9.the americas a separate world 40000 bc to 700 ad


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9.the americas a separate world 40000 bc to 700 ad

  1. 1. The Americas: A Separate World 40,000 BC – 700 AD
  2. 2. 9.1 The Earliest Americans Learning Goal: Trace the route of the first inhabitant’ migration to the Americas
  3. 3. A Land Bridge <ul><li>The American Continents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American continents of North America and South America stretch 9,000 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The First Americans come from Asia over Beringia—a land bridge. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A Land Bridge <ul><li>Peopling of Americas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During Ice Ages glaciers extend over much of North America. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea levels drop; a land corridor is created between Asia and Alaska </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Americans arrive in the last Ice Age, 1.9 million to 10,000 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siberian hunters follow animals from Asia to Americas </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. A Land Bridge <ul><li>Peopling the Americas (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date of the first crossing might be from 40,000 to 10,000 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent findings suggest it happened earlier than previously thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most experts believe first Americans used land bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other believe people came by boat. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Hunters and Gatherers <ul><li>Chief Prey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mammoth is the largest prey of early Americans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mammoth provides materials for food, clothing, shelter, tools. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Hunters and Gatherers <ul><li>Following the Game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunters turn to smaller animals when mammoths die out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People also fish and gather plants and fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of the last Ice Age, glaciers melt and seas cover the land bridge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 10,000-12,000 years ago, people had spread across the Americas </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Spearheads Spearheads similar to these were first discovered near Clovis, New Mexico, and later throughout North America. Many of these artifacts date back to around 9500 B.C.
  9. 9. Analyzing Artifacts About 6000 B.C. Other points, buried beneath a layer of volcanic ash, are the oldest of all. They are about 8,000 years old. The ash arrived in the Calgary area about 6,300 years ago when Mount Mazama exploded. Deposits beneath this ash are older than the eruption. The bones above are the remains of a young bison butchered at the site. About 2500 B.C. The McKean style points are in the middle range. They are about 4,500 years old. About A.D. 1 The Pelican Lake style points are the youngest or most recent. They are about 2,000 years old.
  10. 10. Agriculture Creates a New Way of Life <ul><li>The Development of Farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 7,000 B.C., people in Mexico begin to raise crops from seeds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 3400 B.C., maize—corn—becomes the staple crop there. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People in the Tehuacan Valley develop advanced farming methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture spreads throughout Americas </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Agriculture Creates a New Way of Life <ul><li>Farming Brings Great Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture increases food supply, and leads to population growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger communities develop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are specialized skills in the arts. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade develops. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. 9.2 Early Mesoamerican Civilization Learning Goal: Identify contributions to later Mesoamerican Cultures
  13. 14. The Olmec <ul><li>1 st known civilization builders in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>Carved out a society [1200 BC] in jungles of S. Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the mother culture of Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>Thrived from 800-400 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in modern day Veracrus and Tabasco </li></ul>
  14. 15. Gulf Coast Geography <ul><li>Hot, humid- covered with swamps & jungle w/ giant trees blocking out the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 100 in. of rain/yr – caused severed flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: abundant deposits of salt & tar as well as fine clay for pottery making </li></ul><ul><li>Also wood and rubber from rain forest </li></ul>
  15. 16. Geography continued <ul><li>Hills to the N. provided hard stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for tools and monument building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rivers provided transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Flood planes provided fertile farming soil </li></ul>
  16. 17. San Lorenzo [1150 BC] <ul><li>Included earthen mounds, pyramids, courtyards </li></ul><ul><li>Included columns, altars, sculpted heads which represented rulers and weight close to 44 tons </li></ul>
  17. 18. La Venta [900 BC] <ul><li>Olmec prayed to Nature gods </li></ul><ul><li>Included a 100 ft mound as a tomb for an ancient ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Overall worshipped the jaguar spirit </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous carvings inc. ½ human ½ jaguar creatures </li></ul><ul><li>Belief it represented a rain god or earth, fertility and maize </li></ul>
  18. 19. Trade & Commerce <ul><li>La Venta- ceremonial center important for rituals but not heavily inhabited </li></ul><ul><li>Goods travelled as far as Mexico city in the N. and Honduras to the S. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron ore, various stones reached San Lorenzo from far away lands </li></ul>
  19. 20. Decline of the Olmec <ul><li>Not really explained </li></ul><ul><li>Some believe San Lorenzo was destroyed in 900 BC/ La Venta in 400 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Speculate outside invasions </li></ul><ul><li>Some believe Olmecs destroyed their own things once their rulers died </li></ul>
  20. 21. Zapotec Civilization Arises <ul><li>Est. an advanced society S.W. of Olmec in the Mexican state of Oaxaca w/ traces of Olmec influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Rugged region of mts. and valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Valley has fertile soil, mild climate and enough rainfall to support agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Had scattered villages but by 1000 BC, San José Mogote became the main power </li></ul>
  21. 22. Zapotec continued <ul><li>Built stone temples, monumental sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>By 500 BC developed early forms of writing and calendar system </li></ul><ul><li>Built 1 st urban center in the Americas on Monte Albán </li></ul><ul><li>By 200 had 15,000 people; @ its peak had 25,000 </li></ul>
  22. 23. Monte Albán <ul><li>250-700 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Used observatories to see the stars and assist with calendars </li></ul>
  23. 24. The Early Mesoamericans’ Legacy <ul><li>Olmec influenced Mayans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art style + jaguars + urban design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned ceremonial centers, ritual ball games, elite ruling class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zapotec- hieroglyphic writing system, calendar system based on sun’s movements; 1 st city builders </li></ul>
  24. 25. Early Civilizations of the Andes Learning Goal: Describe the 1 st people of the Andes and Chavin civilization
  25. 26. Societies arise in the Andes <ul><li>Andes are steep & rocky with poor soil, ice and snow cover the highest elevations yr. round. Andes has peaks of 20,000 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Civilizations emerged in Peru </li></ul>
  26. 27. Early civilizations <ul><li>b/w 3600-2500 BC villages arose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st hunter-gatherers relying on seafood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3000 BC- began to farm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1800 BC- thriving communities on coast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chavin [900-200 BC]- primarily a religious civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art styles, textiles, stone carvings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient Peruvians vist Chavin temples </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Nazca [200 BC – 600 AD] <ul><li>Region was extremely dry </li></ul><ul><li>Developed extensive irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Underground canals </li></ul><ul><li>Nazca lines </li></ul><ul><li>Pottery w/ religious pictures </li></ul>
  28. 30. Headhunters <ul><li>Depict the taking of human heads [most likely enemies from combat] </li></ul><ul><li>Shrinking of head for ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>Having the head of an enemy shows strength and well being </li></ul>
  29. 31. Moche Culture [100-700 AD] <ul><li>Took advantage of rivers with irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn, beans, potatoes, squash and peanuts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Had enormous wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold, silver, semiprecious stone jewlery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brilliant ceramic artists: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drs. Healing patients, women weaving clothes, musicians, soldiers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Unknown religious beliefs </li></ul>