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  1. 1. What isCommunism? { Supplemental
  2. 2. What is Communism? This is the symbol of Communism – The Hammer and the Sickle Hammer for the Sickle for Workers the Peasants – Who are the farm these labourers dudes?
  3. 3. ‘Those dudes’ wrote the ‘Communist Manifesto’ in 1847. It’s a short book – but billions of people have read it….What is Communism?This is Karl Marx, the ‘Father of This is his good friend,Communism’. People who believe Frederick his ideas are called ‘Marxists’
  4. 4.  Marx and Engels studied the history of the world’s economies. This means the way that power, industry and finance are controlled. They saw the way countries developed in stages. Communism Socialism Capitalism Feudalism Explain these please! PrimitiveCommunism What is Communism?
  5. 5. What is Communism? This is how humans first lived together – in small tribes. Primitive means ‘not very advanced’ e.g. hunting and gathering. Communism means that everything was shared amongst the tribe – food, Primitive jobs, belongings. No-one owned land. Eventually a Communism group comes to power – this leads to Feudalism…
  6. 6. What is Communism? Under feudalism, a He gives land king or emperor or and privileges chief becomes the to ‘nobles’ who ruler over all the rule the people people. for him. The people are kept uneducated Feudalism and told that As trade develops, god chose some people get the king to richer. This leads to rule. The Capitalism….. Primitive church helpsCommunism the king this way.
  7. 7. What is Communism? The capitalists get more power to serveThe business their ownowners or interests.capitalists get Capitalismricher whilethe workers doall the hard Feudalism Capitalism creates a huge working-work. class of people who soon get angry at the way they are treated. They organise in unions and demand changes. This will lead to a revolution and Socialism…
  8. 8. What is Communism? The workers Because nothing is take control of made for profit, all the country to people benefit from produce things education and health. for everyone. Socialism These ideas spread across the world to create Capitalism Communism…. In the Socialist revolution all the rulers – kings, churches, capitalists are got rid of.
  9. 9. What is Communism? The remaining capitalists put up a bitter fight, but Communism the will of the people will always win. SocialismAs everyone now works together, All human activitywar is a thing of the past – goes towardsarmies are not needed. Sharing benefiting eachmeans no police are needed. other – allowing allEverything is provided by the to live their lives topeople – so money becomes a the full.
  10. 10. Capitalism vs.Communism { An inside look on the differences
  11. 11.  The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between capitalism and communism, centering around the global superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union. It lasted from about 1947 to the period leading to the collapse of the Soviet Union on December 25, 1991 The Cold War
  12. 12. Cuban Missile Crisis A confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States regarding the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba. The missiles were ostensibly placed to protect Cuba from attack by the United States, and were rationalized by the Soviets as retaliation for the U.S. placing deployable nuclear warheads in Turkey.
  13. 13.  The crisis started on October 16, 1962, when U.S. reconnaissance data revealing Soviet nuclear missile installations on the island was shown to U.S. President John F. Kennedy, and ended twelve days later on October 28, 1962, when Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announced that the installations would be dismantled. The Cuban Missile Crisis is regarded as the moment when the Cold War came closest to escalating into a nuclear war. Cuban Missile Crisis
  14. 14.  How would you define “capitalism”?  What other words come to mind when you think of the word “capitalism”?  Are these associations positive or negative?Capitalism
  15. 15.  An economic system in which the means of production are owned mostly privately. Capital is invested in the production of goods for profit in a competitive free market. Capitalism
  16. 16.  Latin, caput, “head”  The term “capitalism” was first used in English in 1854.  Marxist writers originally popularized the term.Etymology
  17. 17.  The classical tradition in economic thought emerged in Britain in the late 18th century.  The classical economists included Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and John Stuart Mill.Classical Economics
  18. 18.  A Scottish political economist and moral philosopher (1723-1790).  His Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) founded the modern discipline of economics and provided the rationale for free trade, capitalism and libertarianism.Adam Smith
  19. 19.  In his mid-20s he began expounding “the obvious and simple system of natural liberty.”Natural Liberty
  20. 20.  Smith criticized mercantilism, the theory that large reserves of bullion are essential for economic success. The British government acquired colonies in order to acquire natural resources for its factories and markets for its finished goods. Mercantilism required that colonies not be allowed to industrialize or trade with countries other than the mother country. Mercantilism
  21. 21.  Smith criticized physiocracy, which taught that wealth originated in land. Smith argued that labor was the major source of wealth and that the division of labor was the key to economic growth. As productivity rises, wages will rise. Physiocracy
  22. 22.  The free market appears chaotic and unrestrained.  Actually, it is guided by “an invisible hand” to produce the right amount and variety of goods.  If a product shortage occurs, the price rises, establishing a profit margin that provides an incentive for others to enter production.The Invisible Hand
  23. 23.  While human motives are selfish and greedy, the competition in the free market tends to benefit society as a whole by keeping prices law, while still building in an incentive for a wide variety of goods and services.  He argued against the formation of monopolies.Social Benefit
  24. 24.  Smith attacked most forms of government interference in the economic process, including tariffs on imported goods.  Government restrictions on trade cause inefficiency and high prices.  “Laissez-faire” means “let them do.”Laissez-faire
  25. 25.  It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest.  We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but of their advantages.Self-Interest
  26. 26.  As every individual, therefore, endeavours as much as he can both to employ his capital in the support of domestic industry, and so to direct that industry that its produce may be of the greatest value; every individual necessarily labours to render the annual value of society as great as he can. National Wealth
  27. 27.  How would you define “communism”?  What other words come to mind when you think of the word “communism”?  Are these associations positive or negative?Communism
  28. 28.  An ideology that seeks to establish a future classless, stateless social organization, based upon common ownership of the means of production and the absence of private property.Communism
  29. 29.  Karl Marx (1818-1883) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and socialist revolutionary.  He is most famous for his analysis of history in terms of class struggles.Karl Marx
  30. 30.  The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.Communist Manifesto(1848)
  31. 31. Bolshevism  Marx’s ideas were adopted by French revolutionaries who founded the Paris Commune in 1871, the Russian Bolsheviks who overthrew the government in the 1917 October Revolution and the Chinese Communist Party which came to power in 1949.
  32. 32.  Marx was an atheist. He believed that religion was “the opiate of the people.” The owners of capital used religion to keep the peasants and workers subjugated by leading them to think, not of their present misery, of future happiness in heaven. Atheism
  33. 33.  Marx taught that paradise would appear on earth, following the destruction of capitalism and the state. Under capitalism, labor is alienated. In a communist society, human beings freely develop their nature in cooperative production. Under communism, there is no government and, accordingly, perfect freedom.Communist Paradise
  34. 34.  The nature of individuals depends on the material conditions determining their production.Human Nature Changes
  35. 35.  Marx traced the history of the various modes of production and predicted the collapse of the present one—industrial capitalism—and its replacement by communism, just as capitalism had replaced feudalism.  The appearance of communism would represent the end of history.Determinism
  36. 36.  Marx’s moral teaching was that the leaders of the Communist Party, which he termed “the vanguard of the proletariat,” were free to commit any crime as long as it served the end—the destruction of capitalism and the ushering in of communism. This historical process, he said, was inevitable. The End Justifies the Means
  37. 37.  Those who must sell their labor power are “proletarians.”  The person who buys the labor power someone who owns the land and technology to produce, is a “capitalist” or “bourgeoise.”  The proletarians inevitably outnumber the capitalists.Class Struggle
  38. 38.  Profit is “theft.”  It is the difference between the value of a good produced by a worker and the wages paid to the worker by the owner.  Due to competition among workers for employment, wages will decline, leading to poverty, misery and rebellion.Profit
  39. 39.  The state is “a committee of the bourgeoisie” and laws support the capitalists, the ruling class.  Class conflict between the proletariat and the capitalists can only be resolved by violent revolution.  A dictatorship of the working class is a temporary necessity before communism is possible.Revolution
  40. 40. The principle of distribution in communism, is “From each according to ability, to each according to need.”Justice
  41. 41.  Why do you think the United States won the Cold War?  Why has capitalism proven much more durable and attractive than communism?The Failure ofCommunism
  42. 42.  In the 20th century, it is estimated that 50 million people were killed in the name of communism.  Most of Marx’s predictions were wrong, such as that communist revolutions would occur only in industrial societies.  It is inconsistent with human nature.  It ignores the appeal of religion.Criticism of Communism