TPACK integration in teacher education:A case study in educational institutionsfor the futureJo TondeurJohan van BraakJoke...
Pre-service teachers’ use of technology• Pre-service training can affect new teachers’ adoption of  technology (e.g. Drent...
FromTK…   to TPACK             Mishra en Koehler (2006)
Recent calls stress the need to provide student    teachers with training in authentic teaching                     situat...
TPACK development                    (Niess et al., 2008)
TPACK > School improvement    [4in balance , Stichting Kennisnet ICT op school, 2007]
Purpose of the study Preparing student teachers to integrate ICT intheir lessons (TPACK)Exploring the conditions at instut...
DesignCasestudy   3 teacher training institutions in Flanders            Semi-structured interviews with head ofProcedure ...
Respondents                    A                B               CStudents            8                7                9 T...
Instrument (1)Component                Exemplary interview questions                 What is the current vision of the ins...
Instrument (2)Component             Exemplary focus group questionsEducational     What kind of ICT applications do you us...
Casestudy results •   Condities for TPACK integration     ‣4 in Balance?     ‣Based on data from ICT co-ordinators and hea...
4 in Balance?                 S1                     S2                       S3Vision           No separate ICT        IC...
TPACK?The three teacher education institutions are intransition: moving from ICT as a separate course(TK) towards a morein...
S1: Towards an integrated approach     “He (the dean) fully realises that ICT…      is one small part of a larger whole.  ...
S1: From TK to PCK
S2: From TK to TCK
S2: How to link TCK & PK“We fail to use the ICT talents these students already  have in their daily lives, for educational...
S3: From TK to TPK
Different perceptions    Actually also in the lessons, they only use YouTube and    PowerPoint. That’s it…While they expec...
Discussion• Conditions at institutional level necessary to integrate  TPACK in teacher education?• Insufficient examples a...
Discussion• Need for technology-using educators who are able to model  technology use for their students (Sime & Priestly,...
More info:Jo.Tondeur@Ugent.behttp://ugent.academia.edu/JoTondeur
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TPACK integration in teacher education: A case study in educational institutions for the future

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The aim of this study was to explore the ways in which teacher education institutions prepare pre-service teachers for integrating ICT in their classroom practice. Specifically, a multiplecase study was conducted to examine the ways in which the development of TechnologicalPedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) was promoted in the existing curriculum of threeteacher education institutions in Flanders. In the three cases, data were drawn from semi-structured interviews with the heads of the department and the ICT coordinators. Focus groupdiscussions collected the perspectives of pre-service teachers and teacher educators. Theresults indicate that 1) the three institutions are moving from ICT as a “stand-alone” coursetowards embedding ICT across the curriculum and 2) three approaches were adopted for developing pre-service teachers’ TPACK, each representing different ways of understandingthe place of ICT in the curriculum. The discussion will focus on the challenges andopportunities inherent in understanding how to develop pre-service teachers’ TPACK in thecurriculum of teacher education institutions.

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  • Our starting point is that pre-service training can affect new teachers ’ uptake of technology The evidence however shows that beginning teachers are often not prepared to use technology in their classrooms. This because of factors like infrastructure, technical skills, and lack of time. There is no doubt that these factors contribute to technology integration but I ’ m sure you all agree that improving them is not enough to prepare pre-service teachers successfully.   
  • It ’ s clear that we also need to help them bridge the gap between technical skills and educational practice. This brings us to TPACK, the model introduced by Koehler and Mishra (2008)
  • In light of the goals of TPCK , many researchers believe that ICT skills should be integrated into existing courses, by providing education in which teaching students experience applications in ICT to specific content areas (Kay, 2006).   A lot of practical experiences from across the world show that the need to better link ICT with pedagogical issues and curriculum integration is well understood but at the same time it ’ s still a big challenge to implement such programmes...
  • Niess (2005) developed such an integrated program for technology in science and mathematics In a one year program pre-service teachers were introduced in technology applications for science and mathematics, designed lessons and then had to integrate technology in their student teaching lessons. She found that only after having experienced lessons in which technology is integrated student teachers were able to reflect on how technology could help through knowledge of and experiencing with a particular technology teachers may move from stage 1 (accepting) till stage 5 (advancing).
  • I think we also have to look at TPACK integration from a si… The Four in Balance model reflects a vision for the implementation of ICT from a school-improvement point of view. This model gives schools insight into the most important conditions for successful use of ICT The central idea behind “ Four in Balance ” is that the use of ICT for educational purposes is a matter of a well-balanced deployment of four elements…
  • The general aim of this study was to explore the integration of TPCK in teacher education institutions through the lens of different stakeholders: student teachers, teacher educators, ICT coordinators and heads of the department. Specifically, the study attempted to examine the ways in which TPCK is acquired and used by student teachers and their teacher educators. An evaluative (multiple) case study was conducted in each of the institutions. This approach is particularly useful to explain successes and problems and to explore possible changes that could improve the effectiveness of, in this case, TPCK-integration (Yin, 1994).
  • Today i will present you the results of a case study in... For primary education In the three cases, data were drawn from semi-structured interviews with the heads of the departments and with the ICT-coordinators. The perspective of students and teacher educators was gained through focus groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using a shared coding system in Nvivo.
  • As you can see it was not so easy to get teacher educators together…
  • The results fall apart in 3 parts…
  • Vision: Results of this cross-case analysis indicated that the three teacher education institutions are in transition: they are, in line with the TPCK model, moving from ICT as a separate “ stand-alone ” course (TK) towards a more integrated approach of embedding ICT within the courses (TPCK).
  • the results of the focus groups show that there is a long way to go in connecting technology, pedagogy and content. There are examples (from the focus groups) of student teachers being taught with the support of online learning environment, but fewer examples of preparing student teachers to teach using ICT. Many researchers suggested that technology skills should be integrated throughout the teacher education curriculum and courses in order to provide pre-service teachers with skills and experiences to apply technology to their specific content areas. In other words, technology integration needs to be infused into all aspects of teacher training as part of field-based experiences rather than presented in separate “ stand-alone ” courses (cf. Polly et al., 2010) The data from these studies showed that most pre-service teachers had little specific knowledge or associated skills with respect to the role of technology for teaching and learning. Based on the collected evidence it seems that seeing someone doing something that they wanted to be able to do themselves seemed to be an important motivator Similarly, the results of the study of Brush et al. (2003) indicate that pre-service teachers adopted the strategy demonstrated during their pre-service training. Therefore, courses and guidance should be integrated to everyday activities where technology is used (Lavonen et al., 2010). However, interview data with project leaders show that it ’ s not easy to find enough technology-using educators who are able to model technology use for their students. Also Clift, Mullan, Levin and Larson (2001) note that there are insufficient examples and practices in the teacher education curriculum
  • 6.2.1 Learning technology by design (M&K, 2005, KMY, 2007); praktische uitwerking Mishra and Koehler (2005, Mishra, Koehler, & Yahya, 2007) argue that the development of TPCK requires an approach in which teachers are able to develop TPCK through collaboratively working on ill-structured authentic tasks. They used an approach which they call Learning Technology by Design, in students and faculty collaboratively design concrete technology-based solutions for curriculum problems. Several other researchers argues that the development of TPCK should be elaborated through students involvement in collaborative design. So & Kim (2009) involved students in the design of an technology-enhanced Problem Based Learning lesson.
  • TPACK integration in teacher education: A case study in educational institutions for the future

    1. 1. TPACK integration in teacher education:A case study in educational institutionsfor the futureJo TondeurJohan van BraakJoke VoogtPetra Fisser
    2. 2. Pre-service teachers’ use of technology• Pre-service training can affect new teachers’ adoption of technology (e.g. Drent & Meelissen, 2008)• BUT: technology seems under-used by beginning teachers (e.g. Bullock, 2004)• Possible explanations: ‣insufficient access to technology (Russell et al., 2003) ‣lack of time (Eifler, et al., 2001) ‣lack of skills (Thompson et al., 2003) However: training may not be not enough to prepare pre-service teachers to successfully integrate technology
    3. 3. FromTK… to TPACK Mishra en Koehler (2006)
    4. 4. Recent calls stress the need to provide student teachers with training in authentic teaching situations* (Angeli & Valanides, 2009)Practical experiences from across the world sustainsuch viewpoints while at the same time emphasising the difficulties faced in the implementation of such programmes (Unwin, 2004) *To illustrate: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2vwt-f1cuMI&NR=1
    5. 5. TPACK development (Niess et al., 2008)
    6. 6. TPACK > School improvement [4in balance , Stichting Kennisnet ICT op school, 2007]
    7. 7. Purpose of the study Preparing student teachers to integrate ICT intheir lessons (TPACK)Exploring the conditions at instututional levelnecessary to intergrate TPACK in teachereducation (4inBalance)?In which way is TPACK acquired by pre-service teachers?
    8. 8. DesignCasestudy 3 teacher training institutions in Flanders Semi-structured interviews with head ofProcedure department and ICT-coordinator Focus groups with pre-service teachers and teacher educators Method Nvivo: Inductive method
    9. 9. Respondents A B CStudents 8 7 9 Trainers 5 6 5 ICT- Coordinator ICT coordinator ICT coordinatorcoordinator Media literacy + teacher ICT + TELE Head of Head of Head Dean department department
    10. 10. Instrument (1)Component Exemplary interview questions What is the current vision of the instution on the Vision place of ICT in the curriculum? How to improve ICT-competencies of teacherCompetences educators? What kind of infrastructure can we find andInfrastructure where? Future plans? Which software are pre-service teacher using Software during their training? Support (How) are teacher educators working together? Leadership Who’s involved in the process of ICT-planning?
    11. 11. Instrument (2)Component Exemplary focus group questionsEducational What kind of ICT applications do you use in your ICT-use educational practice? What are the most important opportunities of ICTAttitudes and in education? beliefs What are the most important barriers for using (Metaplan) ICT in class? Training How are you prepared to use ICT in class? Do you have suggestions to improve the training Future of pre-service teachers with respect to ICT?
    12. 12. Casestudy results • Condities for TPACK integration ‣4 in Balance? ‣Based on data from ICT co-ordinators and heads of department • From TK to TPACK ‣Ready for an integrated approach? ‣Different strategies to integrate TK in PCK • Different actors, different perspectives ‣Between institutions ‣Within institutions ‣Between and within groups of stakeholders
    13. 13. 4 in Balance? S1 S2 S3Vision No separate ICT ICT-lessons in other New ICT course in course courses the beginning of the trainingCompetences No homogenous ICT No homogenous ICT No homogenous ICT competences competences competences > Individual support > Training (no follow- > No collaboration up)Infrastructure Good infrastructure Good infrastructure Insufficient access > Digital board? > Digital board? > developing a planSoftware and TELE (for TELE (for TELE, portfolio, …content communication) communication) > Technical skills? + website about educational technology
    14. 14. TPACK?The three teacher education institutions are intransition: moving from ICT as a separate course(TK) towards a moreintegrated approachof embedding ICTwithin the courses(TPCK)
    15. 15. S1: Towards an integrated approach “He (the dean) fully realises that ICT… is one small part of a larger whole. He therefore wants to integrate it as much as possible and not consider it as a separate subject.” [ICT coordinator S1]
    16. 16. S1: From TK to PCK
    17. 17. S2: From TK to TCK
    18. 18. S2: How to link TCK & PK“We fail to use the ICT talents these students already have in their daily lives, for educational matters” [Teacher educator S2]“A comparison is: you take one lesson in French and are then supposed to give lessons in French. It doesn’t work.” [ICT coordinator S2]
    19. 19. S3: From TK to TPK
    20. 20. Different perceptions Actually also in the lessons, they only use YouTube and PowerPoint. That’s it…While they expect us to be superinnovative and say to us: ‘This is your chance to prove yourself and to create a profile’. But what have we been shown?” [Pre-service teacher 9, S2]. “I find myself adequately trained. I’m no expert, but I have specifically worked on it because I found it important. I think that someone who is less convinced and who is not as confident with it, will find it much more of an obstacle” [Pre-service teacher 10, S2].
    21. 21. Discussion• Conditions at institutional level necessary to integrate TPACK in teacher education?• Insufficient examples and practices in the teacher education curriculum (cf. Clift et al., 2001) >• No shared vision about the role of technology in the teacher education curriculum• ICT vision and strategies are not implemented in a planned manner (see Brush & Saye, 2009; Kay, 2006; Keeler, 2008).
    22. 22. Discussion• Need for technology-using educators who are able to model technology use for their students (Sime & Priestly, 2005; Keeler, 2008).• technology plan that should integrate the vision and strategic direction of the institution (see Bates, 2000). “I think that the institution has to reflect and agree on what they themselves consider to be ICT so that the training itself can represent what ICT use actually is…” [Pre-service teacher 5, S1]• How to support the process of technology planning in order to integrate TPACK in teacher education?
    23. 23. More info:Jo.Tondeur@Ugent.behttp://ugent.academia.edu/JoTondeur

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