Explain effects of Islam on NorthAfricaLearning Goals
Pre-Historic Africa In early Africa: Hunter-Gather societies Small groups: 10-100 ppl Earliest Africans: “Efe”– Forest Dwellers Social Structure: Elder male in charge, Women = gatherers, No formal written laws! …they were Stateless Societies run by “Lineages”
“Lineages” (NC)• Who: Early-Africans• What: descendants of a common ancestor- family line.• Where: Africa• When: 800-1500• Why: in African societies, families are organized in these family groups
How do you trace ‘Lineage’? Patrilineal (NC) Matrilineal (NC)• Family line traced through • Family line traced through FATHER MOTHER• Inheritance passes from • Inheritance passes from father to son mother to SON• When a boy marries, his • MEN still hold the power wife & kids live with HIS & authority parents
“Stateless Societies” (NC)Who: AfricansWhat: African groups that developedsystems of governing based on lineages, notrulers; NO central power!!Where: CENTRAL AfricaWhen: 800-1500Why: instead of having one political ruler,authority was balanced among powerfullineages/families = different from the rest ofthe world
Muslim States• Muslims from Middle East travel into Northern Africa & bring ISLAM, so…• North Africa = Muslim!• Rulers = Muslim!• Islamic Law!• Many are still Muslim today!!
2 groups of Islamic North Africans:• Almoravids (1000s)• Almohads (1100s)
“Almoravids” (NC)• Who: Nomadic “Berbers” that became Islamic Africans• What: group of Berber Islamic Africans, a strict religious brotherhood that lived in a monastery; “people of the ribat/ (monastery)”• Where: NORTH Africa• When: 1000s-1100s• Why: they took over North Africa, Ghana, and Spain (where they were called the Moors) and made them Muslim
“Almohads” (NC)• Who: Nomadic “Berbers” who became Islamic Africans• What: group of Berber Islamic Africans that took over the Almoravids• Where: North Africa• When: 1100s• Why: they took over the Almoravids, conquered Spain– those areas have a lot of Muslims today..
Learning goalsExplain how the gold-salt tradeled to the rise of Ghana.Describe the Songhai empire.
1. Empire of Ghana• Berbers found out that camels could cover larger distances than other pack animals (oxen, donkeys, horses), so…. They travel on new routes across the desert & trade INCREASED!! (worksheet) The trade routes go through Ghana (wksht)• …what did they trade??....
• Ghana rulers controlled trade = becomes super rich• Trade = Ghana Islam• In 1076-- Almoravids conquer Ghana• = Gold & Salt trade is disrupted….• = Ghana never regains power!!
“Ghana” (NC)• Who: Soninke farmers• What: powerful empire founded by the Soninke farmers named after their war chief: Ghana; controlled Gold & Salt trade• Where: West Africa• When:• Why: Ghana rulers controlled trade in W. Africa & commanded a large army= powerful, rich empire; when trade fell apart so did their power
2. Mali Empire• So, Ghana declines in power…• = people in Ghana act on their own, control themselves• = miners find Gold! to the east of Ghana (near the ocean)• = trade routes to the East• = new group- Mali- become rich & seize power!!
“Sundiata” (NC)• Who: Mali’s first great leader• What: became Mali’s “Mansa” (Emperor), took over Ghana, & ruled successfully• Where: Mali, West Africa• When: 1210?-1255• Why: put able administrators in charge of Mali’s $$, defense, & foreign affairs; promoted agriculture; re-est. Gold-Salt trade = important center of trade
“Mansa Musa” (NC)• Who: important Islamic ruler of Mali after Sundiata• What: effectively ruled & expanded Mali• Where: Mali, West Africa• When: 1312-1332• Why: he expanded Mali to 2x the size of Ghana; divided large empire into provinces w/ governors; built mosques; Timbuktu became one of the most imp. Cities under him
#3. Ibn Battuta (NC)• Who: an Islamic traveler & historian• What: traveled to all Islamic countries & told people in Mali about it• Where: from North Africa, traveled to Mali• When: 1352• Why: he traveled to Islamic countries & learned about them – he then informed those in Mali about it
Last part on Mali…• After Mansa Musa:his successors lacked his ability to govern well… goldfields developed somewhere else• = Gold trade shifted and went away…• = The empire of Mali weakened!!
The end of the Songhai…• Songhai didn’t have modern weapons!! (only swords & spears) • = Morrocans invaded w. gunpowder & cannons!! AHH!• = Morrocan troops quickly defeat Songhai…• = ENDS 1000yrs. of powerful kingdoms in West Africa!!!
“Swahili”• Who: Bantu-speaking people• What: Arabic blended with Bantu Language = Swahili• Where: East Africa• When: 1100-1300• Why: this was created because of increasing trade between Bantus in East Africa & Persia, India, and Arabia.
Swahili-Speaking Areas of E. Africa SWAHILI [“the coast’] = Bantu + some Arabic
Great Zimbabwe [1200-1450] “Zimbabwe” = “stone enclosure”
“Great Zimbabwe” (NC)• Who: Shona people• What: a city which grew into an empire built on gold trade• Where: South-Eastern Africa• When: 1200-1450• Why: controlled trade routes = became rich & powerful = leaders taxed the traders who travelled through = became economic, political, religious center of it’s empire; eventually was abandoned
Manamotopa Empire [1450-1630]Who: Founded by Mutota from Great Zimbabwe What: new empire that replaced Great Zim in power; military dominated Why: conquered all of Zimbabwe; control of Eastern Africa; forced conquered areas to mine gold for them; Portuguese took over = European POWER!!