Capacity building for 21st century learning in secondary schools in Africa

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Capacity building for 21st century learning in secondary schools in Africa

  1. 1. Symposium Capacity building for 21st century learning in secondary schools in Africa: the case of ICT integration ISATT Conference, 2 July 2013, Ghent, Belgium
  2. 2. Symposium The demands of the 21st century dictate that learners should be equipped with requisite skills to competently engage and perform in the new information age. These skills commonly referred to as 21st century skills include interalia; critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, creativity and communication (Voogt & Pareja, 2012). When the learning opportunities presented by ICT are well utilized, they have a great potential to develop 21st century skills. In view of the above, policy makers across the world expect ICT to be widely deployed for teaching and learning in primary and secondary schools (see e.g. Quality Education and Training for Vision 2030).
  3. 3. Symposium However, a simple placement of hardware and/or software will not make ICT integration naturally follow (Tearle, 2004). One of the key failures of many past programs in Africa – and the rest of the world - was that schools were provided with equipment but with little or no support for teachers’ professional development, national and local ICT policies, and/or community involvement.
  4. 4. Symposium This symposium brings together researchers who are evaluating ICT-integration in developing countries. The variety of the studies addresses many of the current issues related to the processes of and capacity building for ICT-integration. The contributors to the symposium will be invited to focus on the consequences of their study with respect to professional development and policy making. This relation fits into the conference theme “Excellence of teachers?
Practice, policy, research”. The discussion will focus on the challenges and opportunities inherent in understanding how to prepare schools in developing countries for capacity building in the field of educational ICT use. The discussion will be moderated by the discussant.
  5. 5. Symposium program • Capacity building for ICT integration in secondary schools in Kenya: an exploratory case study Jo Tondeur, Don Krug, Mike Bill, Maaike Smulders & Chang Zhu • Factors determining the pre-service and in-service teachers’ continuous use of technology after participation in professional development Ayoub Kafyulilo, Dar es Salaam University College of Education Petra Fisser & Joke Voogt, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands • Pre-service teachers’ development of technology integration competencies: insights from a mathematics-specific instructional technology course in Ghana Douglas Agyei, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana Joke Voogt, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands • Discussion Petra Fisser, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
  6. 6. CAPACITY BUILDING FOR ICT INTEGRATION ISATT - Ghent 2013 Jo Tondeur, Mike Bill, Maaike Smulders, Don Krug & Chang Zhu in Secondary Schools in Kenya: An Exploratory Case Study
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION  21st century skills > ICT-integration in education (Selwyn 2007; Voogt and Pareja 2012) “ICT-integration should support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes, to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy” (Quality Education and Training for Vision, 2030, Kenya)  A simple placement of hardware and software will not support teachers and students using ICT within educational settings. (Earle 2002)  Capacity building for ICT-integration in Kenyan schools
  8. 8. “A few years ago, the emphasis in ICT in education in Kenya has been on the provision of computers to schools, … after which it was left for individual schools to figure out what to do with the computers” Kizito Makoba, ICT Integration Team member INTRODUCTION (CON’T)
  9. 9. 1. Conceptualizing and creating capacity for the use, incorporation and integration of ICT. “What does it mean to create capacity for the use of ICT?” 2. Planning and Implementing a systems approach to integrate ICT “What does the VVOB model, MOE model, 4inB model, Ecologies of Learning approach and holistic approach look like?” 3. Examining and analyzing how to and why should ICT be integrated within school cultures. “What are the contextual forces, human and material factors and relationships associated with ICT integration?” CAPACITY BUILDING AND INTEGRATING ICT
  10. 10. CAPACITY BUILDING AND INTEGRATING ICT
  11. 11. Capacity Building and Integrating ICT 1. Digital Inquiry should include educators’ competencies and confidence in using technologies or the knowledge and skills needed to use ICT to improve learning, productivity, and performance (Becker, 2000; Wray, et al., 2000; Laferrière et al., 2001; Krug, 2002b, 2004; NEA, 2002). 2. Pedagogical practices should incorporate ICT to engage learners in problem-posing, problem-solving, decision making and other 21st Century Learning competencies through face-to-face and online flexible, formal and informal learning spaces. 3. Teacher’s should strive to develop a philosophy that embraces change and life-long-learning, and ability to not only know about, plan and implement the use and incorporation of ICT practices toward enhancing their own and student learning, but also to transparently integrate ICT through the curriculum as a way of living and learning, and generating new knowledge. This of course includes, but should not limited to learning about core educational content.
  12. 12. CONTEXT: ICT INTEGRATION PROGRAMME VVOB
  13. 13. CONTEXT: ICT INTEGRATION PROGRAMME VVOB ICT Integration Team VVOB ICT4E
  14. 14. THE HOLISTIC APPROACH Policy level. School level. Classroom level Vision Expertise Digital Content Infrastructure
  15. 15. Location of the 4 secondary schools
  16. 16. School 1 460 Students 20 Teachers Performs above average
  17. 17. School 2 Located in Kiserian on the shores of Lake Baringo. Home to the minority tribe called the Ilchamus (Njemps) Location
  18. 18. 422 Students 15 Teachers
  19. 19. School 3 Started in 1978 Student population: 283, 16 teachers
  20. 20. School 4 Started in the year 2000 Built by the Munyu community to accommodate students that could not get to other secondary schools Student population: 384 16 teachers
  21. 21. AIMS OF THE STUDY How does the PD program support the participating schools’ capacity building for ICT integration in the curricula? Today’s focus Exploring critical domains in the process of capacity building for ICT-integration in four secondary schools in Kenya: Leadership I Cooperation and support I Access to resources I Development of a shared vision
  22. 22. Longitudinal mixed method case study approach February 2012 2012-2013 VVOB Pilot May 2013 Study 1 Study 2* Method - Questionnaires administered to all teachers - 4 Focus groups* with teachers, ICT-coördinators and school leaders (pre & post) - Observation of ICT facilities*; - Observation of teaching practice - Review of school documents including school planning/policy documents *Focus of the presentation
  23. 23. Component Exemplary questions Vision building To what degree does the school have a shared vision on the place of ICT in the curriculum? Does the school have an ICT policy plan? Access to resources What kind of infrastructure can we find and where? Future plans? ICT-use Which opportunities can ICT bring for education? What are the most important obstacles? Support (How) are teacher educators working together? Leadership Who’s involved in the process of ICT-planning? What are their roles? Instrument Focus group
  24. 24. Case Study results: ICT-infrastructure • School 1 School 2 School 3 School 4 Computer lab (2CPUx10) + 8 desktops in each class Computer lab with 16 desktops, Computer lab 18pc’s Computer lab with 16 desktops 5 laptops 3 laptops, 1 tablet 3 laptops 4 laptops 3 projectors 2 projectors 2 projectors, speakers 2 projectors 1 camera, 2 camcorders 1 video camera, 2 2 digital 1 video camera, 2
  25. 25. CASE STUDY RESULTS: ACCESS TO RESOURCES Our decision to have a computer lab Setup was mainly motivated by security (T, S3) To illustrate: Computer lab S2
  26. 26. CASE STUDY RESULTS: ACCESS TO RESOURCES Not enough laptops to have equal access Power breakdowns “Unreliable electricity is a big Obstacle to proper use of ICTs” (teacher, S1) Lack of space/too many students “Lack of enough infrastructure and space is an obstacle to good integration. Teachers have too many students in class to use ICTs at an optimum level” Lack of technicians for maintenance of the equipment
  27. 27. CASE STUDY RESULTS: ACTUAL ICT-USE Use of ICT as an information tool: Presenting information by teachers “In our school it is also being used to show things that are not familiar to the students such as icebergs” (T, S3) Use of ICT as a supportive tool: Preparing lessons, make lessons current, production and analysis of exams, Timetabling; school management system-accounting, …
  28. 28. SURVEY RESULTS: USE OF ICT IN CLASS* 0 =not al all 1 = to a certain degree 2 = to a great degree 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2 School 1 School 2 School 3 School 4 Learning tool LT_AU Learning tool LT_PU Actual use Preferred use * I teach my pupils to… work together in order to perform an assignment by means of represent info multimedially with ICT learn independently in an ICT supported environment, … > gap between the actual and the preferred class use of ICT > Educational potential of ICT seems to be acknowledged by teachers
  29. 29. CASESTUDY RESULTS: LEADERSHIP & COLLABORATION  ICT integration team is leading the innovation process  Support from the school leader is crucial The principal played a crucial role and she leads by example in that she integrates ICTs in her lessons I have also observed better unity among my teachers. My teachers are consulting and collaborating a lot more because of the ICTs in school. This is very nice for me as a principal.
  30. 30. CASESTUDY RESULTS: ICT SCHOOL POLICY Schools are developing policies…. But ICT-policies are not (yet) integrated in a school plan Our policy seeks to empower all the school stakeholders and give them responsibilities for ICT integration (BOG, S2). The more we learn, the better we are becoming at generating a vision for ICT- integraton. (T, S1)
  31. 31.  Teachers are starting to use ICT to support their practice and to bring reality to the classroom  How to stimulate students’ use of ICT (given the number of students/lack of space)? > How to achieve 21st century skills through student centered learning? DISCUSSION & IMPLICATIONS
  32. 32.  Towards distributed leadership for capacity building > Limitations of a centralised system  Development of policies for ICT Integration need experience of ICT Integration  Implications for PD?  Experience of possibilities with technology in schools (sandbox) DISCUSSION & IMPLICATIONS
  33. 33. EXTRA: SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS No overall significant diffences between schools 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 School 1 School 2 School 3 School 4 teacher perceived need for innov teacher participative decision making school innovation orientation supportive leadership Need for instructional innovations Teacher participation in decision making School innovation orientation Supportive leadership
  34. 34. Factors determining the pre-service and in- service teachers’ continuous use of technology after participation in professional development Ayoub Kafyulilo, Dar es salaam University College of Education, Petra Fisser and Joke Voogt University of Twente. This paper was presented at ISATT conference held in Ghent, Belgium from 1-5th July 2013
  35. 35. Introduction  Efforts to introduce ICT in education in Tanzania started in 1997 when the first ICT syllabus was introduced in schools.  Up to 2002, most of the schools and teacher training colleges were equipped with technology tools such as computers, radio and TVs.
  36. 36. Introduction  Although technology was available in schools since 1997, its uses for teaching and learning was low.  Teachers’ limited knowledge and skills of integrating technology in teaching was one of the reason for low technology uptake  A professional development involving a workshop, collaborative design in teams, lesson implementation and reflection was introduced from 2010 to 2012 among pre-service and in-service teachers
  37. 37. Introduction  The focus of most professional development projects is on the effects that continue some years after its termination (Harvey & Hurworth, 2006).  The current study was conducted to investigate whether or not, teachers continued to use technology in teaching, after the end of the professional development arrangement.
  38. 38. Conceptual model  Building from literature, the following conceptual model was developed and used in this study A conceptual model for the determinants of the teachers’ continuous use of technology
  39. 39. Research questions  Two research questions guided this study  Are pre-service and in-service teachers who previously attended the professional development program still using technology in science and mathematics teaching?  What are the professional development, personal, institutional, and technological factors that affect the teachers’ continuous use of technology in science and mathematics teaching?
  40. 40. Participants  The participants in this study were:  13 teachers who participated in the study in 2010 as pre-service teachers  29 in-service teachers from three secondary schools which are presented anonymously as:  School A, who participated in the study in spring 2011,  School B and School C who participated in the study in spring 2012.  Two data collection instruments were used: a questionnaire and an interview.
  41. 41. Data analysis  Means and standard deviations were computed to determine the extent of the continuation of the use of technology in teaching.  A regression analysis was conducted to establish the model of the predictability of the continuous use technology in teaching.  Qualitative data were transcribed and coded by using the codes generated from the study’s theoretical framework (deductive coding)
  42. 42. Findings  Teachers’ continuous use of technology in teaching after the professional development arrangement was;  High (M ≥ 4) for pre-service and school B teachers,  Above average for school C teachers (M > 3.0), and  Average for school A teachers (M ≈ 3.0) in a five point Likert scale.  The regression models for the factors predicting the continuous use of technology in teaching were developed for each factor
  43. 43. Professional development factors  The regression analysis verified that;  Approximately 16% of the variances were attributed to the opportunity for continuous learning,  22% were attributed to the teachers’ perceived value of the PD.  The predictability increased to 23% when the perceived value of PD and the opportunity for continuous learning were combined.  The regression model for professional development factor was;  Continuous use of technology predicted = Constant + 0.41 Value of the PD
  44. 44. Personal factors  The regression analysis verified that approximately;  32.6% of the variances were attributed to knowledge and skills,  4% were attributed to the teachers’ belief  4% were attributed to time and  8% to engagement.  The predictability increased to 33.4% when engagement, and knowledge and skills were combined.  The regression model for personal factors was;  Continuous use of technology predicted = 0.54 Knowledge and skills
  45. 45. Institutional factors  The regression analysis verified that approximately  28% of the variances were attributed to the access to technology.  22% were attributed to the support offered by the school administration  0% were attributed to the environment.  The predictability increased to 33% when support and access were combined.  The regression model for the institutional factors was;  Continuous use of technology predicted = Constant + 0.40 Access + 0.36 Support
  46. 46. Technological factors  The regression analysis verified that approximately  17% of the variances were attributed to the effectiveness of technology in teaching, and  44% were attributed to the ease of use of technology.  When the effectiveness and ease of use were combined the predictability of the continuous use of technology in teaching was 44%.  The regression model for technological factors was;  Continuous use of technology predicted = Constant + 0.71 Ease of use
  47. 47. Combined model of professional development, personal, institutional and technological factors  The regression analysis verified that approximately  33% of the variances were attributed to knowledge and skills,  28% to access,  22% to support,  22% to the perceived value of the professional development, and  44% to the ease of use.  48% when knowledge and skills were combined with access,  51% when knowledge and skills, access and support were combined  55% when the knowledge and skills, access and ease of use were combined.
  48. 48. Combined model  The regression analysis further verified that,  The combination of the perceived value of PD, knowledge and skills, access and ease of use, did not change the percentage of predictability.  Therefore a combined model of the factors determining the teachers’ continuous use of technology in teaching was;  Continuous use of technology predicted = 0.25 Knowledge and skills + 0.30 Access + 0.37 ease of use
  49. 49. Findings - interview  Although in some schools there were computers, their use for teaching was prohibited (availability vs. accessibility)  Teachers who had support from their management were the most likely to integrate technology in teaching  Teachers differed on the perceived ease of use of technology.  To some technology is easy to use,  Others difficult during the design, and  To few the ease of use depends on the type of technology  Majority of teachers reported to have a good knowledge of technology, but some of them had forgotten and needed a rehearsal before use
  50. 50. Conclusions and discussion  From the model, the conditions for teachers’ continuous use of technology in teaching are: knowledge and skills, accessibility and the ease of use.
  51. 51. Conclusions and discussion  Although support was not a significant predictor, we consider it essential for teachers’ continuous use of technology in teaching.  From the findings, teachers who were supported by their management had better implementation than those who were not supported.  The model is based only on regression analysis. Future studies should involve high level of analysis such as structural equation modelling.  Future studies should identify the effectiveness of the professional development when the conditions identified in this study are met.
  52. 52. Thanks for your attention For any question please write to kafyulilo@duce.ac.tz p.h.g.fisser@utwente.nl j.m.voogt@utwente.nl
  53. 53. Pedagogies for flexible learning supported by technology Pre-service teachers’ development of technology integration competencies: insights from a mathematics-specific instructional technology course in Ghana Video Douglas Agyei, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana Joke Voogt, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands 2 July 2013
  54. 54. Pedagogies for flexible learning supported by technology Capacity building for 21st century learning in secondary schools in Africa: The case of ICT integration a discussion Petra Fisser 2 July 2013
  55. 55. Looking back at this symposium  This symposium brings together researchers who are evaluating ICT- integration in developing countries  The studies addressed many of the current issues related to the processes of and capacity building for ICT-integration  A focus on the challenges and opportunities inherent in understanding how to prepare schools in developing countries for capacity building in the field of educational ICT use
  56. 56. Starting point  Knowledge and skills for technology integration  Teachers often have inadequate (or inappropriate) experience with using technology for teaching and learning  They do not consider themselves sufficiently prepared to use technology in the classroom  They do not appreciate its value or relevance to teaching and learning
  57. 57. Starting point  Acquiring a new knowledge base and skill set can be challenging, particularly if it is a time-intensive activity that must fit into a busy schedule  Moreover, this knowledge is unlikely to be used unless teachers can use the technology so that it is consistent with their existing pedagogical beliefs  Teachers have often been provided with inadequate training for this task  Many approaches to teachers’ professional development offer a one size-fits-all approach to technology integration when, in fact,  Teachers operate in diverse contexts of teaching and learning
  58. 58. What to do?  How can teachers integrate technology into their teaching?  There is no “one best way” to integrate technology into curriculum  Integration efforts should be designed for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts  At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them.
  59. 59. TPACK
  60. 60. Content or Subject matter knowledge •Knowledge of central facts, concepts, theories & procedures •Explanatory frameworks •Evidence for proof Pedagogical knowledge •Students’ prior knowledge •How to use resources •Classroom management •Lesson plan development & implementation •Student evaluation Technological (ICT) Knowledge •Skills necessary to operate particular technologies •The ability to learn and adapt to new technologies •A functional understanding of technologies
  61. 61. Pedagogical Content Knowledge: How particular aspects of subject matter are organized, adapted and represented for instruction Technological Content Knowledge: How subject matter changes because of ICT (or how ict can support subject matter!) Technological pedagogical Knowledge: How pedagogies change because of ICT (or how ict can support pedagogy)
  62. 62. TPACK  TPACK goes beyond all three “core” components of content, pedagogy, and technology  Technological pedagogical content knowledge is an understanding that emerges from interactions among content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge
  63. 63. TPACK Core  The combination of TPK, TCK and TPCK is the heart (or the core) of the model (TPACK Core)
  64. 64. Professional development..  Teachers need to develop fluency and cognitive flexibility not just in each of the key domains (T, P, and C), but also in the manner in which these domains and contextual parameters interrelate  But how?
  65. 65. Model to prepare pre-service teachers for technology use  Based on a synthesis of Qualitative Data  Structured into two aggregation levels:  key themes explicitly related to the preparation of pre-service teachers at the micro level and  Key themes about conditions necessary to implement such programs at the institutional level.  Two key themes were clustered together as overarching themes  “Aligning theory and practice” and  “Systematic and systemic change efforts”
  66. 66. general
  67. 67. Possible in the near future? in theory AND in practice?

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