Demographic Characteristics of U.S. Presidents• 100% male • 69% politicians• 99% Caucasian • 62% lawyers• 97% Protestant • >50% from the top 3%• 82% of British wealth and social class ancestry • 0.5% born into• 77% college educated poverty • 69% elected from large states
Fortunate Son Recorded by Creedence Clearwater Revival (1969)Some folks are born made to Some folks are born silver wave the flag, spoon in hand,Ooh, they’re red, white and Lord, don’t they help blue. themselves, oh.And when the band plays, But when the taxman comes to “Hail to the Chief,” the door,Ooh, they point the cannon at Lord, the house looks like a you, lord, rummage sale, yes,It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no senator’s son, son. no millionaire’s son, son.It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no fortunate one, no. no fortunate one, no.
Fortunate Son Recorded by Creedence Clearwater Revival (1969) It ain’t me, it ain’t me, ISome folks inherit star ain’t no military son, son. spangled eyes, It ain’t me, it ain’t me, IOoh, they send you down to ain’t no fortunate one, one. war, lord,And when you ask them, It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I “How much should we ain’t no fortunate son, give?” son.Ooh, they only answer It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I more! more! more! yo, ain’t no fortunate son, no, no, no.
Constitutional Qualifications Must be at least 35 years old Must have lived in the United States for 14 years Must be a natural born citizen
Presidential Benefits $400,000 tax-free salary $50,000/year expense account $100,000/year travel expenses The White House Secret Service protection Camp David country estate Air Force One personal Christmas at the White House, 2004 airplane Staff of 400-500
Head of State The President is chief of state. This means he is the ceremonial head of the government of the United States, the symbol of all the people of the nation. Queen Elizabeth and President Reagan, 1983President Kennedy speaks at Berlin Wall, 1963
Chief ExecutiveThe Constitution vests the Presidentwith the executive power of the UnitedStates, making him or her the nation’schief executive. President Clinton with Janet Reno, President Bush holds cabinet meeting the first female Attorney General, in October, 2005 February, 1993
Commander-in-ChiefThe Constitution makes thePresident the commander inchief, giving him or her completecontrol of the nation’s armedforces. President Johnson decorates a soldier in Vietnam, October, 1966 President Bush aboard U.S.S. Lincoln, May, 2003
Chief LegislatorThe President is the chieflegislator, the main architectof the nation’s public policies. President Clinton delivers the State of the Union Address, 1997 President Roosevelt signs into law the Social Security Act, 1935
Political Party LeaderThe President acts as the chiefof party, the acknowledgedleader of the political partythat controls the executivebranch. President Reagan & Vice-President Bush accepting their party’s nomination in 1980
Chief AdministratorThe President is the chiefadministrator, or director, ofthe United States government. President Bush at Ground Zero after 9-11 Vice-President Johnson sworn in aboard Air Force One after President Kennedy’s assassination, 1963
Chief DiplomatAs the nation’s chief diplomat,the President is the main architectof American foreign policy andchief spokesperson to the rest ofthe world.President Lincoln during the Civil President Roosevelt and the “Bully War, 1862 Pulpit,” 1910
Chief CitizenThe President is expected to be“the representative of all thepeople.”
Presidential SuccessionPresidential succession isthe plan by which apresidential vacancy is filled. 1) Vice President 2) Speaker of the House 3) President Pro Tempore
Role of the Vice President____ 1. The vice president is also the president ofthe Senate._____2. The vice president is also head of thejudicial branch and presides over the SupremeCourt.____ 3. The vice president and cabinet are part ofthe legislative branch.____ 4. The vice president is first in the line ofsuccession to the presidency.____ 5. The Constitution notes only one officialrole for the vice president.____ 6. The qualifications for the vice presidencyare not the same as those for the presidency.____ 7. The vice president administers the oath ofoffice to the president.
Jumpstart AssignmentDescribe the following political cartoon. Howdoes it relate to the power of the President andVice President?
Formal Powers of the President Constitutional or expressed powers of the presidency Found primarily in Article II of the Constitution (the Executive Article)
Formal Powers: Commander-in-Chief Commander in Chief of the Army & Navy Making undeclared war Limited by War Powers Act 1973 President can commit troops for 90 days
Formal Powers: Chief Executive “Faithfully execute” the laws Grant pardons for federal offenses except for cases of impeachment Nominate judges of the Supreme Court and all other officers of the U.S. with consent of the Senate Fill vacancies that may happen during recess of the Senate (recess appointments)
Formal Powers: Foreign Affairs Appoint ambassadors, ministers and consuls Make treaties subject to Senate confirmation Receive ambassadors Diplomatic Recognition – acknowledging the legal existence of a country/state
Formal Powers: Chief Legislator Give State of the Union address to Congress Recommend “measures” to the Congress Upon “extraordinary occasions” convene both houses of Congress
Formal Powers: Chief Legislator (cont.) Presidential Veto Veto Message within 10 days of passing the House of origin Pocket Veto - President does not sign within 10 days Congress can override with 2/3 majority from both Houses Veto Politics Congressional override is difficult (only 4%) Threat of veto can cause Congress to make changes in legislation
Informal Powers• Those powers not explicitly written in the Constitution• Similar to “necessary and proper” powers of Congress• In the modern era (since 1933), the President’s informal powers may be significantly more powerful than his formal powers
Executive Orders• Orders issued by the President that carry the force of law• Clinton’s “Don’t ask don’t tell” gays in the military policy• FDR’s internment of Japanese Americans• GWB trying suspected terrorists in military tribunals Notice for Japanese “relocation,” 1942
Executive Agreements• International agreements, usually related to trade, made by a president that has the force of a treaty; does NOT need Senate approval• Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana in 1803• GWB announced cuts in the nuclear arsenal, but not in a treaty; usually trade agreements between US and other nations
Executive Privilege• Claim by a president that he has the right to decide that the national interest will be better served if certain information is withheld from the public, including the Courts and Congress• United States v. Nixon (1973) – presidents do NOT have unqualified executive privilege (Nixon Watergate tapes)
Jumpstart Assignment• Describe the following political cartoon.
Electing a President• Step 1: – Primaries and Caucuses – determine who the Presidential candidates will be for each political party • Caucuses -
Electing a President• Step 2: – Convention – political parties formally nominate candidates - Party platform is established – basic principles and beliefs of the party
Electing a President• Step 3: – Electoral College – group of people from each state chosen to formally select the president and vice president
Alternatives to Electoral College• District Plan – each Congressional receives 1 electoral vote• Proportional Plan – candidates receive electoral votes in proportion to the percentage of popular vote received• Direct Popular Election – based strictly on popular vote (would require a Constitutional Amendment)• National Popular Vote – states agree to give all electoral votes to popular winner