What contributed to the ideas of both soldiers and civilians that the war would be short and thrilling?Answer: Soldiers and civilians on both sides were caught up in the romance of war and idealistic views of bravery and heroism. Few had a view of the grim struggle the war was the become and the determination both sides would bring to the fray.
Part 1 the civil war 1861 1865
Evaluate how political and militaryleadership affected the outcome of the Civil War.
Think of a crisis situation in which someone hadto make a tough decision. Think of a current political event which has occurred that led to a tough decision
7 southernmost states that had seceded formedthe Confederate States of America on Feb. 4th,1861Soldiers immediately began taking over federalinstallations in the statesBy the time of Lincoln’s inauguration on March4th only 2 southern forts remained in UnionhandsMore important was South Carolina’s FortSumter, on an island in Charleston harbor
President Lincoln received an urgent dispatchfrom the fort’s commander, Maj. AndersonConfederacy was demanding that he surrenderor face an attack, and his supplies of food andammunition would last 6 wks. the mostLincoln faced a dilemma. If he ordered: the Navy into Charleston harbor he would be responsible for starting hostilities which might prompt the other slave states to secede the fort evacuated, he would be treating the Confederacy as a legitimate nation angering the Republican Party, weakening his administration, and endangering the Union.
Lincoln’s plan: not abandon or reinforce: send“food for hungry men”Now, Jefferson Davis faced a dilemma Nothing- damage the image of the Confederacy as a sovereign independent nation Ordered an attack on Ft. Sumter- turn peaceful secession into warDavis chose war4:30 am- April 12th, Confederate batteriesthundered awaySouth Carolinians bombarded the fort withmore than 4,000 rounds before Andersonsurrendered
Why did Jefferson Davis Answer: He was afraidchoose to go to war? that some Southern states might rejoin the Union
News of Ft. Sumter’s fall united the NorthLincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to servefor 3 monthsResponse was overwhelming- In Iowa alone,20x the states quota rushed to enlistApril 17th, VA unwilling to fight against S.States secededVA was the most heavily populated state inthe South and the most industrialized[ironworks and navy yard]May- Arkansas, Tennessee and N.C. followedWestern counties of VA seceded from VA tobecome West VA in 1863MD, Delaware, Kentucky and Missouriremained in the Union, but many citizensfought for the Confederacy
Northern and Confederatesalike expected a short,glorious warSoldiers left for the front withbands playing and crowdscheeringBoth sides felt that right wason their side.
Samuel “Sam” Rush Watkins (June 26, 1839 – July20, 1901) was a noted Confederate soldier duringthe Civil War. He is known for his memoir CompanyAytch: Or a Side Show of the Big Show, oftenheralded as one of the best primary sources aboutthe common soldiers Civil War experience.
Union Confederate Enormous advantages in King Cotton [& profits on the resources world market] More fighting power A strong military traditions More factories Highly motivated soldiers Greater food production defending their homeland More extensive railroad system South had a tradition of local Lincoln- a decisive yet patient and limited government- so leader, skillful at balancing there was resistance to the political factions centralization of government necessary to run a war Several S. governors refused to cooperate with Confederate government because of their assertion of states’ rights
Contrast the strengths of Answer: The North hadthe North & the South. more resources such as fighting power, factories, and railroad lines. The South had cotton profits, good generals, and the motivation of defending its homeland.
Union Confederate3 part plan: Mostly defensive 1. The Union navy would blockade S. leaders encouraged their Southern ports, so they could generals to attack- and even to neither export cotton nor import invade the North- if the much-needed manufactured goods opportunity arose. 2. Union riverboats and armies would move down the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in 2 3. Union armies would capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, VA Anaconda plan- n. a three-part strategy by which the Union proposed to defeat the Confederacy in the Civil War.
1st major bloodshed- July 21st186130,000 inexperienced Unionsoldiers strode towards theConfederate capital Richmond,100 mi. from D.C.Came upon equallyinexperienced Confederate armyLincoln commanded Gen. IrvinMcDowell to attackBattle was like a seesawConfederates held on led by Gen.Thomas J. Jackson.Confederate reinforcementsarrived and won for the southUnion troops panicked andretreated to capital
Gen. Thomas J. Jackson- January21st, 1824- May 10th, 1863Received nickname from ageneral who shouted: “There isJackson standing like a stonewall”1 of the best-known ConfederatecommandersAccidently shot by Confederatepickets at the Battle ofChancellorsville [May 2nd, 1863]Survived but lost an arm and diedof complications frompneumonia 8 days later
In D.C., ladies and gentlemenput on their best clothes andbrought food and icedchampagne to observe thefirst encounter of the warWhen the Confederatesforced the Union to retreat,the Northerners were blockedby the carriages of thepanicking civiliansAfter the disaster, no one inthe North predicted that thewar would be over after justone skirmishConfederates were tooexhausted to follow and stormD.C.Confederate morale soared
How did Southerners Answer: Morale improvedreact to the outcome of and ConfederatesBull Run? thought the war was over.
Lincoln responded by callingfor the enlistment of 500,000men to serve for 3 yrs. Insteadof 3 mos.3 days later- called for anadditional 500,000 menAppointed General GeorgeMcClellan to lead the newUnion Army encamped nearD.C.Drilled this Army of thePotomacWestern army began to fightfor control of the Mississippi
Feb. 1862, Union armyinvaded W. TennesseeHead by Gen. Ulysses S. GrantIn 11 days, captured 2Confederate forts that heldstrategic positions onimportant riversFt. Henry- Tennessee RiverFt. Donelson- CumberlandRiverInformed S. commander: “noterms except unconditionaland immediate surrender canbe accepted”
(April 27, 1822 – July 23,1885)Rumpled, failed ateverything in civilian life Farmer Bill collector Real estate agent Store clerkWas brave, tough, anddecisive militarycommanderCalled- “UnconditionalSurrender” Grant
Late March, 1862Grant gathered troops by a smallchurch in Shiloh [TN] close toMississippi borderApril 6th, thousands of yellingConfederate soldiers surprisedUnion forcesMany Union troops shot whilemaking coffee, some died still intheir blanketsGrant reorganized, orderedreinforcements, counterattackedat dawnMidafternoon, Confederate armyin retreat
Grant learned to: Send out scouts Dig trenches Build fortifications¼ of the 100,000 troops werekilled, wounded or capturedBattle was a drawLarge impact on warConfederates failed to hold onto its Ohio-Kentucky frontierPart of the Union plan- takethe Mississippi and split theConfederacy might succeed
What did the battle of Answer: The war wouldShiloh show about the produce an unexpectedlyfuture course of the Civil high number ofWar? causalities; also, the North would probably win, since it had nearly split the Confederacy.
As Grant moved towards the Mississippi, a Union flet of 40 shipsapproached the river’s mouth is LouisianaCommander was 60 yr old David G. Farragut- assigned to seizeNew Orleans, the Confederacy’s largest portApril 24th, Farragut ran his fleet past 2 forts in spite of boomingenemy guns and fire rafts heaped with burning pitch5 days later, the U.S. flag flew over New OrleansNext 2 mo., Farragut took control of Baton Rouge and NatchezIf Union captured all major cities along the lower Mississippi, TX,LA, AK, TN would be cut offOnly Port Hudson, LA, and Vicksburg, MS stood in the way
Ironclads New Weapons Ship could splinter wooden ships Inventions: Withstand cannon fire Rifle- more accurate then muskets Resist burning and could load quicker Grant used 4 ironclad ships when he Minié ball- soft lead bullet more captured Fts. Henry & Donelson destruction March 9th 1862, 2 ironclads- N. Primitive hand grenades Monitor & S. Merrimack sunk fought Primitive land mines March 8th 1862- Merrimack attacked 3 wooden Union warships- sinking 1, burning 2 and driving 3 away Monitor arrived and engaged Battle was a draw, wooden ships era over
What advantages did Answer: Ironclads wereironclad ships have over fire-resistant and strongerwooden ships? than wooden ships.
How did technology Answer: More accurateaffect military strategy weapons ended relianceduring the Civil War? on unprotected infantry charges and started the use of trench warfare. Ironclad ships made wooden navies obsolete.
Both the Union and Confederatearmies had soldiers who wereunder 18Union soldier- Arthur MacArthurbecame a Col. at 195% of Confederates were 17 oryoungerSome as young as 131.5% for the UnionThese #s don’t count those thatran away to follow each armywithout officially enlisting
As the campaign in the west progressed & the Union navytightened its blockade of the Southern ports- plan 3 [capture thecapital] falteredProblems: Gen. McClellan- excellent administrator & popular, was too cautious Would not move to Richmond without 270,000 troops Complained of only 2 bridges across Potomac- not enough for orderly retreat just in case N. papers mocked his daily bulletins of “all quiet on the Potomac”Lincoln commented he would like to “borrow McClellan’s army ifthe general himself was not going to use it”
Contrast Grant and Answer: Grant wasMcClellan as Generals decisive, aggressive, and did not give up in spite of setbacks. McClellan was indecisive and reluctant to attack.
Grant = bull dogHe looks to Abraham Lincoln and boasts, "Im bound to take it." Grant refersto the city of Richmond, here represented by a doghouse, in which cowersConfederate president Jefferson Davis. DavisAt far left a dwarf-like McClellan asks the president, ". . . dont you think youhad better call the old dog off now. Im afraid hell hurt those other dogs, if hecatches hold of them."Lincoln :"Why little Mac thats the same pack of curs, that chased you aboardof the Gunboat two years ago, they are pretty nearly used up now. I think itsbest to give the old bull dog full swing to go in and finish them!"Lincoln refers to McClellans failure to counterattack during the Battle ofMalvern Hill in 1862.
The poem was based on newspaper reports of "all isquiet tonight", which was based on official telegramssent to the Secretary of War by Major-General GeorgeB. McClellan following the First Battle of Bull Run.Beers noticed that the report was followed by a smallitem telling of a picket being killed. She wrote thepoem that same morning, and she read it inSeptember 1861.
After waiting all winter, McClellan finally went inthe spring of 1862Transported the Army of the Potomac slowlytoward the Confederate capitalEncountered an army commanded by Gen.Joseph E. JohnstonAfter a series of battles, Johnston waswounded, and command of the army passed toRobert E. Lee
(January 19, 1807 – October 12,1870)Modest, willing to go beyondmilitary textbooks in his tacticsOpposed secessionDeclined an offer to head theUnion army and sided with VADetermined to save RichmondFought in the 7 Days’ Battles[June 5th to July 1st, 1862]Confederates had fewer soldiersand suffered higher casualitiesDetermination & unorthodoxtactics unnerved McClellan thathe backed away from Richmond& headed down the peninsula to Lee in 1838sea
Lee moved against the enemy’s capitalAugust 29th & 30th, his troops won a resounding victory at the 2ndBattle of Bull RunFew days later crossed the Potomac into Union MDMcClellan had a stroke of luckA Union corporal exploring a meadow found a copy of Lee’s armyorders wrapped around a bunch of cigarsPlan revealed Lee’s and Stonewall’s armies were separatedMcClellan acted aggressively and ordered men after LeeSept. 17th, creek- AntietamBloodiest single day battle in American history26,000 casualties, as many as in War of 1812Instead of pursuing the battered Confederates, McClellan did nothingBattle was a standoff, but the S. lost a qtr. Of the menNovember 7th, 1862- Lincoln fired McClellan characterized as having“the slows”
For each month listed below, create anewspaper headline summarizing a key CivilWar battle that occurred. Write your headlinesin a chart like the one shown: 1861 Month: Headline - April - July 1862 Month: Headline - February - April - September
Recall a time when two of your friends wereangry at each other. How did it make you feel?What, if anything, did you do to resolve thesituation?
# of economic factors madeBritain no longer dependent onS. cotton Accumulation of a huge cotton inventory just before the outbreak of war New sources of cotton in Egypt and India Northern wheat and corn replaced cotton as an essential import when Europe’s crop failed“Old King Cotton’s dead andburied”Britain decided that neutralitywas the best policy- for awhile…
Fall of 1861, an incident to test neutrality occurredConfederate government sent 2 diplomats- James Mason & JohnSlidell in a 2nd attempt to gain support from Britain and FranceTravelled aboard a British merchant ship, The TrentCaptain Charles Wilkes of the San Jacinto stopped the Trent andarrested 2 menBritish threatened war against the Union & dispatched 8,000troops to CanadaLincoln freed the 2 prisoners, publicly claiming that Wilkes actedwithout ordersBritain was as relieved as the U.S. to find a peaceful way out ofcrisis
South struggled in vainto gain foreignrecognition, abolitionistfeeling gew in the North.Some N. believed thatjust winning the warwould not be enough ifslavery was notpermanently settledAlthough Lincoln dislikedslavery, he did notbelieve that the federalgovernment had thepower to abolish whereit already existed
Horace Greeley urgedLincoln in 1862 totransform the war into anabolitionist crusadeLincoln replied thatalthough it was hispersonal wish that allmen could be free, hisofficial duty was differentAs the war progressed,Lincoln did find a way tose his constitutional warpowers to end slavery
Just as he could order the Unionarmy to seize Confederate The Proclamation did not freesupplies, he could also authorize any slaves immediately b/c itthe army to emancipate slaves only applied to areas behindEmancipation offered a strategic Confederate lines, outsidebenefit Union controlAbolitionist movement wasstrong in Britain and would Proclamation was a militarydiscourage Britain from action aimed at the states insupporting the Confederacy rebellionJanuary 1st, 1863- the It did not apply to SouthernEmancipation Proclamation- territory already occupied by[n. an executive order issued Union stroops nor to slaveby Abraham Lincoln on states that had not seceded.January 1, 1863, freeing theslaves in all regions behindConfederate lines] was issued.
In what ways was the Answer: It allowed freeEmancipation blacks to enlist in theProclamation a part of Union army, helpedLincoln’s military persuade Britain not tostrategy? support the South, and added moral inspiration to the Northern cause.
Proclamation did not have much practicaleffect, it had symbolic importanceGave the war a high moral purpose by turningthe struggle into a fight to free the slavesGreat Britain- guaranteed that they would nothelp the ConfederacyFree blacks welcomed the section of theProclamation that allowed them to enlist in theUnion armyRegular army previously refused to take them
Northern Confederacy Not everyone in the North Confederates reacted to the approved Proclamation with outrage Democrats claimed it would Jefferson Davis called it: “the only provoke war by most execrable [hateful] antagonizing the South measure recorded in the history Union soldiers accepted it of guilty man” grudgingly saying they had no Made the Confederacy more love for abolitionists or African determined than ever to fight Americans to preserve its way of life They agreed to support it if it Confederacy knew if they lost, would reunify the nation its slave-holding society would Union knew that it could win perish only by completely defeating the Confederacy Turned the war into a fight to the death
What effect did theEmancipationProclamation have on thewar? Answer: It increased the size of the Union Army and hardened the Confederacy’s position. It thus intensified the conflict, making compromise unthinkable.
February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865Born to illiterate parentsChildhood- “absolutely nothing toexcite ambition for education”Educated himselfWorked as a rail-splitter,storekeeper, surveyor beforeteaching himself lawIn Europe people were fixed in thestation through birthIn U.S.A. Lincoln was free toachieve whatever he couldDescribed the nation as “the lastbest hope on earth”
June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889Named after Thomas JeffersonBorn in KY, raised in MSGraduated from West PointServed in the army, then became aplanterSenator- 1846, 1856- resigned whenMS secededElection as Pres. of Confederacydismayed himWife Varina wrote: “I thought hisgenius was military, but as a partymanager he would not succeed.”Davis had poor relations withConfederate leadersThey put their state welfare abovethe Confederacy
Mary Todd-Lincoln Varina Howell-Davis December 13, 1818 – July 16, May 7, 1826 – October 16, 1906 1882 "the South did not have the While the Civil War dragged on, material resources to win the war Southerners scorned her as a and white Southerners did not have traitor to her birth, and citizens the qualities necessary to win it; loyal to the Union suspected that her husband was unsuited for her of treason. political life; that maybe women were not the inferior sex; and that perhaps it was a mistake to deny women the suffrage before the war."
Union ConfederacySome Confederate sympathizers in N. Davis first denounced Lincoln’sBaltimore crowd attacked a Unionregiment a week after Ft. Sumter suspension of civil libertiesLincoln sent federal troops to MD However, 1862- suspendedEnacted habeas corpus- n. a court order habeas corpus in therequiring authorities to bring a prisoner Confederacybefore the court so that the court can Lincoln’s actions dramaticallydetermine whether the prisoner is being expanded presidential powersheld legally. during wartime and set aUsed to deal with dissent in other states precedent in U.S. history13,000 arrested, held without trial- mostreleased quickly Currently some presidents citeSeized telegraph offices to prevent war or “national security” as asubversion reason to expand the powers ofChief Justice Roger Taney declared the executive branchLincoln went beyond constitutionalruling, Lincoln ignored thisCopperheads- n. a Northern Democratwho advocated making peace with theConfederacy during the Civil War.
What actions did Lincoln Answer: He used federaltake to deal with dissent? troops to deal with unrest; suspended habeas corpus in some states; ordered the arrest of suspected Confederate sympathizers; took control of some telegraph offices.
Title: Downfall of the Idol of‘76 Year: 1863 Creator: MattMorgan, Fun, LondonDescription: A Paper effigy ofAmerican liberties inRevolutionary War garb is beingburned by actions supposedlytaken by the Lincolnadministration – Emancipation,the Draft, and Suspension ofHabeas Corpus. President Lincolncrouches in front, saying: “I’mllwarm yer! Your old Constitutionwon’t do for U.S.!”
Both armies originally relied on volunteersHeavy casualties and widespread desertions led to conscriptionConscription- n. the drafting of citizens for military service.Confederacy passed a draft law in 1862Union followed in 1863Confederate law drafted all able-bodied white men [18-35] [1864 changedto 17-50]Those who could afford to were allowed to hire substitutesExempted planters who owned 20 or more slavesPoor Confederates howled that “it was a rich man’s war but a poor man’sfight”90% of eligible Southern men served in the armyUnion law- white men 20-45 for 3 yrs.Allowed draftees to hire substitutesProvided commutation, $300 fee to avoid conscription46,000 draftees went, 92% of 2 million soldiers were volunteers180,000 of them were African America
1863- NYC was ready to explodePoor people crowded in slums, crime and disease ran rampant,and poverty was ever-presentPoor white workers, especially Irish immigrants thought it wasunfair that they should fight a war to free slavesWhite workers feared Southern blacks would come North andcompete for jobsWhen officials began to draw names, angry men complained4 days- July 13th-16th, mobs rampaged through the city.The rioters wrecked draft offices, Republican newspaper offices,homes of antislavery leadersAttacked well-dressed men, African AmericansFederal troops ended the melee, more than 100 persons laydead