Independence p1


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Independence p1

  1. 1. INDEPENDENCE { Unit 2
  2. 2. Learning Goal: Explain theCauses of the Revolution
  3. 3. Complete the Cause& Effect Worksheetwith your table team { Warm Up
  4. 4. The French and Indian War (1756-1763)Causes of the Revolution:The French & Indian War
  5. 5. 1763 1763 Treaty of Paris Treaty of Paris France 1763 Canadian possessions, Treaty of Paris France lost her Canadian possessions, lost her most of her empire inCanadian India, and claims France lost her empire and claims most of her India, in possessions, to lands east of empireof the Mississippi River. most of her the Mississippi River. to lands east in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River.Spain got all French lands west of the of the Spain got all French lands westMississippi River, New Orleans. west of the SpainMississippi River, New Orleans. got all French lands Mississippi River, New Orleans.ngland England French lands in Canada, Canada, got all got all French lands inxclusiveexclusive all French lands in Canada, England got Caribbean slave trade, and rights to rights to Caribbean slave trade, an exclusive rights todominance slave trade, and Caribbeanommercial dominance in India. in India. commercial commercial dominance in India.
  6. 6. 1. onempire in It increased her colonial Britain?the Americas.increased her colonial empire in 1. It the Americas.2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt.3. Britain’sIt greatly enlarged England’s debt. 2. contempt for the colonials 3. Britain’s contempt for the colonialscreated bitter feelings. created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her that a Therefore, England felt American Empire was necessary! her major reorganization of American Empire was necessary! Effects of the war on Britain
  7. 7. 1. Itunited them against aacommon united them against common 1. It 1. It united them against a common enemy for the the time. enemy for first time. enemy for the first first time. Itcreated aasocializing experience for created socializing experience for 2. It 2. It created a socializing experience for2. allthe colonials whowho participated.all the the colonials participated. all colonials who participated. Itcreated bitter feelings towards the created bitter feelings towards the 3. It 3. It created bitter feelings towards the3. Britishthat that would only intensify. that would only intensify. British would only intensify.British Effects of the War on Colonists
  8. 8.  Proclamation of 1763: British restrict movement of colonists into interior [bar settlement w. of Appalachians] Government wants less conflict with Native Americans, but colonists want expansion { Government burdened w/ massive war debt George III takes throne [1760] – immature stubborn, erratic, wants to assert power of monarchy 1763: A Turning Point
  9. 9.  Pass a series of tax laws and have the Colonists help pay back the debt. Pass a law restricting Colonists from moving westward and settling the N.W. Territory Keep British troops in N. America to stop Indian attacks and protect the Colonies. Stop the smuggling of Colonials by enforcing the Navigation Acts with a series of unrestricted search warrants England’s Solutions
  10. 10.  Because people in England faced high taxes, Grenville [new prime minister] decides to tax colonies to pay debts Colonists advocate ‚actural representation‛: ‚No taxation without representation!‛ George Grenville’s Program: 1763-1765  Sugar Act – 1764  Currency Act – 1764  Quartering Act- 1765  Stamp Act 1765New Taxes
  11. 11. The HATED Stamp Act
  12. 12.  Tax on legal documents, playing cards, newspapers, et.c A direct tax which went to the British government Colonists HATED it Stamp Act protests led by the Sons of Liberty The Stamp Act •Tax on legal documents, playing cards, newspapers, etc. •A direct tax which went to the British government.
  13. 13. Paul Revere •Sons of Liberty was a secret society formed in protest of British rule. •They had a large role in the repeal of the Stamp Act and the Boston TeaSamuel Adams Party. •9 original members which included the leaders Samuel Adams and Paul Revere “If our trade be taxed, why not our lands, or produce, in short, everything we possess? They tax us without having legal representation.” Samuel Adams
  14. 14.  The act’s primary purpose was to raise revenue to support British troops stationed in America.  The issues raised were these:  Does Parliament have the right to tax colonies?  Can Parliament truly reflect colonial interests?  A debate was provoked over the issue, ‚no taxation without representation.‛Stamp Act- 1765
  15. 15.  The colonists demonstrated their willingness to use violence rather than legal means to frustrate British policy  The British maintained that the colonies had no right to independence from parliamentary authority.  Patriot leaders claimed that the act denied them their British birthrights.  Many colonists believed they were entitled to all the rights and privileges of British subjects.Act was repealed because of a colonial boycott of British exports Importance of the Stamp Act
  16. 16.  While the Sons celebrated, they hardly noticed a new law- Declaratory Act Parliament asserts authority over coloniesDeclaratory Act
  17. 17.  1767- Charles Townshend, Britain’s finance minister believed Stamp Act was opposed b/c it was collected w/in the colonies- but if they were collected at ports- the would be ok… Taxed imports: paper, paint, lead, glass, tea Shift from paying taxes for British War debts & qrt-ing of British troops to paying col. Govt. salaries Increase custom officials at American ports- established a Board of Customs in BostonThe Townshend Acts
  18. 18.  Women active- especially w/ home manufacturing & Daughters of Liberty Boycotts resume Still divisions, especially w/ merchants who are hurt economically by noncosumption Artisans are again central; protests cut imports, but often violent- scare colonial elite Duties repealed, except tea and salaries postponed RESISTANCE
  19. 19. •1768—1770, British  1768-1770- British soldiers arrived in Boston, MA to in soldiers arrived maintain ordermaintain Boston, MA to and order and enforce the enforce the taxes the colonists colonists were taxes the were asked to pay afterpay after asked to the French _________ and Indian.  The people of Boston •The people British resented the of Boston resentedand considered soldiers the British soldiers and considered them a foreign presence them a foreign presence.Confrontations in Boston
  20. 20.  High tensions between British and Bostonians over enforcing • B British policies March 1770, the British shed • s Colonial blood for first time The relationship between the be Colonies & England would never improve • Used as propaganda to convince people of the colonial cause FIRST BLOOD
  21. 21. Th Bo s tMassaMar c 177EngravPaul R
  22. 22. •The 5 Colonists • The 5 ColonistsBoston Mass. killed at the killed at the Boston Boston Massacre Massacre would becomebecome would martyrs martyrs for the for the Colonial Colonial cause cause. • They would be •They would be buried in the same buried in the cemetaries as Paul same cemeteries Reverie and as Paul Revere Samuel Adams and Samuel Adams. • British soldiers •British soldiers were tried in court were tried in & 2 were found guilty and 2 were court of manslaughter of found guilty manslaughter.
  23. 23.  Tea Act, East India Company- the Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound. Tea is a key symbol of earlier resistance Tea Act [1773] saves East India Company from bankruptcy Upset patriots, who see act as either a new tax or 1st step in a monopoly on all trade British Restrictive Policies
  24. 24. The Boston Tea Party
  25. 25.  Tea Party –[Dec. 16]: artisans are key, but a cross- section of community participates Parliament responds w/ Coercive Acts [4]1. Port Act closes Boston until tea reimbursed2. Massachusetts Government Act weakens elected bodies and strengthens appointed ones3. Justice Act protects royal officials charged w/ crimes by moving trial4. Quartering Act allows seizure of private buildings for housing troops Tea & Turmoil
  26. 26.  Patriots agree to intercolonial mtg. to decide response, but no not call for revolution 1763-1774: key because many colonists become politically active & begin to see clear differences w/ England American identity emerges from interaction between British action and colonial response Colonial Response
  27. 27.  ‚Common Sense‛ was a political pamphlet written by Thomas Paine. The pamphlet was a strongly worded call for independence from Great Britain. Paine opposed monarchy (he called King George a Pharaoh!) and strongly favored republican government. Paine offered a vigorous defense of republican principles. Paine’s words helped overcome the loyalty many still felt for the monarchy and the mother country. Paine used biblical analogies and references to illustrate his arguments. Common Sense - 1776
  28. 28. Thomas Paine
  29. 29.  Enlightenment is an eighteenth-century philosophy stressing that reason can be used to improve the human condition. Enlightenment thinkers, such as Thomas Jefferson, stressed the idea of natural rights – an idea that can be seen clearly in the second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence. ‚We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.‛ Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson were representative examples of American Enlightenment thinkers. Enlightenment
  30. 30. Jefferson & Franklin
  31. 31.  Deism is the belief that God created a universe that is governed by natural law.  These natural laws can be discovered by the use of human reason.Deism
  32. 32. Constructive elements of deist thought included: • God exists, created and governs the universe. • God gave humans the ability to reason.Critical elements of deist thought included:• Rejection of all religions based on books that claim to contain the revealed word of God.• Rejection of all religious dogma and demagogy.• Rejection of reports of miracles, prophecies and religious "mysteries".
  33. 33. British vs. United States Factors Factors Great Britain Great Britain U.S. United States United StatesFactors Great BritainPopulation Population Approximately 12 million Approximately 3 million and Approximately 12 million Approximately 3 million and 1/3 loyal to England. 1/3 loyal to England.ManufacturingManufacturing Highly developed Highly developed Practically none Practically noneMoney Richest country in the No $$$ to support the war No $$$ to support the warMoney Richest country in the world world Large, well trained army Volunteers, poorly Volunteers, poorlyArmy Army Large, well trained army equipped plus Hessians plus Hessians equippedLeaders Few officers capable of Dedicated (though not Dedicated (though not Leaders Few officers capable of experienced) officers leading leading experienced) officersGeography Strange land---difficult to Familiar land, easy accessGeography re-supply land---difficult to to supplies Strange troops re-supply troops Familiar land, easy access to suppliesNavy Navy Naval world power Naval world power No navy No navyWill to FightWill to Fight Trained soldiers---but no Defending homeland--- Trained soldiers---but no Defending homeland--- heart in the fight heart in the fight strong will to fight strong will to fight
  34. 34. British Troop Deployment
  35. 35. •After the Boston Tea Party the British After the Boston Tea Party more troops to send the British send enforce the more troops to enforce the Acts. Intolerable Intolerable Acts •Colonial militias Colonial for war. prepare militias prepare for war. On the Verge…
  36. 36. Sept 1774: First Continental Congress assembles in Philadelphia  How to respond to crisis in BostonThe First Continental Congress
  37. 37.  56 delegates met in Philadelphia; all colonies represented except Georgia  Some delegates wanted to make peace while others desired to fight the British.1st Continental Congress
  38. 38. First Continental Congress’  Response:  Continue boycott  Prepare militia incase violence breaks out  Meet again May 1775The First ContinentalCongress
  39. 39.  King George III [Nov. 1774]: ‚The New England Governments are in a State of Rebellion, blows must decide whether they are to be subject to this Country or independent.‛  Parliament ordered General Thomas Gage to put down the rebellion.‚The last straw‛
  40. 40. List the causes of the  American Revolution: Taxes PhilosophiesSummarizer
  41. 41. The Shot heard‘round the World. The Revolution Begins… {
  42. 42.  Learning Goal: Explain how the 1st and 2nd Continental Congress influenced the early Revolution  Warm Up: Review sheets on the Declaration of Independence with a PartnerWarm Up
  43. 43. The “Shot Heard round the World”Minutemen—members of the Boston militia
  44. 44. The “Shot Heard round the World”April 1775: Gage decides to seize minutemen weapons at ConcordSons of Liberty learn of plan General Thomas Gage
  45. 45. SHOT HEARD ‘ROUND THE WORLD  •Britishsearching for British searching for stolen weapons; stolen weapons– ‚search and seizure” “search and seizure”  Stopped at Lexington •Stopped at Lexington and 56 and encountered Minutemen encountered 56 •Minutemen stood up Minutemen for what theystood up  Minutemen believed was their land for what they believed was their landShot heard ‘round the world
  46. 46. The “Shot Heard round the World” Paul Revere William Dawes Paul Revere and William Dawes rodethrough the countryside warning of the British march on Concord
  47. 47. Morning, April 19: 70 minutemen gathered at Lexington meet much larger British force “Do not fire unless fired upon…”The “Shot Heard round theWorld”
  48. 48.  British march on Concord Weapons already removed Set fire to buildings, attacked by minutemenThe “Shot Heard round theWorld”
  49. 49. Begin retreat back toBostonRedcoats—nickname forBritish soldiers, whoseuniforms made them idealtargets The “Shot Heard round the World”
  50. 50. British return to Boston, 5,000 Minutement attack British troops  Americans  90 dead, wounded, or capture  British  250 dead, wounded, or capturedBattles of LEXTINGTON& CONCORD
  51. 51. The “Shot Heard round the World”  Colonists outraged and shocked “The Bloody Butchery of the British Troops”
  52. 52.  May 1775: delegates •Came together assemble at again after the Philadelphia battles of battles of Lexington and  Olive Branch Concord, May 10, Petition 1775.  Organize and funded an army to defend the colonies•Organized first American army called the Continental Army and appointed George Washington as our Commanding General. •Willing to stay part of the empire but King must “redress ourThe Second Continental Congress grievances”
  53. 53.  Colonial leaders met in Philadelphia, PA to discuss their options in response to the Intolerable Acts  The decision was to negotiate with King George III and send him a declaration of their willingness to remain British  BUT, they have grievances which they want the King and Parliament to address  AND, they instructed the local militias in each town to begin preparing for war with the MINUTEMEN!Olive Branch Petition
  54. 54. George Washington John Hancock Who would be our first commanding general?•2nd Continental Congress based their decision on the followingconsiderations: •Political •Economic George Washington was chosen •Military based on his qualifications and these considerations. •Social
  55. 55. “But lest some unlucky event shouldhappen unfavourable to my reputation, I beg it may be remembered by every Gentleman in the room, that I this day declare with the utmost sincerity, I do not think myself equal to the Command I am honored with.” --George Washington
  56. 56.  1st U.S. Army made up of volunteers, militias and Minutemen of •First US Army made up volunteers, militias and  George Washington chosen as the 1st Minutemen. Commanding General •George Washington chosen  Not an army of professionals but mostly as the first Commanding farmers General.  Lacked the discipline of a professional •Not an army of army professionals but mostly farmers.  Lacked resources, men weren’t paid and some quit after the 1st few battles  2nd Continental Congress lackedcipline of a professional army at first. supply army. resources toces, men weren’t paid and some quit after the first Continental Armyl Congress lacked resources to supply army.
  57. 57. •June 17, 1775 •June 17, 1775•The British suffered •The British sufferedover 40% casualties. over 40% casualties. •2,250 men •2,250 men •1,054 injured •1,054 injured •226 killed •226 killed•Americans: Moral •Americans: Moralvictory victory •800 men •800 men •140 killed •140 killed •271 wounded •271 wounded•King George sends10,000George sends •King Hessian soldiers 10,000 Hessian soldiersto help put down therebellion. down the to help put rebellion.
  58. 58. Battle of Bunker Hill raised the moral of the American Army though the British won the battle and suffered severe casualties. The Americans held there own against the greatest army in the world. The British never broke out of Boston or gained access to the countryside which the American army held.
  59. 59. Battle of Bunker Hill raised the moral of the American Army though the British won the battle and suffered severe casualties. The Americans held there own against the greatest army in the world. The British never broke out of Boston or gained access to the countryside which the American army held.
  60. 60. First Continental Second Continental Congress Congress
  61. 61.  Learning Goal: Compare and Contrast ‚Common Sense‛ with the Declaration of Independence‛ [8.11.14, 1.11.14]  Warm Up: List the philosophies of the 17th century and rank their importance on the Declaration of Independence.Independence Declared