Learning Goal: Trace the development and evaluate the resolution of thecontest between states’ rights and the abolition of slavery, from thesectional crisis (identify key Congressional legislation and significant eventsrelevant to slavery & states’ rights including the MissouriCompromise, nullification crisis, Compromise of 1850)Cristo Rey Benchmark: 9.11.4 P THE DIVISIVE POLITICS OF SLAVERY
Warm Up- Focus & Motivate• What kinds of differences could lead to problems in the unity of a country?• What were the main industries in the North?• How was the South dependent on slavery?
Senator John C. Calhoun• SC Senator- so sick; missed 4 mo. Of debate over whether CA should enter the Union as a free state.• March 4, 1850- Calhoun asked Sen. James M. Mason [VA] to deliver a speech due to illness
Differences between North and South North South • Remained predominantly rural- mostly• Industrialized rapidly as factories plantations & small farms turned out ever-increasing • Economy relied on cotton amounts of products, from textiles and sewing machines to • 1/3 of the nation’s population lived in farm equipment and guns. the South in 1850• Railroads- with more than • Produced under 10% of the nation’s manufactured goods 20,000 miles of track laid during the 1850s • Few immigrants due to slave labor• Immigrants from Europe • German-American newspapers in TX entered the industrial workplace and Baltimore- editorials in favor of universal voting rights and freedom for in growing numbers slaves• Many became voters with a • MS, LA, SC- African Americans in the strong opposition to slavery majority• Feared slavery because it might • Alabama and FL- African Americans ½ compete with free labor of the pop.• Second, it threatened to reduce • Whites Feared restriction of slavery the status of white workers would lead to social & economic revolution
Review- Contrasting • List three ways in • Answer: The North had which the North and an industrial rather the South differed in than agricultural the mid 1800s. economy; the North mostly opposed slavery, while the South relied on slave labor; the North had more urban growth as well as more growth in immigrant population.
Slavery in the Territories• August 8th, 1846- PA Dem. David Wilmot heightened tensions between the North & South by proposing:• Wilmot Proviso- an amendment to an 1846 military appropriations bill, proposing that none of the territory acquired in the war with Mexico would be open to slavery.• Proviso divided Congress along regional lines • Northerners, angry over the refusal of Southern congressmen to vote for internal improvements supported the proviso • Southerners opposed the proviso- arguing it raised complex constitutional issues. Slaves were property and property was protected under the Constitution• HoR approved the Proviso, the Senate rejected it• Everyone feared a shift in the balance of free/slave states
Review- Analyzing Motives • Explain why • Answer: Northerners Northerners favored wanted to prevent the the Wilmot Proviso expansion of slavery and why Southerners into the did not. territories, because it might cause more slave states to enter the Union. Southerners did not want Congress decided the issue of slavery.
Review- Synthesizing • How was the Wilmot • The concept of national Proviso intertwined with expansion meant an addition Manifest Destiny? of states into the union. Therefore the South was determined to keep at least a political balance in the Senate between free and slaves states. The Wilmot Proviso- if accepted would have destroyed the chances of the South. • Furthermore, the South could use the states’ rights argument, that the territories belonged to the states united rather than the United States.
The Wilmot Proviso wasseen as a stumbling blockfor Presidentialcandidates, such as Taylor
Statehood for California• Due to the California Gold Rush, CA population grew so quickly it skipped the territorial phase of becoming a state• Late 1849- CA had a constitutional convention, adopted a state constitution, elected a governor and a legislation, and applied to join the Union.• Constitution forbade slavery, alarming Southerners• Assumed b/c CA lay south of the Missouri Compromise line, it would be open to slavery.• Hoped that the compromise of 1820 would apply to new territories• Gen. Zachary Taylor who succeeded Polk as president in 1849, supported CA’s admission as a free state.• Felt the South could counter abolitionism by leaving the slavery issue up to individual territories rather than Congress• Southerners saw this as a move to block slavery in the territories and as an attack on Southern life.
Review- Analyzing Effects • Why did California’s • Answer: Although application for most California statehood cause an voters opposed uproar? slavery, most of the state lay south of the Missouri Compromise line, and therefore legally should have been open to slavery
The Senate Debates• 31st Congress opened in Dec. 1849 w/ distrust & bitterness• CA statehood on the agenda• Border dispute of slave state Texas’ claim of ½ of NM territory• Northerners demanded the abolition of slavery in D.C.• South accused North of failing to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793• South threatened secession- the formal withdrawal of a state from the Union.
Clay’s Compromise • Obtained his rival- Daniel Webster’s support on Jan. 21st, 1850 • Though ill- 8 days later delivered a series of resolutions hoping to settle “all questions in controversy between the free and slave states, growing out of the subject of slaver” • Compromise of 1850 n. a series of congressional measures intended to settle the major disagreements between free states and slave states.
Terms of the Compromise• Contained provisions to appease Northerners as well as Southerners• North- provided that CA be admitted to the Union as a free state• South- proposed a new and more effective fugitive slave law• Proposed a provision for NM and Utah territories: popular sovereignty n. a system in which the residents vote to decide an issue.• Popular Sovereignty appealed to N. and S.• Federal government would pay Texas $10million to surrender its claim to NM.• Northerners pleased, b/c it limited slavery in Texas to within its current borders• Southerners pleased because the money would help defray Texas’ expenses and debts from the war with Mexico
Review- Comparing • What Northern issues • Answer: North: The and Southern issues banning of slavery in were addressed by the Cal.; the restricting of Compromise of 1850? slavery in Texas so that it would not include NM. • South: a tougher fugitive slave law; money to defray the costs of the War with Mexico • Both: popular sovereignty
Henry Clay takes the floor of the OldSenate Chamber; Vice President MillardFillmore presides as he, Calhoun, andWebster look on.
Calhoun & Webster Respond• Clay’s speech marked the start of one of the greatest political debates in U.S. history• Within a month- Calhoun presented the Southern case for slavery in the territories• Followed 3 days later by Daniel Webster, who began his eloquent appeal for national unity by saying: “I wish to speak today, not as a Massachusetts man, nor as a Northern man, but as an American… ‘Hear me for my cause”.• Urged Northerners to try to compromise with the South by passing a stricter fugitive slave law, warned Southern firebrands to think more cautiously about the danger of secession.
Review- Interpreting Charts • 1- Calhoun believed • 2- The compromise that maintaining had strong states’ rights was protections and more important than strong restrictions of preserving the slavery Union; Webster believed the reverse was true.
The Compromise is Rejected• Senate rejected the proposed compromise in July• Clay left Washington; Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois picked up the pro-compromise reins• Douglas developed a shrewd plan• Unbundled the package of resolutions and reintroduced them one at a time- hoping to obtain a majority vote for each measure individually• The hope was any individual congressman could vote for the provisions that he liked and vote against, or abstain from voting on, those he disliked.
Welcome to the Presidency, Millard Fillmore• Unexpected death of Taylor on July 9th aided Douglas’ efforts• Taylor’s successor, Millard Fillmore, made it clear he supported the compromise• South was ready to negotiate in the wake of Calhoun’s death• Southern leaders came out in favor of Clay’s individual proposals as being the best the South could secure without radical action• 1850- the Compromise was voted into law.
Review- Analyzing Effects • What was the result • Answer: The of Douglas’ compromise passed unbundling of Clay’s because each resolutions? provision had enough support from either the North or the South to pass when voted separately.
Fillmore’s next act• Fillmore embraced the compromise as the “final settlement” of the question of slavery and sectional differences• For the moment the crisis was over• However relief was short-lived• The next crisis loomed ominously- the enforcement of the new fugitive slave law.
Summarizer• Do you think there are any points at which a different action or leader might have resolved the conflict between the North and the South?• Support your opinion with references from this section.• Think about: • Issues raised by the Wilmot Proviso, California statehood and the Compromise of 1850 • Constitutional issues raised by Southerners
Protest, Resistance and ViolenceLearning Goal NJCCCS: 6.1.8.D.4.cExplain the growing resistance to slaveryand New Jersey’s role in theUnderground Railroad.
Warm up- Focus & Motivation• List the challenges of the journey and the risks faced by slaves escaping to the North.
The story of Anthony Burns• June 2nd, 1854: Thousands lined the streets of Boston• Black coffin bearing the words: “The Funeral of Liberty”• Federal soldiers marched African American, Anthony Burns, toward the harbor• Burns was being forced back into slavery in VA• As a result of his trial, antislavery sentiment in the North soared• “We went to bed one night old- fashioned, conservative, comp romise Union Whigs and waked up stark mad
Fugitive Slaves• Fugitive Slave Act n. a law enacted as part of the Compromise of 1850, designed to ensure that escaped slaves would be returned into bondage.• Under the law, alleged fugitives were not entitled to a trial by jury, despite the 6th Amendment• Fugitives could not testify on their behalf• A statement by a slave owner was all that was required to have a slave returned• Federal commissioners charged with enforcing the law were to receive a $10 fee if they returned an alleged fugitive• Only $5 if they freed him/her• Anyone convicted of helping a fugitive was subjected to a fine of $1,000 or imprisoned for 6 mos. Sometimes both occured
Resisting the Law• Northerners resisted it by organizing vigilance committees to send endangered African Americans to safety in Canada.• Others resorted to violence to rescue fugitive slaves.• personal liberty laws- n. statutes, passed in nine Northern states in the 1850s, that forbade the imprisonment of runaway slaves and guaranteed jury trials for fugitive slaves.• Northern lawyers dragged these trials out- often for three or four years- in order to increase slave catchers’ expenses.• Southern slave owners were enraged by Northern resistance.
Review- Analyzing Effects • What effect did the • Answer: It created a Fugitive Slave Act great deal of have on abolitionist hardship and feelings in the North? resentment and resulted in some people turning to violent resistance
The Underground Railroad• African Americans and white abolitionists developed a secret network of people who would, at great risk to themselves, aid fugitive slaves in their escape.• Underground Railroad- n. a system of routes along which runaway slaves were helped to escape to Canada or to safe areas in the free states.• “Conductors” hid fugitives in secret tunnels and false cupboard, provided them with food and clothing, and escorted or directed them to the next “station” often in disguise.
Harriet Tubman • Most famous conductor • Born a slave in 1820 or 1821 • Suffered a severe head injury as a child when a plantation overseer hit her with a lead weight • Blow to the brain causes her to lose consciousness several times a day • To compensate, she increased her strength tremendously • 1849- after Tubmans owner died, she made a break for freedom and succeeded in reaching Philly, PA.
From slave to “Moses”• After the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act, Tubman • Escaping slavery was became a conductor on dangerous the Underground Railroad • Travelling on foot at night• 19 trips back to the without any sense of South, helped 300 slaves distance or direction except including her parents for the North Star and• Later became a speaker for other natural signs abolition • Had to avoid patrols of armed men on horses without food for days • Once they reached the North, many remained to take their chances or went to Canada
New Jersey & the Underground Railroad• Situated on the lower Delaware River, western coast of South Jersey was a crossing point for people escaping Maryland and Virginia.• Home to many Quakers, known abolitionists• Free black communities that became havens for escaped brethren• Lawnside in Camden County was one, originally named Freehaven• Peter Mott House in Lawnside is an existing Underground Railroad Station operated by an African American- is now a museum• William Still, a free man from Burlington County, NJ became a member of the PA Anti-Slavery Society and managed the committee’s finances used to assist Harriet Tubman’s rescue efforts• Network operated from Cumberland to Hudson County or 180- miles
Review- Summarizing • How did the • Answer: Underground “Conductors” would Railroad operate? hide fugitive slaves and help them work their way north from one “station” to the next.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin• 1852- ardent abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin.• Stirring strong reactions from the North and South alike, the novel became an instant bestseller.• More than a million copies had sold by the middle of 1853.• Plot- melodramatic and many characters were stereotypes, however the message that slavery was not just a political content, but a great moral struggle remained• Story- Eliza, a slave, fled across the frozen Ohio River, clutching her infant son in her arms• They wept bitterly when Simon Legree, a northern slave owner, moved to the South, bought Uncle Tom and had him whipped to death
Response to Uncle Tom’s Cabin• Northerners increased their protests of the Fugitive Slave Act, while Southerners criticized the book as an attack on the South as a whole• The furor had barely begun to settle when a new controversy hit.
Side Deals reopen a freshwound• Issue of slavery in the newly acquired territories surfaced again• Sen. Stephen Douglas, who helped steer the Compromise of 1850 into fruition, inadvertently resurrected the issue• 1844- Douglas pushed to organize the huge territory west of Iowa and Missouri• 1854- developed a proposal to divide the area into 2 territories, Nebraska and Kansas.• Motives were complicated- a desire to push construction of a railroad between Chicago and San Francisco [he owned real estate in both] meant he had to make a deal with Southerners, who wanted the railroad to start in Memphis or New Orleans
Popular Sovereignty andNebraska• Douglas wanted to organize the western territory because he believed that most of the nation’s people wished to see the western lands incorporated into the Union• Douglas was sure that continued expansion would strengthen the Democratic party and unify the nation.• Also believed that Popular sovereignty- meant that the sovereign people of a territory should determine the statues of slavery. It was popular with politicians because it was a comfortable compromise between the abolitionists and the slave-holders.• Only difficulty was that Nebraska Territory lay north of the Missouri Compromise line• Douglas assumed that Nebraska would enter the Union as 2 states- one slave and one free, thus maintaining the balance in the Senate
A blow to shaky ground• Douglas was convinced that slavery could not exist on the open prairies since none of the crops relying on slave labor grew there• To win over the South, Douglas decided to support the repeal of the Missouri Compromise- though he predicted it would create “a storm” in Congress.• January 23rd, 1854- Douglas introduced a bill in Congress to divide the area into 2 territories: Nebraska in the North, Kansas in the South• If passed, it would repeal the Missouri Compromise and establish popular sovereignty for both territories.• Congressional debate was bitter however 90• 5 of Southern congressmen voted for the bill• General population deluged Congress with petitions for and against the bill• In the North, Douglas became a social pariah for the bill but did not waiver claiming this was a democratic way to resolve the issue of slavery
Review- Analyzing Issues • Explain why popular • Answer: It was sovereignty was so controversial because controversial. it meant a repeal of the Missouri Compromise, and meant that any new state might become a slavery state.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act• With the help of President Franklin Pierce, a democrat- Douglas steered his proposal through the Senate• Kansas-Nebraska Act n. a law, enacted in 1854, that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and gave their residents the right to decide whether to allow slavery.• All eyes turned westward as the fate of the new territories hung in the balance
Violence Erupts in “BleedingKansas”• The race for the possession of Kansas was on• NY Senator, William Seward threw down the gauntlet• Settlers from North & South began pouring into the Kansas Territory• Some were farmers in search of new land• Most were sent by emigrant aid societies, groups formed specially to supply rifles, animals, seed, and farm equipment to antislavery migrants• By March, 1855- Kansas had enough settlers to hold an election for a territorial legislature• Thousands of “border ruffians” from the slave state Missouri led by Sen. David Atchison, crossed into Kansas with their revolvers cocked and voted illegally• They won a fraudulent majority for proslavery candidates who set up a government at Lecompton• Abolitionists organized a rival government in Topeka in fall 1855
Review- Analyzing Causes • Why did Kansas • Answer: Because the become a center of Kansas-Nebraska Act controversy over the opened the territory issue of slavery? to slavery, and both pro-and antislavery forces settled in Kansas and fought for control of its territorial government
“The Sack of Lawrence”• Violence surfaced in the struggle for Kansas• Antislavery settlers founded Lawrence• Proslavery grant jury condemned Lawrence’s inhabitants as traitors and called on the local sheriff to arrest them• May 21, 1856- a proslavery posse burned down the antislavery HQ, destroyed 2 newspapers’ printing presses, and looted many houses and stores.
“The Pottawatomie Massacre”• News from Lawrence reached, John Brown, an abolitionist described as a “man made of the stuff of saints”.• Brown believed God called on him to fight slavery• Had the mistaken impression that the proslavery posse killed 5 men• Brown was set on revenge• May 24th, he & his followers pulled 5 men from their beds in the proslavery settlement of Pottawatomie Creek, hacked off their heads, and stabbed them with broadswords• Quickly led to cries for revenge• It became the bloody shirt that proslavery Kansas settlers waved in summoning attacks on Free-Soilers• Massacre triggered dozens of incidents throughout Kansas• 200 people were killed• John Brown fled Kansas, but left behind men and women who lived with rifles by their sides
Violence in the Senate• May 19th Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner delivered in the Senate an impassion speech: “The Crime Against Kansas”• For 2 days he verbally attacked his colleagues for their support of slavery.• Sumner was particularly abusive toward the aged senator Andrew P. Butler of SC, sneering at him for his proslavery beliefs and making fun of his impaired speech• May 22nd, Butler’s nephew, Congressman Preston S. Brooks walked in the Senate chamber and over to Sumner’s desk• “I have read your speech twice over, carefully. It is a libel on SC and Mr. Butler, who is a relative of mine”• Lifted his cane and struck Sumner on the head repeatedly before the cane broke• Sumner suffered shock and brain damage and did not return for three years• Southerners applauded and showered Brooks with new canes saying “Hit him again”• Northerners condemned the incident as an example of Southern brutality and antagonism over free speech
Southern Chivalry: Argument versus Club’s, 1856This cartoon depicts South Carolina Representative Preston Brooksstriking Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner with his cane.Brooks attacked him in retaliation for a speech that Sumnerdelivered berating Brooks’s relative, Senator Andrew Butler ofSouth Carolina. The violent episode fueled antipathy between anti-slavery northerners and pro-slavery southerners.
Review- Summarizing • Describe Northern • Answer: The South and Southern saw Brooks as a hero reactions to the who defended the incident between honor of his family Brooks and Sumner. and state; the North saw the incident as an act of brutality
Summarizer• Identify the significance of the following: • Fugitive Slave Act • Personal liberty laws • Underground Railroad • Harriet Tubman • Harriet Beecher Stowe • Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Kansas-Nebraska Act • “Bleeding Kansas” • Senator Sumner
The Birth of theRepublican PartyLearning Goal: NJCCCS 6.1.12.A.3.g - Determine the extentto which state and local issues, the press, the rise ofinterest- group politics, and the rise of party politicsimpacted the development of democratic institutions andpractices.
Warm Up- Focus & Motivate• What advantages are there in having the two-party system we have today?• What would be the advantages and disadvantages if there were more than 2 parties?
New Political Parties Emerge• End of 1856- political landscaped shifted• Whig Party split over slavery and the Democratic party was weak• Left the new Republican Party to move within striking distance of the presidency
Slavery Divides Whigs • Divisions within the Whig Party widened in 1852 when Gen. Winfield Scott became the Whig nominee for president. • Scott owed his nomination to Northern Whigs who opposed the Fugitive Slave Act and gave only lukewarm support to the Compromise of 1850, Southern Whigs however backed the compromise in order to appear both proslavery and pro-Union • Due to Scott’s position, the Whig vote in the South fell from 50% in 1848 to 35% in 1852 allowing the Democratic candidate Franklin Pierce to win the election • The Kansas-Nebraska Act ruined the Whig party irreversibly splitting Southern and Northern members
Nativism• Alternatives to the Whig party included the American Party which had roots in a secret organization known as the Order of the Star- Spangled Banner.• Members of the society believed in nativism- n. favoring the interests of native-born people over foreign-born people.• Using secret handshakes and passwords, members were told to respond to questions about their activities by saying: “I know nothing” by 1854 it became known as the Know-Nothing Party [n. a name given to the American Party, formed in the 1850s to curtail the political influence of immigrants.]• Primarily middle-class Protestants- they were dismayed by the total # of new immigrants and the # of Catholics among them• Catholic immigrants, according to nativists, during 1830s/1840s were influenced by the Pope and could form a conspiracy to overthrow democracy• While the Democratic Party courted immigrant voters, nativists voted for Know-Nothing candidates.• Did surprisingly well in polls during 1854 but were split over slavery• Northern Know-Nothings began to edge toward the Republican Party
Review- Analyzing Causes • What impact did the • Answer: The slavery slavery issue have on issue had caused a the Democratic and split in the Whig Whig parties? Party; the Democratic Party was scarred
Antislavery Parties Form• 2 forerunners of the • 1848- the Free Soil Party- Republican Party n. a political party formed emerged during the in 1848 to oppose the 1840s extension of slavery into U.S. territories.• 1844- tiny abolitionist party- Liberty Party- • Nominated former whose purpose was to president Martin Van create/pass new Buren abolitionist laws • Failed to win any electoral• Received only a small % votes in 1848, received of votes to throw the 10% of the popular vote election to Polk over Clay • Sent a clear message that even some Northerners did not favor abolition, however they definitely opposed the extension of slaves in the
The Free-Soilers• Included many N. who were not abolitionists• # of N. Free-Soilers supported the prohibition of black settlement in their communities and denying blacks the right to vote• Free-soilers objected to slavery’s impact on free white workers in the wage-based labor force, upon which the North depended• Abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison considered the Free-Soil Party a “sign of discontent with things political… reaching for something better… it is a party for keeping Free Soil and not for setting men free”
Fears of the Free-Soilers• Detected a dangerous pattern in such events as the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise• Convinced that a conspiracy existed on the part of the “diabolical slave power” to spread slavery throughout the U.S.A.• Something or someone, according to the Free-Soilers, had to prevent this spread.
Review- Analyzing Motives • Why did most Free- • Answer: Most Free- Soilers object to Soilers objected to slavery? slavery because they believed that white workers could not get jobs in competition with slaves.
Republican Party• In February 1854, @ a school house in Ripon, WI, some discontented N. Whigs held a mtg. w/ antislavery Dems & Free-Soilers to form a new political party• on July 6th – The Republican Party- n. the modern political party that was formed in 1854 by opponents of slavery in the territories.• Formed and organized in Jackson Michigan including one of the founders Horace Greeley• united in opposing the Kansas-Nebraska Actand in keeping slavery out of the territories• Embraced a wide range of opinions• Conservative members wanted to resurrect the Missouri Compromise• Opposite were the radical abolitionists• Drew support from diverse groups and had strength to win a political tug of war with other parties
Main Competition• Main competition for Republicans was the Know-Nothing Party• Both targeted the same groups of voters• 1855- Republicans had set up party organizations in about ½ of the N. states but lacked national organization• In Quick succession- fraudulent territorial election in Kasas, sack, massacre, caning leading to issues Republicans needed to challenge the Democrats for the presidency in 1856• Republicans chose John C. Frémont, famed “pathfinder” who mapped the Oregon Trail and led U.S. troops into CA during Mexican War• Know-Nothings split their allegiance with N. endorsing Frémont and S. selecting Fillmore even though the Whigs were dissolved
Enter: Buchanan• Democrats nominated James Buchanan of PA a N. with many S. friends• As minister to GB- he was out of the country during Kansas- Nebraska thus he did not antagonize any side• To balance the N. and the S. Democrats chose John C. Breckinridge as his running mate• Although he received only 45% of the popular vote- he won the S. except MD• Result- Know-Nothings in decline, Republicans gaining power
The Life of Buchanan• “life-long bachelor” • Lived with Alabama• According to historian Lisa Senator- William R. Manhart, Buchanan King, VP under Pierce “committed an unspecified • Relationship was so indiscretion that anger his close, Andrew Jackson intended bride, and she called King: “Miss Nancy” broke of their and “Aunt Fancy” engagement” • Others referred to the two• Family forbade James from as “Buchanan and his wife” attending his funeral• Niece- Harriet Lane served as hostess fulfilling the 1st Lady responsibilities
Review- Analyzing Effects • Why was the election • Answer: Because it of 1856 so important established the party to the growth of the as an alternative to Republican Party? the Whigs and the Democrats, and showed that the Republicans would be powerful contenders in the future
Summarizer- Synthesizing• How did the way in • The party was united which the Republican in opposing Party was formed slavery, but also indicate that the embraced a wide party stood a good range of opinions. By chance at success? drawing support from conservatives and radicals, it had the strength to overpower other political parties
Slavery & SecessionLearning Goal: NJCCCS 6.1.12.A.4.a- Analyze the ways in which prevailing attitudes, socioeconomic factors, and government actions (i.e., the Fugitive Slave Act and Dred Scott Decision) in the North and South (i.e., Secession) led to the Civil War.[CRN- 9.11.4 ]
A Cautionary Speech• June 16th, 1858- Rep. Party of Illinois nominated Abraham Lincoln to run for U.S. Senate against Dem. Incumbent Stephen A. Douglas
Questions that need answers• Was Lincoln right that the Union would dissolve?• Was President James Buchanan too weak?• Would new legal questions over slavery implode?
Slavery Dominates Politics• Slavery was a problem for the indecisive Pres. Buchanan• Administration plagued by slavery-related controversies• 1st one arose on March 6th, 1857- a case that would alter the course of history indefinitely
Dred Scott v. Sanford• Facts: • 1857, Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin • Dred Scott was an African- American slave • He was taken by his master from the slave state of Missouri to the free state of Illinois • He lived on free soil for a long time • When the Army ordered his master to go back to Missouri, he took Scott with him back to that slave state• Issues: • Scott said that he should be free since he lived on free soil for such a long time
• Arguments:Scott v. Sanford • As a non-citizen many felt that Scott had no rights and could not sue in a federal court and therefore must remain a slave. • Decision: • Scott lost the decision as the Supreme Court [under Chief Justice Roger B. Taney] declared no slave or descendant of a slave could be a U.S. citizen • The Supreme Court also ruled that Congress could not stop slavery in the newly emerging territories • The decision enraged Abraham Lincoln, and brought the nation to the brink of the Civil War • Result • Effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise • Declared Slaves were property
Review- Analyzing Effects • What was the • Answer: It effectively significance of the repealed the Dred Scott decision? Missouri Compromise; it declared that slaves were property
The Lecompton Constitution• Fall of 1857- proslavery government at Lecompton, Kansas wrote a constitution and applied for admission to the Union• Free-Soilers, outnumbered proslavery settlers in Kansas by nearly 10:1- rejected the constitution b/c it protected the rights of slaveholders• Legis. called for a referendum in which people could vote on the proslavery constitution, people voted against it• Pres. Buchanan endorsed the proslavery constitution• Owed his presidency to S. support and believed that since Kansas only had 200 slaves, the Free-Soilers were overreacting• Provoked the wrath of Dem. Stephen A. Douglas and violated popular sovereignty- called for another referendum• Summer- 1858, voters rejected the constitution again• N. hailed Douglas as a hero, S. as a traitor and split the Dem. party
Review- Analyzing Motives • Why did Buchanan • Answer: He was trying to support the appease the Southerners. Lecompton He felt that the small constitution? number of slaves in Kansas made the issue relatively unimportant.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates • The race for U.S. Senate in Illinois became a stage for a great political contest • Douglas was a 2-term senator w/ an outstanding record and a large campaign chest • Lincoln was a self-educated man with a dry wit known locally as a successful lawyer and politician. Elected as a Whig to 1-term in Congress in 1846- he broke with his party after the Kansas- Nebraska Act
Position & Arguments• Douglas believed in popular sovereignty • Did not think slavery was immoral, he did believe that it was a backward labor system unsuitable to prairie agriculture• Lincoln believed that slavery was immoral • A labor system built on greed• Chief difference: • Douglas believed that popular sovereignty would allow slavery to pass away on its own • Lincoln doubted that slavery would cease to spread without legislation outlawing it in the territories• Lincoln tried to make Douglas look like a defender of slavery and of the Dred Scott decision• Douglas accused Lincoln of being an abolitionist and an advocate for racial equality• Lincoln stated he was not in favor of bringing social and political equality between races but that slavery was a moral, social, and political wrong that should not spread
The Freeport Doctrine• 2nd debate held at Freeport• Lincoln asked Douglas if the settlers of a territory could vote to exclude slavery before the territory became a state• Everyone knew that the Dred Scott decision said no• Lincoln implied that Popular Sovereignty was an empty phrase• Douglas’ response became known as the Freeport Doctrine- n. the idea, expressed by Stephen Douglas in 1858, that any territory could exclude slavery by simply refusing to pass laws supporting it.• Douglas also stated no law could be effective without local police regulations meaning use a loophole within Dred Scott• Douglas won the Senate seat, but his response worsened the split between N. and S. wings of the Dem. Party• Lincoln’s attacks on slavery drew national attention leading the Republicans to propose him as a candidate for presidency in 1860
Review- Comparing • Explain the • Answer: Both were similarities and against slavery; differences between however, Lincoln Lincoln’s position on thought the federal slavery and that of government should Douglas. keep slavery out of the territories, while Douglas though the states should decide.
Passions Ignite• 1858 was a year of talk- 1859 became a year of action• Most Americans would have welcomed a respite from slavery• “God’s angry man”, John Brown, reemerged on the scene and ended all hopes of a compromise over slavery between the North and the South
Harpers Ferry• While politicians debated slavery, John Brown was studying the slave uprisings that had occurred in ancient Rome and on the French island of Haiti• Believed that the time was ripe for similar uprisings• Secretly obtained financial backing from several prominent N. abolitionists• October 16th, 1859- led 21 men, black and white into Harpers Ferry VA• Aim was to seize the federal arsenal and give them to slaves in the area• 60 citizens held hostage with the hope that their slaves would join- none came forward• Local troops killed 8 of Brown’s men• Detachment of U.S. Marines, led by Col. Robert E. Lee stormed the engine house killed 2 more raiders and captured Brown• Brown was tried for treason in VA
John Brown’s Hanging• Dec. 2nd, 1859- Brown was hanged for high treason in front of federal troops & observers• Although condemned as a murderer by Lincoln/Douglas- many N. expressed admiration for him & his cause• Bells tolled @ the news of his execution• Guns fire salutes• Huge crowds gathered to denounce the s.• Some called Brown a matyr
Review- Analyzing Effects • Why did Harpers • Answer: Southerners Ferry increase feared that the North tensions between the was inciting slaves to North and the South? revolt, while Northerners viewed Brown as a martyr whose abolitionist cause was worthy of support.
The Republican Convention- 1860 • Took place in Chicago which had transformed itself into a convention city w/ more than 50 hotels and an 18,000 sq.-ft. wooden mtg. center named the Wigwam • 4,5000 person delegate floor overflowed within minutes • 1st day consisted of forming committees, listening to prayers, and gossiping about politics • Candidates then bargained for delegates votes
Seward and Lincoln• Sen. William H. • Lincoln being an Seward appeared to unknown won him have everything the nomination needed to be a • Lincoln was moderate candidate in his views • Led antislavery forces • Wanted to halt slavery in Congress expansion but would • Financial support of not interfere with the NY south’s slaves • Desire to be center of • South viewed him as attention a “black republican”
Nominations of 1860• 3 major candidates vied for office• Democratic Party split over slavery• N. Dems- Stephen Douglas• S. Dems- VP John C. Breckinridge• Constitutional Union Party- a mix of Know- Nothings and Whigs from the south nominated John Bell of Tennesse
Review- Drawing Conclusions • How did slavery • Answer: The affect U.S. political Democratic party parties in 1860? split over slavery. Those who felt the issue was too central to politics left other parties and formed the Constitutional Union Party.
Southern Secession• Lincoln’s victory convinced S. that they had lost their political voice in the national government.• Fearful that Northern Republicans would submit the South to subjection and bondage, S. states decided to act• South Carolina led the way, seceding from the Union on Dec. 20th, 1860• Mississippi followed on January 9th, 1861; Florida the next day• Weeks later: Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas seceded as well.• The Union was dissolved
Review- Analyzing Effects • How did Lincoln’s • Answer: Lincoln’s election affect the election convinced South? the South that Northerners intended to attack slavery everywhere and that it was time to secede.
The Shaping of the Confederacy• Feb. 4th, 1861- delegates from the secessionist states met in Alabama and formed the Confederacy- n. the Confederate States of America, a confederation formed in 1861 by the Southern states after their secession from the Union.• Their constitution mirrored the U.S.’s however it protected and recognized slavery in new territories• Feb 9th delegates elected former Sen. of Mississippi Jefferson Davis as president and Alexander Stephens of GA as VP• “The time for compromise has no passed” “Farewell to the Star-Spangled Banner” and “Dixie” became themes
The Calm Before the Storm• As the nation awaited Lincoln’s inauguration in March, the citizens were confused• 7 slave states had seceded and formed a new nation• 8 slave states remained within the Union • Would they secede as well?• Pres. Buchanan was uncertain • Announced that secession was illegal, but it would also be illegal for him to do anything about it • He tied his hands• 1 problem- D.C. was very much a Southern city• Secessionists in Congress as well as Fed. Government and president’s cabinet• Mass resignations took place• One question remained- would the North allow the South to leave the Union without a fight?
Summarizer- Whip Around• States the reasons for Southern secession.