture Heat compression Exhaust valve opened. Expelled into cylinder compressed ignites mixture. Gases expelled. gasses Power.Hydrogen Fuel Cells DefinedOn the other hand, fuel cells convert chemical energy in hydrogen to electricity. Purewater and potentially useful heats are the only byproducts. (Program, 2006)Figure 5: Hydrogen Fuel Cell Byproduct 8
  10. 10. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking1. Hydrogen fuel is fed into the anode of the fuel cell. Helped by a catalyst, hydrogen molecules (H2) are split into electrons and protons.2. Electrons are channeled through a circuit to produce electricity.3. Protons pass through the polymer electrolyte membrane.4. Oxygen (from the air) enters the cathode and combines with the electrons and protons to form water.5. Water vapor and heat are released as byproducts of the reaction. 9
  11. 11. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingIII. Problem DomainStates with relevant deep-water ports face the problem of allowing a major source of revenue tocontinue operations in the face of numerous legal entanglements with environmental groups andcommunities in the trade corridors.Simply put, diesel exhaust has been proven to have direct relationship to a person’s chances ofmetastasizing respiratory and/or cardiovascular illnesses.On the other side of the ledger, a State and local governments receives billions of dollars in tax revenuefrom the port system. The ports also provide millions of jobs in a region.Diesel’s Negative Health EffectsIn 1998, California identified diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) as a toxic air contaminant based onits potential to cause cancer, premature death, and other health problems. Diesel engines alsocontribute to Californias fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) air quality problems. Those most vulnerableare children whose lungs are still developing and the elderly who may have other serious healthproblems (Board C. A., 2010).Diesel exhaust contains more than 40 toxic air contaminants. The California Air Resource Boardestimates that about 70% of the cancer risk that the average Californian faces from breathing toxic airpollutants stems from diesel exhaust particles. (California, 2001)Table 3: Health Effects Associated with Goods Movement in CA - 2005 (Angeles, 2011) Health Outcomes Cases Per Year Premature Death 2,400 Hospital Admissions (Respiratory Causes) 2,000 Hospital Admissions (Cardiovascular Causes) 830 Asthma and Other Lower Respiratory Symptoms 62,000 Acute Bronchitis 5,100 Work Loss Days 360,000 Minor Restricted Activity Days 3,900,000 School Absence Days 1,100,000Environmental Impact of a Port SystemBecause this movement of cargo is usually over pre-defined routes, on a repeated basis, municipalitieswithin these routes suffer from some of the worst air quality in the United States.Residences along these trade corridors are exposed to diesel exhaust and other vehicle emissions, noisefrom truck-congested roads, bright lights from round-the-clock operations, and other potential healththreats. 10
  12. 12. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingIt is not without coincidence, that the regions around the top-7 ports in the United States happen tohave the worst Air Quality Rankings in the nation.Figure 6: Air Quality Rankings (Methods, 1996)Economic Importance of a Port to a State GovernmentDespite its environmental and health drawback, deep-water port systems are usually a major source oftax revenues and jobs for the state and local governments in which they reside.Case in point, in a March 2007 national economic impact study by the twin ports of Los Angeles | LongBeach, reported that imports coming in through the complex generated jobs, income and tax revenuesin every state in the nation. (Hricko, 2008)Table 4 - Growth in the National Impact of Trade, 1194-2005, For Goods Using Southern Californias Trade Infrastructure Network 1994 2000 2005Total Trade $74 billion $196 billion $256 billionState and Local Taxes $6.0 billion $16.4 billion $28.1 billionJobs (Full-time Equivalents) 1.1 million 2.0 million 3.3 million 11
  13. 13. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingIV. The Solution Domain: Technology that solves the dilemmaIn a study commissioned by the twin Port of Los Angeles and Long Beach, a zero-emission solution wasthe only way that the ports will be allowed to expand its routes into new and current municipalities.In 2011, a solution was found. Through the public-private partnership between the U.S. Department ofEnergy, the twin Port of Los Angeles | Long Beach and Vision Industries Corporation, came the 1st Class 8zero-emission big-rig Hydrogen Fuel Cell / Electric Hybrid vehicle, the Tyrano™.In its simplest form, the hybrid vehicle runs on an electric motor powered by Lithium-ion batteries andHydrogen fuel cells. The Tyrano is currently undergoing drayage testing at the Port of Long Beach by anational trucking fleet operator, Total Transportation Services, Inc. (TTSI).The Hydrogen Fuel Cell/Electric Hybrid Truck ExplainedVision Industries Corporation is headquartered in El Segundo, California. Vision provides a proprietaryhydrogen/electric hybrid drive system that out-performs a conventional diesel truck.The Tyrano has: 1. Superior power (536 HP and 3,300 lbs./ft. of torque) with the; 2. Extended range provided by a hydrogen fuel cell, at a; 3. Lower cost per mile, and with a; 4. Zero-emission footprint! 12
  14. 14. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingThe heart of the hybrid hydrogen/electric truck is the software running the electronic control unit(ECU). The ECU controls all the sensors and control boxes running the:  Electric Motor (converts electrical energy to mechanical energy).  Battery Pack (giving power to the electric motor).  Hydrogen Fuel Cell (recharges the batteries).Compared to a conventional diesel truck, the Vision Tyrano, has better performance (torque andhorsepower), a lower cost of ownership and does so with a zero-emission footprint. It’s also extremelyquiet.Value proposition 1: Better Performance 2010 Diesel LNG Hydrogen FC Class 8 TruckHorsepower 450 peak 320 peak 536 peakTorque (foot/lbs.) 1,350 peak 1,000 peak 3,300 peakFuel 10,000 Gal. 16,700 Gal. 6,765 lbs.Value Proposition 2: Zero-Emissions 2010 Diesel LNG Hydrogen FC Class 8 TruckParticulates 12.37 lbs. 4.6 lbs. Zero EmissionNMHC/MHC 173 lbs. 66.5 lbs. Zero EmissionNOx 1,485 lbs. 570 lbs. Zero EmissionCO2 217,800 lbs. 142,145 lbs. Zero EmissionValue Proposition 3: No Noise 2010 Diesel LNG Hydrogen FC Class 8 TruckNoise Pollution Yes Yes No 13
  15. 15. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingValue Proposition 4: Lower Lifetime Cost of Ownership Traditional VisionsVehicle Metrics Diesel Class 8 Truck SavingsInitial Vehicle Cost 140,000 270,000 (130,000)Tax Credit for New Qualified Alt. Motor Vehicles - (40,000) 40,000Initial Net Vehicle Cost 140,000 230,000 (90,000)Service Life Fueling Costs $606,365 $229,412 $376,953Service Life Maintenance Costs $25,600 20000 $5,600Salvage Value (20,000) (20,000) -Total Ownership Cost $751,965 $359,412 292,553AssumptionsVehicle Service Life (years) 8 8Miles/Year 78,000 78,000Fuel Cost (per gallon of diesel or $/lbs. of H2) $4.47 $2.50MPG or MPP(H2) (50/50 duty cycle) 4.6 6.8Maintenance Cost/Year $3,200 $2,500Value Proposition 5: Hydrogen Fuel Cells - A Portable Power SupplyA hydrogen fuel cell-powered truck has an electric motor powered by Lithium-ion batteries. Thebatteries are constantly charged by a fuel cell that converts hydrogen gas into electricity. The batteriescan also benefit from the use of Regenerative Braking to incrementally add charge.In a hybrid hydrogen / electric vehicle, the batteries can be charged in four (4) scenarios: In the driving mode, the fuel cells could be programmed to either: 1. Recharge the batteries if its state-of- charge (SOC) was getting low, and/or; 2. Directly assist in powering the electric motor. 14
  16. 16. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking In a braking situation, an electric vehicle can be configured to take advantage of Regenerative Braking, in which the vehicles mechanical energy – during braking -- is harvested and re-routed to charge the battery. While the hydrogen / electric vehicle is parked, the fuel cell can be triggered to begin charging the batteries if its state-of-charge was low. In a typical port scenario, where the majority of a truck driver’s time is spent in a stop-and- go or queuing mode, the batteries would have ample time to regain full-charge before out- bound service is resumed. At the end of a duty-cycle, the owner- operator or fleet operator has the option to plug-in the vehicle into a power source to recharge the batteries for the next shift. The fuel cell can also be programmed to assist in charging if the vehicle were to be used in a 24/7 scenario. 15
  17. 17. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingEndorsements and Validation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell-Powered Trucks In 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy classified Federal Vision’s Class 8 Truck and Terminal Tractor as Government “Advanced & Alternative Vehicles.” In 2010, the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach separately awarded Vision Industries with a State Port contract to deliver a Class 8 heavy-duty truck for Authority demonstration and testing in revenue services. On July 18, 2011, Total Transportation Services, Inc. presented Vision Industries with a Letter of Intent to National purchase one hundred Class 8 Hydrogen Fuel Cell / Trucking Fleet Electric Hybrid trucks, with the option to purchase an Operator additional 300 units. 16
  18. 18. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty Trucking V. The RecommendationThe Cleantech Alliance of TTSI and Vision Industries is asking this Congressional Subcommittee forfunding assistance for the purchase and manufacturing of: 1. One hundred Class 8 Hydrogen Fuel Cell-Powered Trucks, and for the; 2. Construction of an on-site Hydrogen Fuel Station to service the fleet.The Environmental and Health BenefitIf 100 diesel trucks were replaced with 100 Hydrogen Fuel Cell / Electric Hybrid trucks at the Ports of LosAngeles | Long Beach, the effect would be equivalent to removing the following pounds of toxins anddiesel particulates from the air on a yearly basis:Figure 7: Port-wide Emissions by Source (Starcrest Consulting Group, 2011) Diesel PM NOx SOx CO HCa) Emissions / Yr Heavy-Duty Vehicles (tons) 28 1,523 4 352 71 Heavy-Duty Vehicles (lbs) 56,000 3,046,000 8,000 704,000 142,000 (2000 lbs / ton) Total South Coast Air Basin (tons) 271 8,216 1,339 1,936 452 Total South Coast Air Basin (lbs) 542,000 16,432,000 2,678,000 3,872,000 904,000 Percentage 10% 19% 0.3% 18% 16%b) Drayage Trucks Ports (2011) 16,000 16,000 16,000 16,000 16,000 Emissions (tons) / Yr / Diesel 0.0018 0.0952 0.0003 0.0220 0.0044 Emissions (lbs) / Yr / Diesel 3.50 190.38 0.50 44.00 8.88c) 100 H2 FC Trucks Emission Revomed (tons) / Yr 0.18 9.52 0.03 2.20 0.44 Emission Revomed (lbs) / Yr 350 19,038 50 4,400 888The Benefit of Promoting the Use of a Sustainable & Alternative Energy SourceIn today’s energy supply system, electricity, gasoline, diesel fuel and natural gas are made from theconversion of a primary energy source, such as coal, petroleum or underground methane into adeliverable form of energy.Hydrogen on the other hand can be made from a variety of energy feedstock using the resources andprocesses that are most economical preferred. (Authority, 2004) The most prevailing way to produceHydrogen is steam reforming. Steam reforming is a 70% efficient process that coverts methane (andother natural gases) into hydrogen and carbon monoxide with the introduction of steam and a nickelcatalyst. 17
  19. 19. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingFigure 8: Hydrogen Pipeline Port of LA | Long Beach Hydrogen is in abundant supply near most Ports. In the State of California, there is a 17-mile underground pipeline built by Air Products & Chemicals (NYSE: ADP). The Air Products & Chemicals’ Wilmington plant, which supplies Hydrogen to the eight (8) oil refineries within close proximity, has the capacity to produce over 800,000 lbs. of Hydrogen per day. The combined eight (8) oil refineries consume 400,000 lbs. per day, which leaves 400,000 lbs. that can be used to refuel 20,000 Hydrogen FC powered trucks.The Economic BenefitBased on fueling cost alone, one hundred Hydrogen Fuel Cell-Powered Trucks can save a trucking fleetoperator an estimated $37,695,345, over an 8 year period compared to conventional diesel trucks. Traditional H2 Fuel Cell / Single Unit 100 Unit Diesel Hybrid Electric Savings SavingsService Life Fueling Cost 8 8Miles/Year 78,000 78,000Fuel Cost (per gallon diesel, lbs. of H2) $4.47 $2.50MPG or MPP (H2) (50/50 duty cycle) 4.6 6.8Gallons/Year | lbs./Year 16,957 11,471Fuel Cost / Year $75,796 $28,676 $47,119 $4,711,918Fuel Cost Over 8 Years $606,365 $229,412 $376,953 $37,695,345 18
  20. 20. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingThe Program CostTable 5: Itemization of Program CostItemization of Program Cost Rate Units Amounts 100-unit Amount ($)Class 8 Zero-emission Truck Cost $ 270,000 1 $ 27,000,000 Direct Labor Cost / Truck ⃰ Assemblers (Rate/Hr) x 2 $ 17.00 144 $ 489,600 Fabricators (Rate/Hr) x 2 $ 17.00 144 $ 489,600 Engineering (Rate/Hr) x 2 $ 50.00 144 $ 1,440,000 Program Administration Cost $ 50,000 Total Truck Cost $ 29,469,200 ⃰ Build Cycle: 9-days per truck (8-hr work day)Itemization of Program Cost Rate Units Amounts Station Amount ($)Hydrogen Fueling Station Site Preparation $ 2,700,000 1 $ 2,700,000 Storage $ 500,000 1 $ 500,000 Dispenser $ 400,000 1 $ 400,000 Canopy $ 450,000 1 $ 450,000 Backup Reformers (500 kg) $ 2,500,000 1 $ 2,500,000 Product Compressor $ 500,000 1 $ 500,000Total Fueling Station Cost $ 7,050,000Total Funds Requested $ 36,519,200 19
  21. 21. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingRecommended State for ImplementationBased on dangerous ozone levels, the economic significance of the twin Ports of Los Angeles and LongBeach ($306B in commercial cargo), and current hydrogen infrastructure in-place, we are suggestingthat this program start in the State of California.California has the greatest number of counties who violate the 0.070 ppm standards. (Agency U. S.,2008)Figure 9: Counties with Monitors Violating Primary 8-hour Ground-level Standards (0.060 – 0.070 parts per million)On a national scale, California has led the way in cleantech adoption and innovation. They may alsohave come up with an attractive and viable zero-emission adoption catalyst, a zero-emission gate. In anOctober 2011 meeting, the Los Angeles Board of Harbor Commissioners expressed their support for thecreation of a zero-emission gate at the Twin Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach.Figure 10: Proposed Zero-Emission Gate -- Attractive Adoption CatalystThe proposed zero-emission gate will allow zero-emission vehicles faster and preferred access to theextremely over-crowded Port’s terminals, thus enabling zero-emission truck operators to double theirload transportation during the day. 20
  22. 22. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingVI. Endorsed byIn a separate communique, we will provide letters of support for this zero-emission solution from fellowmembers of Congress, State Assemblymembers, the Mayors of Long Beach and Los Angeles,Environmental Groups and other interested stakeholders.On behalf of Total Transportation Services, Inc. and Vision Industries Corporation, we thank you for yourtime and consideration. 21
  23. 23. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingVII. About the PartiesTotal Transportation Services, Inc. (“TTSI”), based in Los Angeles, Headquarters:CA, is a leading national provider of port drayage and related 18735 South Ferris Placetrucking and logistics services in the United States. Rancho Dominguez, CA 90220 (O) 310-816-0260 ‒ Provides construction support, long-haul truckload (F) 310-984-3195 brokerage and value-added warehousing services. www.tts-i.com ‒ Operations in many of the ports across the country including: Long Beach, Los Angeles, San Diego and Stockton in California and Savannah, GA and Norfolk, VA. ‒ Fifth largest provider of drayage services in the twin ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles, which service over 65% of the containers entering the United States ‒ First company to place into service a clean fleet in the Ports of Long Beach, Los Angeles, and San Diego.Vision Industries Corporation (OTCBB: VIIC), based in El Segundo, Headquarters:CA, is a developer of zero-emission hydrogen fuel cell / electric 120 Eucalyptus Drivehybrid vehicles and turnkey hydrogen fueling systems. Vision’s El Segundo, CA 90245proprietary hybrid drive system combines the superior (O) 310-450-0299acceleration of a battery-powered electric vehicle with the (F) 310-450-0202extended range provided by a hydrogen fuel cell. www.VisionIndustriesCorp.com 22
  24. 24. The Case For Zero-Emission Technology In Heavy-Duty TruckingBibliographyAgency, U. S. (2008). Counties With Monitors Violating Primary 8-hour Ground-level Ozone Standards. Retrieved December 2011, from United States Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/ozonepollution/pdfs/20100104maps.pdfAgency, U. S. (2008). Ground-level Ozone Standards Designations. Retrieved December 16, 2011, from United State Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/ozonedesignations/Angeles, P. f.-L. (2011). Health Impacts of Air Pollution Associated With Goods Movement. Retrieved December 14, 2011, from Physicians for Social Responsibility-Los Angeles : http://www.psr- la.org/issues/environmental-health/air-pollution-and-goods-movement/Associates, B. (2007). Trade Impact Study. Bothell, WA: BST Associates.Authority, N. Y. (2004). Hydrogen Fact Sheet: Hydrogen Production - Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). Albany, NY: New York State Engergy Research and Development Authority.Board, C. A. (2006). Emission Reduciton Plan for Ports and Goods Movement in California. Sacramento, CA: California Air Resources Board.Board, C. A. (2010, January 25). Diesel Programs and Activities . Retrieved December 13, 2011, from California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board: http://arb.ca.gov./diesel/diesel.htmCalifornia, C. O. (2001). Health Effects of Diesel Exhaust. Sacramento, CA: CARB Office of Environmental Health Harzard Assessment and the American Lung Association of California.Encyclopedia Britannica, I. (2011). Diesel Engine. Retrieved December 13, 2011, from Encyclopedia Britannica eb.com: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/162716/diesel-engineHricko, A. (2008, February). Global Trade Comes Home, Community Impacts of Goods Movement. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(2), 79--81.Methods, C. (1996). AirGrades. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from US Air Quality Gradebook: http://www.creativemethods.com/airquality/maps/united_states.htmProgram, U. D. (2006). Hydrogen Fuel Cells. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.Starcrest Consulting Group, L. (2011). Port of Los Angeles Inventory of Air Emissions - 2010. Los Angeles, CA: Port of Los Angeles.Woods, J. R. (2011). Frieght & Livability - The GCCOGs I-710 Freight Corridor Experience: A Path Forward. Gateway Cities, CA: Gateway Cities Council of Government. 23

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