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8.1 8.1 Presentation Transcript

  • AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS 1500 B.C. – A.D. 700
  • DIVERSE SOCIETIES IN AFRICA• Identify the different geographic regions of Africa and explain how early how early Africans adapted to their environments.• Summarize the achievements of early West African Societies
  • AFRICA- A LAND OF GEOGRAPHIC CONTRASTS• 2nd largest continent in the world• 1/5ths of Earth’s land surface• Geography: • Narrow coast lines • Central plateau • Waterfalls, rapids, rivers • Few inlets• Navigation almost impossible to and from the coast
  • CHALLENGING ENVIRONMENTS • Sahara- largest desert in the N. • Roughly as large as U.S. • Atlantic Ocean to Red Sea • Ea. Yr. expands in the south [Sahel] • Kalahari- largest desert in the S. • Africa’s rainforest, partly uninhabitable • Known as nature’s garden • Produces mahogany and teak trees • Tsetse fly- prevents cattle, herd, donkeys and invaders
  • EARLY HUMANS ADAPT TO THEIR ENVIRONMENTS• Nomadic Lifestyle • Earliest peoples are nomadic hunter-gatherers. • Herders drive animals to find waters and graze pastures.• Transition to a Settled Lifestyle • Agriculture probably develops by 6,000 B.C. • As the Sahara dried up farmers move to West Africa or Nile Valley. • Agriculture allows permanent settlements and governments to develop
  • EARLY SOCIETIES IN AFRICA• Societies organized by Family Groups • Extended families made up several generations • Families with common ancestors form groups known as clans• Local Religions • Early religions usually include elements of animism-belief in spirits inhabiting objects• Keeping a History • Few African societies have written languages • History, literature, culture passed on by story tellers called griots. • Cultures in West Africa are advanced long before outsiders arrive.
  • WEST AFRICAN IRON AGE• Learning about the past • Artifacts reveal how people lived in the past. • Evidence of sub-Saharan cultures producing iron around 500 B.C.• Nok Culture • Nok—West Africa’s earliest known culture— made iron tools and weapons
  • WEST AFRICAN IRON AGE• Djenne-Djeno • From 600-200 B.C., cities began to develop near rivers and oases • Djenne-Djeno, Africa’s oldest known city, was discovered in 1977. • It was a bustling trade center that was linked to other West African towns through camel trade routes.