9.1 modern presidencies teddy roosevelt to woodrow wilson 1909-1921


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9.1 modern presidencies teddy roosevelt to woodrow wilson 1909-1921

  1. 1. Theodore RooseveltAnd the Modern Presidency
  2. 2. Unit Learning GoalNJCCCS: 6.1.12.D.6.bCompare and contrast the foreignpolicies of American presidents duringthis time period, and analyze howthese presidents contributed to theUnited States becoming a worldpower.
  3. 3. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency 1901 President McKinley assassinated “I told William McKinley that it was a mistake to nominate that wild man at Philadelphia, I asked him if he realized what would happen if he should die. Now look, that damned cowboy is President of the United States!” – Mark Hanna
  4. 4. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Roosevelt became the youngest president (42) but he never openly rebelled against the leaders of his party, instead he became a champion of cautious, moderate change
  5. 5. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Believed that the government should be a mediator of the public good, with the president at its center, he also believed that economic concentration had resulted in a consolidation of power that produced dangerous abuses of power, urged regulation (but not destruction) of the trusts
  6. 6. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Roosevelt wanted the government to have the power to investigate the activities of the corporations and publicize the results, believing that educated public opinion would eliminate most of the corporate abuses
  7. 7. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Department of Commerce and Labor (1903) - along with the Bureau of Corporations was to investigate activities of corporations and publicize them
  8. 8. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency In 1902 Roosevelt ordered the Justice Department to invoke the Sherman Anti-Trust Act against the Northern Securities Company, which was a $400 million railroad monopoly in the Northwest led by JP Morgan, EH Harriman, and James J. Hill.
  9. 9. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency “If we have done anything wrong, send your man to my man and they can fix it up”, Roosevelt proceeded with the case and in 1904 the Supreme Court case ruled that the company must be dissolved
  10. 10. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Even though Roosevelt filed more than 40 additional antitrust suits during his presidency, he had no serious commitment to reverse the prevailing trend toward economic concentration
  11. 11. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency In 1902 the United Mine Workers went on strike against the anthracite coal industry, it dragged on long enough to endanger coal supplies, Roosevelt asked both operators and miners to accept impartial
  12. 12. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Federal arbitration, the mine operators resisted and Roosevelt threatened to seize the mines, in arbitration the miners got a 10% wage increase and a 9 hour work day, more then the union would’ve got without Roosevelt’s help, but Roosevelt also on several occasions sent in federal troops on the behalf of the employers, Roosevelt’s “Square Deal”
  13. 13. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency During Roosevelt’s first term he was principally concerned with winning re-election, so could not afford to antagonize the conservative Republican Old Guard, he dispensed patronage to conservatives and progressives equally, he won the support of northern businessmen and reformers alike.
  14. 14. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency In the election of 1904 Roosevelt faced conservative Democrat Alton B. Parker and won 57% of the popular vote and lost no state outside of the South, was free to display the extent of his commitment to reform in his second term
  15. 15. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 established the Interstate Commerce Commission, which was an early effort to regulate the railroad industry but it was weakened by the courts, Roosevelt got the Hepburn.
  16. 16. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Railroad Regulation Act of 1905 passed which sought to restore some regulatory authority over railroad rates to the government, many were enraged at how cautious it was (Senator LaFollette)
  17. 17. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency The Pure Food and Drug Act restricted the sale of dangerous or ineffective medicines, but was limited by its weak enforcement mechanisms
  18. 18. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency In 1906 Upton Sinclair wrote the powerful novel The Jungle, which caused Roosevelt to push for the Meat Inspection Act that ultimately helped eliminate many diseases once transported in impure meat
  19. 19. From Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle“There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the workers had trampled and spit uncountedbillions of germs. There would be meat stored in rooms and thousands of rats would race aboutit..A man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep handfuls of dried rat dung. These rats were nuisances, and packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then the rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together…
  20. 20. In 1906 Sinclair’s novel The Jungle drew outrage against the Chicago meatpacking industry for itsarrogant disregard of basic health standards. This led to government regulation of food and drugs.
  21. 21. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Starting in 1907 Roosevelt began pushing for more stringent reforms such as an 8-hour work day, compensation for victims of industrial accidents, an inheritance and income tax, and regulation of the stock market.
  22. 22. Meat Inspection Act, 1906Pure Food and Drug Act, 1906
  23. 23. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Roosevelt also began to openly criticize conservatives in Congress and the judiciary who were obstructing these programs, this resulted in a widening gap between the president and conservative wing of his party
  24. 24. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Roosevelt was concerned about the unregulated exploitation of America’s natural resources and its remaining wilderness, using his executive powers Roosevelt restricted private development on millions of acres of undeveloped land, mostly in the West, by adding them to the National Forest system
  25. 25. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Conservatives in Congress passed a law in 1907 restricting Roosevelt’s authority over public land, Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot (chief forester) worked to seize all the forests and many of the waterpower sites that were still in the public domain before the bill became law
  26. 26. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Conservationists promoted policies to protect land for carefully managed development, the National Forest Service (led by Pinchot) supported rational and efficient human use of the wilderness
  27. 27. Establishment of National Parks and Forests
  28. 28. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Roosevelts legacy in conservation was that he established the government role as a manager of the continuing development of the wilderness
  29. 29. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency The National Reclamation Act (Newlands Act) provided federal funds for the construction of dams, reservoirs and canals in the West - projects that would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power this was the beginning of many years of critical federal aid for irrigation and power development in the West
  30. 30. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency George Perkins wrote Man and Nature in which he said the most important consequence of losing forests was the forest’s role in stabilizing the natural environment, received wide attention and became the basis for the National Forest Service
  31. 31. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Roosevelt championed the expansion of the National Forest System as a way to protect the landscape for continued rational lumbering, but he also greatly expanded the National Park System to protect public land from any exploitation or development at all
  32. 32. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency First national park was Yellowstone in Wyoming (1872), followed by Yosemite and Sequoia in California and Mount Rainer in Washington (1890’s), Roosevelt added Crater Lake (OR), Mesa Verde (UT), Platt (OK), Wind Cave (SD)
  33. 33. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite was a spectacular high walled valley highly popular with conservationists, but San Francisco residents wanted to dam it in order to create reservoir for the city, after the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 and the resulting fire, the public outcry for the dam increased.
  34. 34. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Opposed by Muir and the Sierra Club, the case was turned over to Pinchot who approved construction of the dam, Pinchot who believed in the rational use of nature was not swayed by Muir’s aesthetic and spiritual arguments
  35. 35. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Muir helped place a referendum on the issue on the ballot in 1908, but dam was approved by huge margins, the construction of the dam would finally begin after WWI, the fight against the Hetch Hetchy dam helped mobilize a new coalition of people committed to preservation, not the "rational use" of wilderness
  36. 36. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Panic of 1907 – American industrial production outran the ability of either domestic or foreign markets to absorb it, the banking system and the stock market displayed pathetic inadequacies, and irresponsible speculation and rampant financial mismanagement shattered the prosperity that many thought was permanent
  37. 37. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency The conservatives blamed Roosevelts "mad" economic policies, he disagreed but did not interfere with their recovery efforts, JP Morgan helped create a pool of assets from several important New York banks to prop up shaky financial institutions.
  38. 38. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency The key to this arrangement was the purchase of the shares of Tennessee Coal and Iron Company which were held by a threatened New York bank, US Steel would buy the shares but needed assurances from Roosevelt that he would not face antitrust action, Roosevelt agreed and the Panic soon subsided
  39. 39. Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency Roosevelt made a promise in 1904 that he would not seek a third term, so after 8 years in the White House in which he had transformed the role of the presidency in American government, Roosevelt retired from public life at the age of 50
  40. 40. National Park System Congress passed a law that created Yellowstone National Park For many historians, environmental conservation is Teddy Roosevelt’s greatest legacy. The Antiquities Act led to the creation of 18 national monuments during Roosevelt’s presidency
  41. 41. Theodore Roosevelt’s Square Deal & Progressivism Learning Goal- CRNBenchmark- Identify, explain and apply the four goals of Progressivism
  42. 42. Theodore Roosevelt’s Square Deal The Main Idea Theodore Roosevelt used the power of the presidency to push for progressive reforms in business and in environmental policy. Reading Focus• What was Theodore Roosevelt’s view of the role of the president?• How did Roosevelt attempt to regulate big business?• What was Roosevelt’s philosophy about conserving the environment, and how did he carry out his philosophy?
  43. 43. Roosevelt’s Upbringing Theodore Roosevelt was a sickly, shy youth whom doctors forbade to play sports or do strenuous activities. In his teenage years, Roosevelt reinvented himself, taking up sports and becoming vigorous, outgoing, and optimistic. Roosevelt came from a prominent New York family and attended Harvard University, but he grew to love the outdoors. He spent time in northern Maine and in the rugged Badlands of North Dakota, riding horses and hunting buffalo. In 1884, when Roosevelt was 26, both his mother and his young wife died unexpectedly. Trying to forget his grief, he returned to his ranch in Dakota Territory, where he lived and worked with cowboys. He returned to New York after two years and entered politics.
  44. 44. Roosevelt’s View of the Presidency • Roosevelt’s rise to governor of New York upsetFrom Governor the Republican political machine. to Vice • To get rid of the progressive Roosevelt, party President bosses got him elected as vice president, a position with little power at that time. • President William McKinley was shot and killed Unlikely in 1901, leaving the office to Roosevelt. President • At 42 years old he was the youngest president and an avid reformer. • Roosevelt saw the presidency as a bully View of pulpit, or a platform to publicize important Office issues and seek support for his policies on reform.
  45. 45. The Coal Strike of 1902 Soon after Roosevelt took office, some 150,000 Pennsylvania coal miners went on strike for higher wages, shorter hours, and recognition of their union. As winter neared, Roosevelt feared what might happen if the strike was not resolved, since Eastern cities depended upon Pennsylvania coal for heating. Roosevelt urged mine owners and the striking workers to accept arbitration, and though the workers accepted, the owners refused. Winter drew closer, and Roosevelt threatened to take over the mines if the owners didn’t agree to arbitration, marking the first time the federal government had intervened in a strike to protect the interests of the public. After a three-month investigation, the arbitrators decided to give the workers a shorter workday and higher pay but did not require the mining companies to recognize the union. Satisfied, Roosevelt pronounced the compromise a “square deal.”
  46. 46. The Square Deal The Square Deal became Roosevelt’s 1904 campaign slogan and the framework for his entire presidency. He promised to “see that each is given a square deal, because he is entitled to no more and should receive no less.” Roosevelt’s promise revealed his belief that the needs of workers, business, and consumers should be balanced. Roosevelt’s square deal called for limiting the power of trusts, promoting public health and safety, and improving working conditions. The popular president faced no opposition for the nomination in his party. In the general election Roosevelt easily defeated his Democratic opponent, Judge Alton Parker of New York.
  47. 47. Regulating Big Business Roosevelt believed big business was essential to the nation’s growth but also believed companies should behave responsibly. He spent a great deal of attention on regulating corporations, determined that they should serve the public interest. In 1901, when three tycoons joined their railroad companies together to eliminate competition, their company, the Northern Securities Company, dominated rail shipping from Chicago to the Northwest. The following year, Roosevelt directed the U.S. attorney general to sue the company for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act, and the Court ruled that the monopoly did, in fact, violate the act and must be dissolved. After this ruling, the Roosevelt administration launched a vigorous trust-busting campaign. Size didn’t matter; the administration went after bad trusts that sold inferior products, competed unfairly, or corrupted public officials.
  48. 48. Regulating the Railroads• Another way to ensure businesses competed fairly was through regulation.• Railroads often granted rebates to their best customers, which meant large corporations paid much less for shipping than small farmers or small businesses.• To alleviate this problem, Congress passed two acts. The Elkins Act The Hepburn Act Passed in 1903  Passed in 1906  Strengthened the Interstate Prohibited railroads from Commerce Commission (ICC), accepting rebates giving it the power to set maximum railroad rates Ensured that all customers paid the same rates for shipping  Gave the ICC power to regulate other companies their products engaged in interstate commerce
  49. 49. Dismay Over Food and Drug Practices Food Drugs Food producers used clever  Drug companies were also unconcerned for customer tricks to pass off tainted foods: health: • Dairies churned fresh milk • Some sold medicines that into spoiled butter. didn’t work. • Poultry sellers added • Some marketed nonprescription medicines formaldehyde, which is containing narcotics. used to embalm dead bodies, to old eggs to hide  Dr. James’ Soothing Syrup, intended to their smell. soothe babies’ teething• Unwary customers bought the pain, contained heroin. tainted food thinking it was  Gowan’s Pneumonia healthy. Cure contained the addictive painkiller morphine.
  50. 50. Upton Sinclair and Meatpacking Of all industries, meatpacking fell into the worst public disrepute. The novelist Upton Sinclair exposed the wretched and unsanitary conditions at meatpacking plants in his novel The Jungle, igniting a firestorm of criticism aimed at meatpackers. Roosevelt ordered Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson to investigate packing house conditions, and his report of gruesome practices shocked Congress into action. In 1906 it enacted two groundbreaking consumer protection laws. The Meat Inspection Act required federal government inspection of meat shipped across state lines. The Pure Food and Drug Act outlawed food and drugs containing harmful ingredients, and required that containers carry ingredient labels.
  51. 51. Environmental Conservation In the late 1800s natural resources were used at an alarming rate, and foresting, plowing, polluting, and overgrazing were common. Roosevelt’s Thoughts Roosevelt’s Solution• Recognized that natural • The Newlands resources were limited and that Reclamation Act of 1902 government should regulate reflected Roosevelt’s beliefs. resources • The law allowed federal• Disagreed with naturalist John government to create Muir, who helped protect irrigation projects to make Yosemite Park and thought the dry lands productive. entire wilderness should be • The projects would be preserved funded from money raised• Believed that conservation by selling off public lands. involved the active management • During Roosevelt’s of public land for varied uses: presidency, 24 reclamation some preservation, some projects were launched. economical
  52. 52. Four Goals of Progressivism Protecting Social Welfare Promoting Moral Reform Creating Economic Reform Fostering Efficiency
  53. 53. Promoting Social WelfareRelieve Urban Problems YMCA Salvation Army Settlement Houses Child Labor
  54. 54. Promoting Moral Reform Moral Reform to make poor people’s lives better  Prohibition • WCTU • Anti-Saloon League
  55. 55. Creating Economic Reform Questioned Capitalism Depended upon Muckrakers to expose monopolies and “crimes” against the consumer.
  56. 56. Foster Efficiency Using scientific management to ensure efficiency in factories.  Assembly Line
  57. 57. What did theyaccomplish?
  58. 58. Government Reforms Local • City Managers • City Commissions State • Regulate companies (i.e. Railroads) • Protect laborers • Initiative, Referendum, Recall National • 17th Amendment - Direct Election of Senators
  59. 59. Changes for Women Women worked but only in non- skilled jobs • Farms • Domestic • Industry NJCCCS: 6.1.12.A.6.b Evaluate the ways in which women organized to promote government policies (i.e., abolition, women’s suffrage, and the temperance movement) designed to address injustice, inequality, workplace safety, and immorality.
  60. 60. Women in Reform Women became a driving force behind abolition. Then they began the fight for suffrage • NAWSA • Susan B. Anthony
  61. 61. Women ’s Suffrage Movement
  62. 62. Women’s SuffrageMovement was thestruggle to gain samevoting rights as men.Voting was limited towhite adult males whoowned property. Manypeople thought thatproperty owners had thestrongest interest in goodgovernment; therefore,they were the bestqualified to makedecisions.
  63. 63. A Tea Launches a Revolution•Tea among fivewomen friends, onJuly 13, 1848,marked TheWomen’s SuffrageMovement as itsbeginning.•Among these fivewomen was younghousewife andmother, ElizabethCady Stanton.
  64. 64. Elizabeth Cady Stanton•During a conversation thatday, Stanton poured herdiscontent with Americasdemocracy. She believed thenew republic would benefitby having women play a rolethroughout society.•They were the first smallgroup of women to plan andcarry out a program.•This led to…
  65. 65. "A convention to discuss the social, civil, religious condition and rights of woman."First womens rights convention in the United States is held July 19 th 1848, inNew York. Participants signed a “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions”which outlined the main issues and goals for the emerging women’s movement.Meetings were held regularly after.
  66. 66. Backlash!•The Women’s Rights Movementwas only one day old and thebacklash had already begun.•Newspaper editors were soscandalized by the Declaration ofSentiments and the ninthresolution ‘Women demandingvote!’•They attacked women with allthey could muster, although,misconception,misrepresentation and ridiculewere expected.
  67. 67. “ Ain ’t I a Woman?”1851-Former slave Sojourner Truth delivers her “Ain’t I aWoman” speech at a women’s rights convention in Ohio.
  68. 68. Susan B. Anthony•Prominent American CivilRights leader, played a hugerole to introduce Women’sSuffrage into the UnitedStates.•Along with Sojourner andother leaders, she traveledthe U.S and Europe and gavefrom 75-100 speeches everyyear on Women’s rights for 45years. February 15, 1820 – March 13, 1906
  69. 69. •In 1872, Susan B. Anthony wasarrested and brought to trial forattempting to vote for U.S Grant inthe presidential election.•At the same time Truth appeared at apolling booth, in Michigan, demandinga ballot which she was turned away.
  70. 70. ‘Anti’ Woman Suffrage •At first, the idea that women should have a right to vote was seen as so ridiculous that no one even attempted to oppose it. •Soon they would have to take the suffragettes more seriously as they began to gain support.
  71. 71. Who the hell do they think theyare? 1.   Women would be corrupted by politics. 2.   If women became involved in politics, they would stop marrying, having children, and the human race would die out. 3.   Women were emotional creatures, and incapable of making a sound political decision.
  72. 72. Progress•1912-Theodore Roosevelt ‘sProgressive party became the firstnational political party to adopt thefirst woman suffrage plank.•1916-Jeanette Rankin becomesthe first American Womanelected to represent her state inthe U.S. House ofRepresentatives.
  73. 73. the 19 th AmendmentAugust 26 th , 1920,19 th Amendment isratified, it’svictory isaccomplished!!Guarantees allAmerican Womenthe right to vote.
  74. 74. Square Deal Teddy Roosevelt – the first “Progressive” president Used federal power to reform labor, business and government
  75. 75. Big Business Attitude “The rights and interests of thelaboring men will be protected and cared for – not by labor agitators,but by the Christian men to whom God, in his infinite wisdom, has given control of the property interests of this country.”
  76. 76. Trust Busting Teddy believed in “good” and “bad” trusts. What is the difference? His goal was to break the bad trusts, but to keep the good trusts – why? His true goal – federal regulation!
  77. 77. Federal Regulation Through regulation – rules and laws set by the government – Teddy believed that he could protect citizens and the environment. • Protecting health  Meat Inspection Act • Protecting consumers  Pure Food and Drug Act • Protecting the environment  National Parks and conservation efforts
  78. 78.  William Howard Taft T.R.’s Heir Even though he busted more trusts than TR, Taft was seen as weaker. Lowering of tariffs was important to progressives, but Taft failed at that… Taft allowed the sale of public lands that were to be conserved… = split of Republican party
  79. 79. TAFTThe Troubled Successor
  80. 80. William TaftCartoon shows William Taft(1857-1930) as the choice ofPresident Theodore Roosevelt.Once in office, Taft alienatedthe progressives andRoosevelt.
  81. 81. The Troubled Succession William Howard Taft was Roosevelts handpicked successor, seemed acceptable to both progressives and conservatives, easily defeated William Jennings Bryan in the 1908 election, however, 4 years later Taft left office as the most decisively defeated president of the 20th Century, his party deeply divided, and with the Democrats in control of the government for the first time in 20 years
  82. 82. The Troubled Succession Taft called Congress into special session to lower protective tariff rates, but Taft made no attempt to overcome the opposition of Old Guard Republicans arguing that it would violate doctrine of separation of powers, the result was the Payne- Aldrich Tariff which reduced tariff rates scarcely at all, and in some areas raised them, progressives resented Taft’s passivity
  83. 83. The Troubled Succession Taft replaced Roosevelts secretary of interior, James R. Garfield an ardent conservationist, with a the conservative Richard A. Ballinger, a conservative corporate lawyer, Ballinger attempted to invalidate Roosevelts removal of 1 million acres of forests and mineral reserves from the public lands available for private development
  84. 84. The Troubled Succession Louis Glavis, an Interior Department investigator, charged Ballinger with having connived to turn over valuable public coal lands in Alaska to a private syndicate for personal profit, Glavis took the evidence to Pinchot and Pinchot took the investigation to Taft.
  85. 85. The Troubled Succession Taftinvestigated the claims, found that they were groundless and fired Glavis, Pinchot leaked the story out into the press and Taft fired Pinchot for insubordination.
  86. 86. The Troubled Succession The result of the Ballinger-Pinchot dispute aroused public passion and Taft alienated supporters of Roosevelt completely Roosevelt became furious with Taft when he returned to New York in 1910 and felt that he alone was capable of reuniting the Republican Party (Taft has) “…completely twisted around the policies I advocated and acted upon. ” Theodore Roosevelt
  87. 87. The Troubled Succession Roosevelts “New Nationalism” made it clear he had moved away from the cautious conservatism of the first years of his presidency, argued that social justice was possible only through vigorous efforts of strong federal government whose executive acted as the “steward of the public welfare”, those who thought primarily of property rights and personal profit “must now give way to the advocate of human welfare”
  88. 88. The Troubled Succession Roosevelt supported graduated income and inheritance taxes, workers compensation for industrial accidents, regulation of the labor of women and children, tariff revision, firmer regulation of corporations
  89. 89. The Troubled Succession In the Congressional elections of 1910, conservative Republicans went down to defeat while progressive Republican incumbents were reelected, Democrats ran progressive candidates of their own and gained control of the House of Representatives for the first time in 16 years, reform sentiment was on the rise
  90. 90. The Troubled Succession In1911 the Taft administration announced a suit that charged US Steel with antitrust violations in the 1907 acquisition of the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company, Roosevelt was enraged by the implication that he had acted improperly
  91. 91. The Troubled Succession In1912 Senator La Follette, who had been campaigning for president himself, suffered a nervous breakdown (exhausted and distraught over his daughter’s illness) Roosevelt announced his candidacy for president on February 22, 1912
  92. 92. The Troubled Succession The campaign for the Republican nomination was battle between Roosevelt (progressives) and Taft (conservatives) but Taft remained the choice of most party leaders who controlled the nominating process, Roosevelt told the convention “We stand at Armageddon and we battle for the Lord”, the Republican convention nominated Taft
  93. 93. The Troubled Succession Roosevelt launched the new Progressive Party and nominated himself as the presidential candidate, Roosevelt approached the campaign "fit as a bull moose", but many of the insurgents who had supported him during the primaries refused to follow him out of the Republican party
  94. 94. Woodrow WilsonThe True Progressive
  95. 95. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom Democrats nominated the only true progressive candidate, Woodrow Wilson, on the 46th ballot at the convention in Baltimore in 1912 President of Princeton University 1902 – 1910, Governor of New Jersey 1910 – 1912, displayed a commitment to reform
  96. 96. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom Wilsons “New Freedom” believed bigness (economic concentration in the trusts) was both unjust and inefficient, proper response to monopoly was not to regulate it but to destroy it
  97. 97. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom 1912 Election – Roosevelt and Taft split the Republican vote allowing Wilson to win the election
  98. 98. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom Wilson concentrated the powers of the executive branch in his own hands, he exerted firm control over his cabinet, and delegated real authority to those whose loyalty to him was beyond question, Colonel Edward M. House was Wilson’s most powerful advisor even though he held no official position in the executive branch
  99. 99. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom The Democrats captured both houses of Congress in the 1912 election, which made it much easier for Wilson to get his progressive agenda passed
  100. 100. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom Wilson called Congress into special session in order to pass the Underwood- Simmons Tariff, which substantially lowered the protective tariff in order to allow real competition into American markets and break the power of the trusts.
  101. 101. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom Congress approved a graduated income tax (under the 16th Amendment) to make up for lost revenue from the tariff, this first modern income tax imposed a 1% tax on individuals and corporations earning over $4,000 up to a maximum of 6% on incomes of over $500,000
  102. 102. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom The Federal Reserve Act (1913) created twelve regional banks, each to be owned and controlled by the individual banks of its district, these regional banks would hold a certain percentage of the assets of their member banks in reserve.
  103. 103. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom The system would use those reserves to support loans to private banks at an interest rate that the Federal Reserve Board would set, they would also issue a new type of currency, Federal Reserve Notes, which would become the nations basic medium of trade and backed by the government.
  104. 104. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom The Federal Reserve System would be able to shift funds quickly to troubled areas, to meet increased demand for credit, or to protect imperiled banks.
  105. 105. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom The Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) created a regulatory agency that would help businesses determine in advance whether their actions would be acceptable to the government, the agency would also have authority to launch prosecutions against "unfair trade practices", it would also have the power to investigate corporate behavior Abusive behavior included: monopolies, false advertising, bribery and food adulteration.
  106. 106. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom The Clayton Antitrust Act was attacked by conservative interests and weakened it greatly Wilson did little to protect it
  107. 107. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom By the fall of 1914, Wilson believed that agitation for reform would slowly subside, he refused to support movement for womens suffrage, condoned the reimposition of segregation in the agencies of the federal government (southern Democrats), he dismissed progressive proposals for additional reform legislation as unconstitutional or unnecessary
  108. 108. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom The 1914 congressional elections resulted in the Democrats suffering major losses in Congress led by voters who had supported the Progressive Party returning to the Republican Party
  109. 109. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom In January 1916, Wilson appointed Louis Brandeis to the Supreme Court becoming the first Jewish member of the Court and also the most progressive member of the Court
  110. 110. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom Wilson sponsored measures that expanded the role of the national government, he supported the Keating-Owen Act (1916) which was the first federal law regulating child labor, it prohibited the shipment of goods produced by underage children across state lines, the Supreme Court struck down the Keating-Owen Act in 1918
  111. 111. Adamson Eight-Hour Act (1916) The Adamson Eight-Hour Act (1916) growing out of concern that a railroad strike would severely damage the economy, the act had Wilson’s support and provided compensation for overtime work Legislation provided for an 8 hour workday as well.
  112. 112. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 The President could act in foreign policy with less regard for Congress and the Supreme Court overseas the president could exercise power unfettered and alone
  113. 113. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Roosevelt pursued an activist foreign policy, believed in the value of using American power in the world "speak softly but carry a big stick", He believed in an important distinction between the "civilized" and "uncivilized" nations of the world
  114. 114. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 “Civilized” nations were predominantly white, Anglo-Saxon, producers of industrial goods, had a right and duty to intervene in the affairs of the backward nation to preserve order and stability. “Uncivilized” nations were non-white, Latin or Slavic, suppliers of raw materials and markets, not yet industrialized
  115. 115. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 By 1906, the American navy was surpassed only by that of Britain, although Germany was rapidly gaining ground
  116. 116. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Japan staged a surprise attack on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur in southern Manchuria (China), Roosevelt agreed to mediate an end to the conflict, at the peace conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire Roosevelt extracted from the Russians a recognition of Japans territorial gains, and from Japan an agreement to cease fighting and expansion
  117. 117. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 He also negotiated a secret agreement with the Japanese to ensure that the US could continue to trade freely in the region, Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for his work in ending the Russo-Japanese War
  118. 118. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Japan destroyed the Russian fleet at Port Arthur and began to emerge as the preeminent naval power in the Pacific, the Japanese began to exclude American trade from many of the territories that it controlled.
  119. 119. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Roosevelt sent the Great White Fleet (sixteen American battleships) on a trip around the world to remind Japan of the potential might of the US Naval forces
  120. 120. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 In 1902, the naval forces of Britain, Italy and Germany blockaded Venezuelas coast in response to Venezuelas reneging on debts owed to European countries, German ships began to bombard a Venezuelan port amid rumors that Germany planned to establish a permanent base in the region, Roosevelt used the threat of American naval power to pressure German navy to withdraw
  121. 121. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Roosevelt Corollary (1904) to the Monroe doctrine, the US had the right not only to oppose European intervention in the Western Hemisphere, but to intervene itself in the domestic affairs of its neighbors if they proved unable to maintain order and national sovereignty on their own
  122. 122. Roosevelt’s Big Stick PolicyRoosevelt’s motto was to “speak softly and carry a big stick”Roosevelt attempted to build a reputation of the U.S. as a worldpowerAs a strategic necessity for holding onto Puerto Rico in theCaribbean to the Philippines in the Pacific, the U.S. needed a canalthrough Central America to connect the Atlantic and PacificOceans Theodore Roosevelt
  123. 123. The United States and Latin America, 1895-1941
  124. 124. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 In1903 the Dominican Republic went bankrupt, it owed $22 million to European nations, Roosevelt gained control of Dominican customs and distributed 45% of the revenues to Dominicans and the rest to foreign creditors
  125. 125. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 The Platt Amendment gave the US the right to prevent any foreign power from intruding into Cuba, in 1906 American troops landed to keep the peace and remained there for 3 years
  126. 126. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 ThePanama Canal was the most celebrated accomplishment of Roosevelts presidency it linked the Pacific and the Atlantic by creating a channel through Central America
  127. 127. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Roosevelt sent John Hay, his Secretary of State, to negotiate an agreement with Colombian diplomats, Tomas Herren signed an agreement giving US perpetual rights to six-mile wide "canal zone" across Colombia in return for $10 million and an annual rent of $250,000
  128. 128. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 The Colombian Senate was outraged and did not ratify the Herren agreement, sent a new representative to Washington demanding $20 million and share of the payment to the French
  129. 129. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Phillippe Bunau-Varilla was the chief engineer of the French canal project, he helped organize and finance a revolution in Panama, Roosevelt landed troops from the U.S.S Nashville to “maintain order” and their presence prevented Colombian forced from suppressing the rebellion.
  130. 130. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 The new Panamanian government was recognized by Roosevelt 3 days later and quickly agreed to the canal project, it opened in 1914
  131. 131. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Dollar Diplomacy – Tafts Secretary of State Philander C. Knox worked aggressively to extend American investments into less-developed regions, Americans intervene in Nicaragua (1909) and then made substantial loans to the new government thus increasing the US financial leverage over the country, two years later a revolution broke out again and US troops remained in Nicaragua for over a decade
  132. 132. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 1916: Americans established a military government in Dominican Republic after Dominicans refused to accept a treaty that would have made the country a virtual American protectorate Wilson bought the Danish West Indies from the Dutch (fearful that the Germans were about to acquire them) and renamed them the Virgin Islands
  133. 133. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Under Porfirio Diaz, the corrupt dictator of Mexico, American businesses had been establishing an enormous economic presence in Mexico, in 1910, Diaz was overthrown by Francisco Madero who promised democratic reform and seemed hostile to American businesses in Mexico.
  134. 134. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 The US encouraged Victoriano Huerta to depose Madero and the Taft administration was ready to recognize the new Huerta regime and welcome back a receptive environment for American investments in Mexico.
  135. 135. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Thenew government murdered Madero and Wilson announced he would never recognize Huertas government of butchers, in 1913, Huerta, with the help of American business interests, established a full military dictatorship in Mexico
  136. 136. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 In April 1914, an officer in Huerta’s army temporarily arrested several American sailors from the U.S.S Dolphin who had gone ashore in Tampico, the men were immediately released but the American admiral was not satisfied with the apology he received demanded that the Huerta forces fire a 21 gun salute to the American flag as display of public penance, the Mexicans refused
  137. 137. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Wilson used the incident as a pretext for seizing the Mexican port of Veracruz, in a clash with Mexican forces Americans killed 126 of the defenders and suffered 19 casualties of their own
  138. 138. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 TheCarranza faction captured Mexico City, but refused to accept American guidelines for the creation of a new government, Wilson considered throwing American support to Pancho Villa but his military position deteriorated and Wilson abandoned him.
  139. 139. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Pancho Villa retaliated by taking 16 American mining engineers off a train in northern Mexico and shooting them, 3 months later Pancho Villa led his soldiers across the border into Columbus, New Mexico where he killed 17 more Americans
  140. 140. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 Wilsonordered General John J. Pershing to lead an American expeditionary force across the Mexican border in pursuit of Pancho Villa, they never captured him but did get into conflicts with the Mexican army in which 40 Mexicans were killed and 12 Americans were killed.
  141. 141. The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917 TheUS and Mexico looked ready to go to war, but Wilson withdrew quietly and granted formal recognition to the Carranza regime.