Recall an experience when you thought it wasgoing to be a wonderful time but it turnedterrible. How did you get through it? What didyou learn about yourself from the experience?
Well-born S. whose husbandserved in the army1864 found that her socialstanding could no longerprotect her from theeconomic effects of the war“Confederate money”Chestnut received was almostworthlessInflation devaluedConfederate currency that$400 a day was worth $1 or$2 compared to prewarcurrency
November 25th, 1862-Harriet Beecher Stowemet Abraham Lincoln:“so you are the littlewoman who wrote thebook that started thisgreat war”
1862- allowed to serve in the military1% of North’s population but 10% of theUnion armyMajority were former slaves from VA andother slave statesSuffered discriminationServed in separate regiments commandedby white officersCould not rise about a Capt.Except Alexander T. Augustana, a surgeonwho became Lt. Col.Privates earned $13mo. + $3.50 clothingallowanceBlacks earned $10mo.Protested and several regiments servedw.out pay for monthsEqualized pay for soldiers through Congressin 1864
Mortality rate was higherMany assigned to labor duty inthe garrisons Caught typhoid, pneumonia, malariaP.O.W . Would not betreated, many executed on thespotThose not killed returned toslaveryGruesome massacre at FortPillow TN 1864- 200 prisonerskilled and some whites as theybegged for their livesConfederacy did considerdrafting slaves and free blacks in
Thousands of slaves sought freedom behind the lines of theUnion armyThose who remained on plantations sometimes engaged insabotage, breaking plows, destroying fences, neglected livestockS. plantation owners fled before approaching Union troops, manyslaves refused to be dragged alongWaited to welcome the Yankees to liberate themWhites on farms and plantations, slave resistance led to stressFearful of general slave uprising- tightened slave patrols andspread rumors how Union soldiers abused runawaysSlave resistance gradually weakened the planation system1864- Confederates realized slavery was doomed
How did African Answer: By fighting forAmericans contribute to the North, by runningthe struggle to end away from slavery, and byslavery. sabotaging plantations in the South.
Food shortage due to Drain of manpower into the army Union occupation of food growing areas Loss of slaves to work in the fields Meat became a 1x/wk. luxury Rice & corn in short supply Prices skyrocketed from $6.65/mo. 1861 to $68/mo. mid- 18631863- hundreds of women and children stormed bakeries andrioted for breadMob broke up when President Davis climbed up on a cart, threwdown all the money he had and ordered the crowd to disperseor be shotNext day, Confederate government distributed some of its stocksof rice
Union blockade of S. portscreated shortages of otheritems: salt, sugar, coffee, nails,needles, and medicinesMany Confederates smuggledcotton into the North inexchange for gold, food, andother goodsDeploring this trade with theenemy, one Gen. raged thatcotton had made “more damnrascals on both sides thananything else”
A few industries: cotton textiles declined,most boomedNeed for uniforms, shoes, guns and othersupplies supported woolen mills, steelfoundries, coal mines, and many othersThe draft reduced the available work force,western wheat farmers bought reapers andother labor-saving machines, whichbenefited the manufacturing companiesWages did not keep up with pricesMany people’s standard of living declinedWhite male workers went out on strikeEmployers hired free blacks, immigrants,women, and boys to replace them forlower pay
Why was the war less Answer: Military demanddamaging to the economy of spurred the more industrialthe North than to that of the Northern economy; a laborSouth? shortage and Union occupation crippled the South’s agriculture-based economy. NJCCCS: 6.1.12.C.4.a Assess the role that economics played in enabling the North and South to wage war.
Women Replaced men on farms and city jobs Obtained government jobs for the 1st time Clerks, copying ledgers and letters by hand Earned less than men Remained a regular part of the D.C. work force after the warNorthern businesses made immense profitsGovernment contracts skyrocketed through cheatingSupplied uniforms and blankets made of “shoddy” fibers- came apartin the rainPassed off spoiled meat as freshDemanded twice the usual price for gunsNew York Herald commented on changes in the American character:“The individual who makes the most money- no matter how- andspends the most- no matter for what- is considered the greatestman… the world has seen its iron age, its silver age, its goldenage, and its brazen age. This is the age of shoddy”
Decided to help pay forthe war by tapping itscitizens’ wealth1863- enacted the tax lawthat authorized thenation’s 1st income tax- n.a tax on earnings.
Garbage disposal and latrinesin army camps were almostunknownArmy regulations called forwashing ones’ hands and faceevery day and taking acomplete bath 1x/wk.Many soldiers failed to do soBody lice, dysentery, anddiarrhea were commonArmy rations were far fromappealingUnion troops subsisted onbeans, bacon and hardtrack[sq. biscuits hard enough tostock a bullet]
Common food- “cush”,stew of small cubes ofbeef and crumbledcornbread mixed withbacon greaseFresh vegetables hardlyavailableBoth sides loved coffee,but S. soldiers had onlysubstitutes brewed frompeanuts, dried apples, orcorn
After Ft. Sumter fell, federalgovernment set up the UnitedStates Sanitary Commission Improve the hygenic conditions of army camps Recruit & train nursesProved to be a great successSent out agents to teach soldiershow to avoid polluting theirwater supplyDeveloped hospital trains andhospital ships to transportwounded men from thebattlefield
Weapons technologyovertook medicaltechnologyWeapons causedtraumatic wounds thatcould often be treatedonly by amputationEffects of bacteria werenot yet knownSurgeons never sterilizedinstruments, makinginfection worse
Badly wounded weretaken to field hospitalsSurgeons usedchloroform as ananesthetic Amputation kit containing: cloth for bandages or administering chloroform, opium pills to kill pain, forceps and knives for cleaning wounds and saws for amputations
War nurseCollected & distributedsuppliesDug bullets out of soldiers’bodies with her penknifeGood at anticipating troopmovementsArrived at the battlefieldbefore the fighting begunFounded the American RedCrossMost women, served inhospitals rather than the frontlinesBattlefield- soldiers usuallyattended by male medicsKnown as the “angel of thebattlefield”
At 60, Dorothea Dix became thenation’s 1st superintendent ofwomen nursesTo discourage women looking forromance, insisted applicants be atleast 30 & “plain looking”Surgeon general required 1/3 ofUnion hospital nurses be women,3,000 servedDeath rate among Union wounded,showed considerable improvementConfederacy did not have SanitaryCommission, but thousands ofSouthern women volunteered asnursesSally Tompkins performed soheroically she was commissioned asa Capt.
How did the Sanitary Answer: It providedCommission improve training in such things asmedical treatment during how to protect the army’sthe war? water supply and developed hospital trains and ships.
Improvements in hygiene andnursing did not reach warprisonsWorst Confederate prison,Andersonville [GA] jammed33,000 men into 26 acres or 34sq. ft. per manNo shelter from sun or rainexcept for primitive tentsDrank from same stream thatserved as sewer1/3 diedCommanded by Henry Wirz[who the N. executed as a warcriminal]S. lack of food and tent canvascontributedOvercrowded b/c N. haltedprison exchange when S. refusedto return African-Americansoldiers captured
Emira, NYCamp Douglas, IllinoisProvided about 5x as much spaceper manBarracks for sleepingAdequate foodThousands of Confederateshouses with little heat,contracted pneumonia and died100s suffered from dysenteryand malnutrition15% of Union prisoners in S.prisons died12% Confederate prisoners died
What effects did the CivilWar have on women andAfrican Americans?
Cite the biggest news story in your lifetime. Recall it How did you hear of it? What do you remember of it? How did it make you feel? What do you think about it today?
July 3rd, infantry chargewas part of a 3-day battleat GettysburgTurning point of the CivilWarCrippled the South sobadlyGen. Lee would neveragain posses sufficientforces to invade aNorthern state
1863- went well for the South1st 4 days of May, S. defeated N. at Chancellorsville, VALee outmaneuvered Union Gen. Joseph Hooker and forced theUnion army to retreatGen. Stonewall Jackson returned from a patrol on May 2nd,Confederates mistook him for a Yankee & shot him in the leftarmSurgeon amputated his arm the following dayCaught pneumonia and died May 10thLee decided to press his military advantageSought to force Lincoln to pull troops away from VicksburgThought a major Confederate victory on N. soil might tip thescales for pro-Southern DemocratsCrossed the Potomac into MD and then pushed into PA
What did Lee hope to Answer: Lee hoped togain by invading the win a Confederate victoryNorth? and build Southern support in the North.
Most decisive battle of the warConfederate soldiers led by A.P. Hill, many of them barefootwent up with forces under LeeHill’s troops marched and ran into Union calvaries under JohnBufordBuford ordered his men to take defensive positions on the hillsand ridges surrounding the townEngaged Hill’s troopsShooting attracted more troops and each side sent forreinforcementsN. armies under Gen. George Meade [N&W of Gettysburg]began to fall back under rebel assaultConfederates took control of the townLee knew the battle would not be won unless N. were forced toyield their positions on Cemetary Ridge, the high ground S. ofGettysburg
Why was it important Answer: Because thethat the Union held on to Union had taken thethe high ground in defensive position andGettysburg? could win the battle if it could maintain the position.
July 2nd, 90,000 Yankees & 75,000 Confederates stood ready to fightLee ordered General James Longstreet to attack CemetaryRidge, which was held by Union troops4:00 pm- Longstreet’s troops advanced from Seminary RidgeThe yelling Rebels overran Union troops who had mistakenly left theirpositions on Little Roung Top, a hill that overlooked the southernportion of the battlefieldAs a brigade of Alabamans approached the hill, Union leaders noticedthe undefended positionCol. Joshua L. Chamberlain, a language prof. before the war, led hisMaine troops to meet the Rebels, and succeeded in repulsingrepeated Confederate attacksSoldiers ran short of ammunition- 1/3 diedOrdered a bayonet chargeRebels exhausted by the uphill fighting & 25mi. march the previousday were shocked and surrendered in drovesChamberlain & his men succeeded in saving Union lines from rebelartillery attacks from Little Round Trip
Lee- optimistic, w/ one more day of attack- felt he could break UniondefensesJuly 3rd, Lee ordered an artillery barrage on the middle of the Unionlines2 hrs. 2 armies fired, then fell silentLee insisted Longstreet press forwardReulctantly ordered men including those under General Pickett toattack the center of Union linesSuddenly N. artillery renewed its barrageDevastated Confederates staggered backLee sent Gen. James E.B. Stuart around the right flank of Meade’sforces to surprise the troops from the rearStuart’s campaign stalled & clashed with David Gregg’s men 3 mi.awayLee gave up hopes of invading the N. after
3 day battle producedstaggering lossesMore than 30% casualtiesUnion- 23,000 men killed orwoundedConfederacy- 28,000Fly-infested corpses layeverywhere in July heat; thestench was unbearableLee would continue to lead hismen brilliantly in the next 2yearsBut Confederacy could neverrecover from Gettysburg
Why was the battle of Answer: It cost a huge #Gettysburg a disaster for of soldiers and put thethe South? South on the defensive.
Union Gen. Grant continued hiscampaign in the W.Vicksburg, MS- 1:2 Confederateholdouts preventing the Unionfrom complete control of theMississippi riverSpring of 1863, Grant sent acalvary to destroy rail lines incentral MS and draw attentionaway from the port cityGrant landed infantry s. ofVicksburg on April 30th18 days, Union whipped severalrebel units and sacked Jackson,the capital
Confidence growing with every victory- Grant rushedVicksburh2 frontal assaults failed, so in May 1863- settled for aseigeSet up a steady barrage of artillery, shelling the cityfrom both the river and the land for several hrs. adayForced residents to take shelter in cavesFood supplies ran so low- people ate dogs and mulesSome of the starving Confederate soldiers defendingVicksburg sent their commander a petition: “If youcan’t feed us, you’d better surrender”July 3rd, 1863- same day as Pickett’s charge,Confederate commander asked Grant for terms ofsurrenderJuly 4th- city fell, 5 days later Port Hudson, Louisianaalso fell. The Confederacy was cut in 2
Nov. 1863- ceremony held todedicate a cementary inGettysburg1st speaker, Edward Everett, 2hr. orationLincoln spoke for a little morethan 2 mins.Lincoln’s address “remadeAmerica”Gettysburg Address- n. afamous speech delivered byAbraham Lincoln in November1863, at the dedication of anational cemetery on the siteof the Battle of Gettysburg.
What beliefs about the Answer: That it was oneUnited States did Lincoln nation rather than just aexpress in the Gettysburg collection of states, that itAddress? was worth dying for, and that it should not be destroyed.
Twin defeats- Gettysburg & Vicksburg cost theS. much of its limited fighting powerConfederacy low onfood, shoes, uniforms, guns, and ammunitionNo longer able to attack- hoped to hang onlong enough to destroy N. morale & worktoward an armisticePlan proved unlikelyS. newspapers, state legislatures, andindividuals began to openly call for an end tohostilitiesPresident Lincoln found 2 Generals who wouldfight
Confederate Congress passed a weak resolution in 1863 urgingplanters to grow fewer cash crops like cotton & tobacco & increaseproduction of foodFarmers resented the tax that took part of their produce and livestock,since many rich planters continued cultivated cash crops and selling itto the North.Many soldiers deserted after receiving letters from home of lack offood & farm laborEvery s. state except S.C.; soldiers defected to the N. [i.e. 2,400Floridians]Discord in the government made it impossible for Davis to governeffectively.Confederate Congress squabbledS.C. the governor was upset when troops were placed undercommand of officers from another state
1863- N.C. wanted peaceheld more than 100 openmtgs.Peace movement in GA-1864Movements failedmid-1864 Assistant Sec.of War- John Campbellacknowledged activeopposition to the war as afatality
How did discontent Answer: Such discontentamong members of the kept Jefferson Davis fromConfederate Congress governing effectively,affect the war? which weakened the Confederate war strategy.
March 1864- Lincoln appointedGrant commander of all UnionarmiesGrant appointed William TecumsehSherman commander of the militarydivision of the MS2 appointments changed course ofwarBoth men believed in total warEssential to fight not only S. armies& government but its civilianpopulation as well: Civilians grew food, transported goods Strength of the people’s will kept the war going
Grant’s overall strategy was to immobilize Lee’s army in VA whileSherman raided GAEven if Grant’s casualties ran 2x higher than Lee’s, & they did,the N. could afford it, the S. could notMay 1864- Grant threw his troops into battle after battleFighting was brutal, made even more so by the fires spreadingthrough the thick trees of wooded areasBattles contunued at Spotsylvania @ Cold HarborGrant lost 7,000 men in one hourFinally at Petersburg, remained under Union attack from June1864-April 1865From May 4th to June 18th, 1864- Grant lost 60,000 men to Lee’s32,000 men which the S. could not replaceDemocrats and N. newspapers called Grant a butcherGrant promised Lincoln: “Whatever happens, there will be noturning back”
Army occupied thetransportation center ofAtlanta on Sept. 2, 1864Confederate army tried tocircle around him, & cut hisRR supply linesSherman decided to fight adifferent battleAbandoned his supply lines &marched SE through GAKilled livestock, destoyedcrops & burned most ofAtlanta
After taking Savannahbefore ChristmasSherman turned N. tohelp Grant “wipe out Lee”25,000 former slavefollowedMarched through S.C.-1865Army burned almostevery house in its pathEntered N.C.- stoppeddestroying private homesand handed food & othersupplies out
What were Sherman’s Answer: Sherman wantedobjectives in marching his to show Georgia’stroops from Atlanta to civilians the destructiveSavannah? nature of war and thus destroy the will of Confederate civilians to continue to war.
Lincoln faced heavy opposition: Democrats dismayed by war’s length, high casualty rates, Union losses joined pro-S. party to nominate George McClellan- on a platform of immediate armistice [McClellan resented Lincoln] Radical Republicans- favored a harsher proposal than Lincoln’s readmitting Confederate states- nominated John C. Frémont National Union Party chose Andrew Johnson as Lincoln’s running mateLincoln thought he would be beaten badlyAugust 5th, Farragut telegraphed “Atlanta is ours”- FrémontwithdrewOctober 19th- Phillip Sheridan chased Confederates out of N. VAVictories bouyed N. and with absentee ballots by Union soldiers-Lincoln won
Late March 1865, the end of the Confederacy was nearGrant and Sheridan were approaching Richmond from the WestSherman from the S.April 2nd, Lee and his troops were overcome by Grant’s forces inPetersburgDavis & his gov. abandoned their capital, setting it afire to keepthe N. from taking itFlames destroyed some 900 buildings & damaged 100 homes
Lee & Grant met to arrange aConfederate surrender- April 9th,1865 in VA- Appomattox CourtHouseLincoln’s request: Lee’s soldiers paroled & sent home with their personal possessions, horses & 3 days rations Officers permitted to keep their side arms Within 2 mo. All remaining Confederate resistance collapsedAfter 4 years, at tremendoushuman & economic costs, CivilWar was over
Why do you think Lincoln urged generous termsfor a Confederate surrender?
Learning Goal: NJCCCS- 6.1.12.D.4.eAnalyze the impact of the Civil War and the 14th Amendment on thedevelopment of the country and on therelationship between the national and state governments.
Think of an event that could change life in yourcommunity dramatically.
1869- Prof. George Ticknor of Harvardcommented that since the Civil War, “It doesnot seem to me as if I were living in the countryin which I was born.”Civil War caused change in: Politics Economics Technology Social climateExacted a high price in the cost of human life.
Federal government + ending the threat ofassumed supreme secession, war greatlynational authority & no increased the federalstate has ever seceded government’s poweragain Fed. Government began taxingArguments over states’ private incomesrights versus federal Required everyone to acceptcontrol focus on whether its new paper currencythe state or national Tore reluctant men from theirgovernment should families to fightdetermine how to use U.S. citizens post-war could nolocal funds longer assume that the national government was too far away to bother them
How did the power of the Answer: The governmentfederal government passed laws that gave itincrease during the war? more control over U.S. citizens, including an income tax and conscription.
Between 1861-1865: fed. Large-scale commercialGovernment did much to help agriculture took holdbusinesses- subsidizing S. was devastated- laborconstruction of a national rr. source taken away wreckingsystem industryNational Bank Act- n. legislation Wiped 40% of livestockpassed in 1863 to make bankingsafer for investors. Its provisions Destroyed farm machinery,included a system of federally railroads and left thousandschartered banks, new of acres uncultivatedrequirements for loans, and a Pre-war S. held 30% ofsystem for the inspection of national wealth, in 1870: onlybanks. 12%Economy of N. boomed; selling 1860- 70% of N. average,war supplies to the government 1870: 40%allowed N. to invest in new Disparity continued until 20thbusinesses after the war century
1. The total losses in the Civil War nearly equal the total for all other wars2. The shortages of food and other supplies were more severe in the South, so most products cost more than in the North.
360,000 Union soldiers died260,000 Confederates died275,000/225,000 woundedAmputees became a commonsight2,400,000 men nearly 10% of thepopulation of 31,000,000 were inthe military for 4 yrs disruptingeducation, careers and families$3.3 billion spent- more than 2xwhat the government spent inthe previous 80 years20 years later, interest paymentson war debt + federal pensionaccounted for 2/3 of the federalbudget
Emancipation Proclamation freed only slaves inthe ConfederacyGovernment had to decide what to do with theborder statesRepublican-controlled Senate approved anamendment- Summer 1864House, with large Democratic membership didnotAfter Lincoln’s reelection, amendmentintroduced in House- January 1865Promises of government jobs were given toDemocrats and it passed with 2 votes to spare
End of 1865- 27 statesincluding 8 from theSouth ratified13th Amendment- n. anamendment to the U.S.Constitution, adopted in1865, that has abolishedslavery and involuntaryservitude.
Veterans returned to small Some war leaders continuedtowns & farms military careersMany moved to cities or went Sherman remained in thewest army fighting Native Americans in the West Lee lost his Arlington plantation, turned into a Union cemetery Lee became pres. of Wash. College in VA [Wash. & Lee U.] Congress accidentally neglected to restore his citizenship until 1975
Clara Barton in 1869joined the InternationalCommittee of the RedCross during the Franco-Prussian War in Europe1881- founded theAmerican Red Cross- n.an internationalorganization that providesrelief to people in timesof war or natural disaster.Clara Barton founded theAmerican branch in 1881.
What were some effects Answer: Africanthat the war had on Americans gained theirindividuals? freedom, some veterans moved from the country to the city, and many leaders had to find new careers.
April 14th, 1865- 5 days afterLee surrendered to Grant-Lincoln & his wife went toFord’s Theatre in Washingtonto see a British comedy, OurAmerican CousinDuring the 3rd Act, a mansilently opened theunguarded doors to thepresidential boxRaised a pistol and hit thepresident in the back of thehead
John Wilkes Booth- 26 yr oldactor, Southern sympathizerAssassin leaped to thestage, catching his spur on a flagand breaking his left legRose & said “Sic sempertyrannis” state motto of VA[“thus be it ever to tyrants”]Some claim he said “The South isavenged”12 days later, Union cavalrytrapped him in VA tobaccobarn, set the building on fireRefused to surrender and shot“Tell my mother I died for mycountry. I did what I though wasbest.”
Lincoln remainedunconscious through thenightDied @ 7:22 a.m. on April15th1st time a president of theU.S. had beenassassinatedSec. of the Navy GideonWelles recorded thepublic’s reactions in hisdiary
Funeral trail carried Lincoln’sbody from Washington toSpringfield Illinois14 day journeyApprox. 7 million Americans or1/3 of the entire Unionpopulation turned out to publiclymournCivil War had endedSlavery & Secession was no moreQuestions remained: how torestore the S. states andintegrate 4 million newly freedAfrican Americans in nationallife.
Political EconomicConsequencesof the Civil War Technological Social