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Discuss how the following affected the American economy and culture of the period: the cotton gin, railroads, and telegraphs.Cristo Rey Benchmark: 9.11.7
WARM UP:What do you think it means to be an American?What is the difference between Americans and the rest of the world?
ONE AMERICAN’S STORY- SAMUEL F. B. MORSE1837- painter & scientist, Morse w/ Leonard Gale built an electromagnetic telegraph.Morse’s first model could send signals ten miles through copper wireMorse asked Congress to fund an experimental telegraphic communication that would travel for 100 mi.Congress granted Morse $30,000 to built a 40-mi. telegraph line b/w Baltimore and Washington D.C.In 1844- Morse tapped out: “What hath God wrought?”The message was received in D.C. in less than a second- leading to instant communication
U.S. MARKETS EXPANDFarmers shifted from self-sufficiency to specialization [raising one or two cash crops that they could sell at home or abroad]Developments led to a market revolution- the major change in the U.S. economy produced by people’s beginning to buy and sell goods rather than make them for themselvesDue to this the national economy in the 1840s grew more than it had in the previous 40 yearsThe quickening pace depended on capitalism- an economic system in which private individuals and corporations control the means of production and use them to earn profits.Capital [money, property, machines and factories] were needed to fuel America’s expansionThese investors, entrepreneurs- a person
REVIEW- ANALYZING CAUSESWhat led to the Answer: rise of Investors were capitalism? willing to risk their own money in new industries, standing to earn huge profits if successful.
NEW INVENTIONSCharles Goodyear developed vulcanized rubber in 18391st to protect boots- later in automobilesSewing Machine- patented by Elias Howe in 1846 with a foot treadle by I.M. Singer led to factory production of clothesClothing prices fell more than 75% allowing working people to be able to afford store bought clothesFactories also created mechanized farm equipment and less expensive technology-a clock that originally cost $50 to hand make was now made for half a dollar by themid-century. Falling prices meant workers also became regular consumers.
REVIEW- ANALYZING EFFECTSDescribe the Answer: The cost impact of the of consumer market goods dropped, revolution on so more workers potential could become customers. consumers.
THE ECONOMIC REVOLUTIONThese new inventions, transformed manufacturing, transportation and communicationTelegraphs [a device for the electrical transmission of coded messages over wires.] connected the larger cities on the East CoastNew railroads employed the telegraph to keep trains moving regularly and to warn engineers of safety hazardsBy 1854- 23,000 mi. of telegraph wire crossed the country
IMPACT ON TRANSPORTATIONBetter and faster Eerie Canal was the 1st transportation major canal and used became imperative heavilyBy 1830- 200 Ohio no longer steamboats travelled depended on the western rivers Mississippi River,1816- America had more instead used a canal than 100 miles of and river to NYC the canals- 25 yrs. Later= nation’s major port 3,300 mi. Canals opened the heartland of America to world markets by connecting the Northeast to Midwest
EMERGENCE OF RAILROADSHeyday of canals lasted until 1860s thanks to rapid emergence of railroadsRailroads were significantly pricier by offered speedTrains could operate in the winter, and brought goods to those inlandBy 1840s- freight pulled at 10mph 4x more than boatsGrew safe and reliable and cost came down1850- 10,000 mi. of tracks laid/1859- carried 2 billion tons of freight a year
Trace the origins and implications of “Manifest Destiny”
AMERICAN MISSION- WHITE PRIVILEGE With expansion fever hitting in the 1840s, American believed their westward and southward movement was destined and ordained by Godmanifest destiny n. the 19th-century belief thatthe United States would inevitably expandwestward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican
MANIFEST DESTINY & “WHITE PRIVILEGE”American Indians & people of Spanish descent living in West for 100s yearsSupporters of Manifest Destiny ignored this
ATTITUDES TOWARD THE FRONTIERAbundance of western land was a great attraction especially after the panic of 1837Transportation revolution increased trade opportunities with Asia as well.Many in the Oregon Territory helped expand trade with China and Japan and also served as a naval station for a Pacific Fleet
SETTLERS AND NATIVE AMERICANSIncreasing number of This middle ground settlers led to was well west of cultural battles with the Mississippi due Native Americans to the Indiani.e.- the Black Hawk Removal Act of War 1830As long as settlers Displaced Native needed Native Americans Americans as occasionally fought trading partners white settlers- U.S. and guides, government relations between responded with a the two could be conference near beneficial Laramie Wyoming
FORT LARAMIE TREATY U.S. agreed to make annualIn return Native payments to Native Americans promised Americans not to attack settlers Traditional Native American and to allow the hunting lands were trampled and depleted construction of forts of buffalo and elk and roads The U.S. government repeatedly violated the terms of the treaties Subsequent treaties demanded that Native Americans abandon their lands and move to reservations Treaty of Fort Laramie- the treaty requiring the Sioux to live on a reservation along the Missouri River.
SANTA FE TRAILWhile the westward Each spring from 1821- movement was 1869s- Missouri disastrous for Native traders loaded American wagons with cloth, communities it was knives, and guns also perilous for Groups had up to 100 traders and settlers wagonsSanta Fe Trail- a route Traders charged off to [780 mi.] from be the first to enter Independence, New Mexico Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico, used by Loaded wagons with traders in the early silver, gold, and fur and mid-1800s. and headed back to U.S.
OREGON COUNTYMountain Men- men hired by eastern companies to trap animals for fur in the Rocky Mountains and other western regions of the United StatesRendezvous- annual event held by mountain men to trade furs and socialize
THE MOUNTAIN MENManuel Lisa, Jim Bridger, Jebediah SmithSold furs to merchants from eastern states and Europe1820s- met @ Rendezvous 1x/1yrEvent would sell furs to agents from fur companies
NEW SETTLEMENTS1811- Jacob Astor G.B., Russian, Spain, founded Astoria @ U.S. all claimed Columbia River ownership of theFur trading post one land originally of the 1st Spain/Russia gave up- settlements of 1827, U.S. & Britain Oregon County extended 1818American Indians: treaty that allowed shared control of Flathead Oregon County Nez Pierce Both nations wanted Cayuse to access Columbia Shoshone River
THE MISSIONARIESGrowing # difficult journeyMarcus and Narcissa Whitman- 1st settlersWhitmans est. a mission near Walla Walla, WA in 1836Failed to convince many Cayuse to give up traditional way of lifeMission became a stopping point for newly arrived settlers
TRAGEDY FOR THE WHITMANSSettlers stopping brought diseases epidemicMany Cayuse children diedCayuse, in ager, attacked mission & killed the Whitmans & 10 othersDeaths did not slow stream of pioneers coming to Oregon County
“THE OREGON FEVER IS RAGING IN ALMOSTEVERY PART OF THE UNION” Stories of good farmland Economic problems back East [Panic of 1837] Encourage thousands West More settlers = end of Mt. Men Declining demand for fur trade- less profitable by 1840s Some trappers became guides
REVIEW- WHAT WERE SOME OF THE REASONSAMERICANS TRAVELED TO OREGON COUNTY?
OREGON TRAILBegan in Family of 4 needed Independence <$600 to buy Missouri- supplies stretched more necessary for 6- than 2,000 mi. 8 mo. Trip [From Great Plains through Formed wagon Rockies] trains ranging from 10-severalUsually began dozen wagons once rainy season ended
DANGEROUS CONDITIONSShortages Food Supplies WaterRough weatherNatural barriersConfusion over routesdiseases
DIFFERENT TRAILSS A N TA F E CALIFORNIA TRAILSome went South West Where Oregon split in Idaho, some went to S. Cali.Trail started by Crossed the Sierra Nevada, b4 Merchants 1st snows made it almostFrom Independence impossible Missouri to Santa Fe 1839- John Sutter: Sutter’s Ft., NM near Sacramento RiverTrail NOT a major Few stayed in Mexican Cali. migration rt. Californios- interested in trading manufacturing goods forAppealed to profit hides, tallow & gold dust then seeking traders settlingRisky due to desert & mts.
Group of families following California Trail. Began their journey inthe Spring of 1844. George Donner’s group left the main trail andgot lost. Trapped under heavy snow. February of 1847, found by arescure party. Of 87 only ½ survived.The subsequent casualties resulting from starvation, exposure,disease, and trauma were extremely high, and many of thesurvivors resorted to cannibalism.Seven-year-old Mary Donner suggested to the others that theyshould eat Isaac Donner, Franklin Graves, Jr., and ElizabethGraves, because the Donners had already begun eating the othersat Alder Creek, including Marys father Jacob.
SUMMARIZERHow did Manifest Destiny change the political and cultural climate of America?Think-Write-Pair-Share-Write
10.11.4 P- Describe howwestward expansion in the mid-to late 1800s led to conflictsbetween American settlers andNative American
WARM UP:If you wanted something of value, what are some of the ways in which you would try to get it?
AMERICANS SETTLE IN THE SOUTHWESTNative American and Mexican populations in the S.W. had come into close contactBefore Mexico won its independence in 1821, Spain’s system of Roman Catholic missions in CA, NM and TX tried to convert Native American to Catholicism and to settle them on mission landsTo protect the missions, Spanish soldiers manned nearby presidios or forts.Mission system declined in the 1820s and 1830s after Mexican independenceLand was given to ranchers. Some Native Americans were forced to remain as unpaid laborers, many fledWhen Mexicans captured Native Americans for forced labor, groups of hostile Comanche and Apache retaliated by sweeping through Texas terrorizing Mexican settlements and stealing livestock that supported many American settlers and Tejanos
THE IMPACT OF MEXICAN INDEPENDENCENewly free Mexico sought to improve its economy by easing trade restrictions with U.S.Gradually the ties loosened between Mexico & NM, CA, TX, AZ, Nevada and UtahMexico learned that owning territory was not the same as controllingAs Apache and Comanche threatened the settlements, Mexican government strived to strengthen tiesTo prevent border violations Mexican government officials encouraged American farmers to settle in Texas offering land grants to agents, empresarios [1821, 1823, 1824]Empresarios brought in American settlers who eagerly bought cheap land in return pledged to obey Mexican laws and observe the official religion of Roman Catholicism
AUSTIN IN TEXASStephen F. Austin, est. a colony b/w the Brazos and Colorado rivers excluding drunks, gamblers and those who use profanity1825- had issued 297 land grants giving 177 acres of farmland per family and a 10 yr. exemption from taxes
BIDS FOR TEXASPresident JQA bid $1mil.President Andrew Jackson- $5milMexico continued to refuse and began to regret its hospitality
BORDER PATROLMexico had abolished slavery in 1824 and insisted Texas free theirs1830- Mexico sealed its borders and slapped a heavy tax on the importation of American goodsMexico lacked sufficient troops to police its bordersAnglo population doubled b/w 1830 and 1834Austin won a repeal of the prohibition of immigrationBy 1835- more than 1,000 Anglos each month came to Texas scrawling “G.T.T.” on their doors1836- population: 3,500 Tejanos, 12,000 Native Americans, 45,000 Anglos and 5,000 African Americans
UGLY POLITICSAustin went to Mexico City in 1833 to get greater self-government for Texas via Mexican president Antonio López de Santa AnnaWhile Austin went home- Santa Anna suspended the 1824 Mexican constitution and had Austin imprisoned for inciting revolutionTexas went into a state of rebellion when Santa Anna revoked local powers in TexasTexas Revolution- the 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico.
“REMEMBER THE ALAMO!”Santa Anna marched All 187 U.S. defenders toward San Antonio died i.e.: with a 4,000 member Jim Bowie [Bowie army Knife]Late in 1835 the Texans Davy Crockett attacked driving the [raccoon hat] Mexican forces from the Alamo [an Only a few women and abandoned mission children were spared and fort]In response, Santa Anna stormed and destroyed the small American garrison in the Alamo
REVIEW- COMPARINGCompare the Answer: Both the reasons for the Texas rebels Texas and the Revolution with American the reasons for colonists the American believed they Revolution. were oppressed by governments outside of their territories
THE LONE STAR REPUBLICLater in March of 1836, Santa Anna’s troops executed 300 rebels at GoliadThe Alamo and Goliad victories would prove costly for Santa AnnaLed by Sam Houston, Texans struck back defeating Santa Anna at Battle of San Jacinto- w/ shouts of “Remember the Alamo” the Texans killed 630 of Santa Anna’s soldiers in 18 minutes and captured Santa AnnaVictorious Texans set Santa Anna free after he signed the Treaty of Velasco giving Texas independenceHouston became president of the Republic of Texas- the nation established in 1836 when American settlers in the Mexican province of Tejas declared and fought for their independence, also commonly known at that time as the “Lone Star Republic”
TEXAS JOINS THE UNIONMarch 16th 1836- Texas ratified a constitution based on the U.S.1838- Houston invited the U.S. to annex- to incorporate a territory into an existing political unit, such as a state or a nation. [into the U.S.]Most people hoped this would happen but U.S. was dividedSouth wanted to extent slavery, already est. in TexasNortherners feared the annexation of more slave territory would tip the uneasy balance in the Senate and prompt war with Mexico
THE ANNEXATION OF TEXAS Pres. John Tyler wanted to annex Texas to # of slave states in the union Whig party rejected and nominated Sen. Henry Clay Democrats chose- James K. Polk and in 1845 he won & Congress voted to annex Texas On Dec. 29th, 1845- Texas became the 28th state in the Union A furious Mexican government recalled its ambassador from Washington. Events were moving quickly towards WAR
REVIEW- CONTRASTINGExplain the Answer: The North did differences not want to admit a between the slave state, which Northern and would tip the balance Southern of power between positions on the free and slave states. annexation of The South wished to Texas annex Texas and extend slavery which already existed in Texas
SUMMARIZERDiscuss the implications of adding new territory to the United States in regards to Sectionalism.
L E A R N I N G G O A L : E VA L U AT E T H EACTIONS OF JAMES K. POLK ANDS A N TA A N N A , R E C O G N I Z I N G T H EHISTORICAL CONTEXT IN WHICHT H E Y W E R E O P E R AT I N G 5 . 11 . 1 2
WARM UP:What justifications are there for entering into a war?
POLK URGES WARHostilities b/w U.S. & Mexico flared during Texas RevolutionReignited by Annexation2 countries could have resolved it peacefully however the instability of the Mexican government and the territorial aspirations of James K. Polk would prevent this
SLIDWELL’S REJECTION1844- Santa Anna ousted as Mexico’s president1845- “Polk the Purposeful” sent a Spanish-speaking emissary, John Slidell to Mexico to purchase CA and NM and gain approval of the Rio Grande as the Texas borderMexican official refused to see himHoping for Mexican aggression to unify Americans behind a war, Polk instituted a plan that was shared by many AmericansPublic opinion still split due to Slavery issues
MEXICAN OUTRAGETexas considered a rebel provinceCut off diplomatic relations w/ U.S.Polk inherited boundary disagreement b/w Texas & MexicoSent Gen. Zachary Taylor into disputed region to protect U.S. interestsPolk’s offer to purchase lands failedOrdered Taylor to move nearer the River Grande
1…2…3…BOOM! • Stationed across TaylorMexican forces • Demanded he withdraw • refusedTaylor • Troops attack 63 U.S. soldiersMexican forces • Killing 11 & capturing the rest
“MEXICO HAS PASSED THE BOUNDARY OF THEUNITED STATES, HAS INVADED OUR TERRITORYAND SHED AMERICAN BLOOD UPON THEAMERICAN SOIL… THE TWO NATIONS ARE NOWAT WAR”-PRES. JAMES K. POLK, MAY 11TH, 1846
SECTIONAL ATTITUDES TOWARD WARThe idea of war unleashed great public celebrationsVolunteers swarmed recruiting stations, and the advent of daily newspapers, printed on new rotary presses, gave the war a romantic appealAbolitionist James Russell Lowell however, consider the war a “national crime committed in behoof of slavery, our common sin”John C. Calhoun spoke of the perils of expansionism claiming Mexico was a forbidden fruit that would subject “our institutions to political death”Southerners saw this as a great expansion of slaveryFurthermore the Wilmot Proviso- a proposed amendment to a military appropriations bill of 1846, prohibited slavery in lands that might be gained from MexicoNortherners opposed the war. Antislavery Whigs and abolitionists saw the war as a plot to expand slavery and ensure Southern dominationCharles Sumner, MASS legis. Proclaimed: “the lives of Mexicans are sacrificed in this cause; and a domestic question, which should be reserved for bloodless debate in our own country, is transferred to fields of battle in a foreign land”200,000 men enlisted [4x the # the U.S. requested]Henry David Thoreau went to jail rather than pay taxes to support the warEmerson feared war would divide the country
REVIEW- ANALYZING EFFECTSHow did the Answer: issue of slavery Northerners affect the opposed war, debate over the seeing it as a war with way to extend Mexico? slavery in Texas. Many southerners favored war for the same reason.
“AMERICAN BLOOD UPON AMERICAN SOIL”Polk sent a war Truthful or not, the message to House voted for Congress, war 174-14 and desiring war the Senate by 40-Rep. Abraham 2 Lincoln Since Polk withheld questioned the key facts, the truthfulness of the reality and the message wanting practice of to know exactly manifest destiny where the launched the U.S. skirmish occurred into its 1st war on foreign territory
REVIEW- ANALYZING CAUSESHow did President Answer: Polk Polk provoke purposely Mexico to attack ordered U.S. forces? American soldiers to invade territory that Mexico claimed as its own; when Mexico attacked, Polk quickly claimed that Mexico had started the war.
KEARNY MARCHES WESTStephen Kearny marched from Ft. Leavenworth Kansas to Santa Fe, NMJoined by upper- class MexicansWent to CA -
THE REPUBLIC OF CALIFORNIAAmerican settlers led by Frémont seized the town of Sonoma in June 1846 and declared their independence from MexicoRepublic of California n. the nation proclaimed by American settlers in California when they declared their independence from Mexico in 1846.Kearny arrived and joined forces with Frémont and a U.S. naval expedition led by Commodore John D. Sloat.Mexican troops quickly gave way, leaving U.S. forces in control of CA The War in Mexico- Mexicans gallantly defended their soil- had poor leadership Americans under the best of the nation’s officers like Capt. Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant, both West Point graduates
HOW THE U.S. GOT CALIFORNIA American settlers declared independence from Mexico Kearny joins with naval forces under Stockton to defeat Californios
GENERAL WINFIELD SCOTT After Buena Vista, Polk believed Taylor could not win the war Worried that as a fellow Whig, would be popular enough to win 1848 election Polk gave command for a new invasion in the South of Mexico to Gen. Winfield Scott
POLK’S BIZARRE SCHEMESanta Anna [exiled in Cuba] told Polk if he helped him sneak back into Mexico- Santa Anna would end the war an mediate the border disputePolk agreed, but Santa Anna returned to Mexico- became president and took command of the army ordering an attack on Taylor’s forces at Buena Vista in Feb. 1847The battles continued to rage on Oops.
THE WAR’S END Buena Vista Gen. Santa Anna demands Taylor never surrenders- WINS! surrender Veracruz U.S.- Gen. Scott captured in March Mexico City Scott goes to capital and on Covering 260 mi. & never lost a8/14/1847 captures the capital single battle. WINS!
MEXICAN CESSIONTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- the 1848 treaty ending the U.S. war with Mexico, in which Mexico ceded California and New Mexico to the United States.Territory ceded to U.S.: California Nevada Utah Most of: Arizona & New Mexico Parts of: Colorado & WyomingGot area claimed by Texas north of the Rio GrandeTotaled more than 500,000 sq. mi.Increased U.S. by 25%
FINAL AGREEMENTSU.S. agreed to Mexicans living pay Mexico $15 in region of mil. Cession wouldAgreed to have assume rights/property responsibility protected for American claims of $3mil. Against Mexico
DEBATE OVER THE TREATYAgainst• Antislavery Activists• Most Whigs• Some wanted to take ALL of MexicoIn favor• Polk argued Treaty greatly benefitted U.S.• 1848- Senate ratified
GADSDEN PURCHASE December 1853- James Gadsden- U.S. minister to Mexico Negotiated Purchase U.S. paid $10 mil for: Southern parts of: Arizona New Mexico Wanted region for transcontinental RR route Continental boundaries of U.S. were fixed
SUMMARIZERExplain the Together with the importance of settlement of the the Treaty of Oregon Guadalupe question, the Hidalgo and the Treaty of Gadsden Guadalupe Purchase. Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase settled the boundaries on mainland U.S.
THE GROWTH OF THE WESTLEARNING GOAL:1 0 . 11 . 1 R-DESCRIBE HOW THERELIGIOUS DIVERSITY OF AMERICANI M M I G R A N T S I M PA C T E D T H E S O C I A LFA B R I C O F A M E R I C A N S O C I E T Y
THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSHForty-niners= gold seekers who moved to California during the gold rush
“MY EYE WAS CAUGHT WITH THE GLIMPSE OFSOMETHING SHINING IN THE BOTTOM OF ADITCH… I WAS CERTAIN… IT WAS… GOLD”1/24/11848- Sutter’s Mill- gold found1849- 80,000 gold seekers [49ers] CaliforniaCalifornia Gold RushIowa Woman: “at that time gold fever was contagious, and few, old or young escaped the malady!”
INCREDIBLE STORIES OF SUCCESS1 miner pocketed 2 & ½ lbs. of gold after 15 mins. Of workUsually gold mining- very difficult/time consumingFew 49ers became richMany had 0 experience when they came to prospect
METHODS OF MINING Most pop. Method= placer mining put dirt in a pan ran water over dirt used a sluice box to wash gold nuggets out of loose rock Reach gold in hills= dig shafts and tunnels usually used by mining companies
MINING CAMPS1852- gold production more than $81milCamps appeared/disappe ared @ fast rate Skunk Gulch Hangtown Git-Up and Git Dry Diggins
LIFE OF MINERSSome tried to est. law, but Most made a living: it was rowdy and Selling food dangerous Selling clothingMost were young, unmarried men Selling equipment5% of gold-rush Miners paid high prices immigrants were due to gold in circulation women and children causing severe inflationWives made good money: A loaf of bread that would cost 5 cents back east Cooking cost 50-75 cents in San Washing Clothes Francisco Operating Boarding houses
REVIEW- COMPARINGWhat common Answer: In both dreams did cases, settlers people who rushed to settle sought gold in a territory California where they share with envisioned those who bright settled in economic Oregon? opportunity
EFFECTS OF THE GOLD RUSHGold fever lured many from around the worldChinese [gam san haak: “travellers to gold mt.”]1849-1853: 24,000 young Chinese men came to CAMany Americans did not welcome Chinese
TREATMENT OF THE CHINESEChinese miners suffered violent attacks and little legal protectionCA placed high monthly taxes to foreigners in 1852U.S. government did not allow Chinese to become America citizens
OTHER TRAVELERSProspectors Europe [German/Irish] Mexico South America African American20,000 immigrants moved to CAMost returned home after making a fortuneMany stayed inc. German immigrant Levi Strauss who made denim pants for miners… now known as Levi Jeans
EFFECTS OF THE GOLD RUSHPre-gold CA pop: grew slowlyArrival of 49ers led to a transformationGold mining, trade & business the economyPop. Grew CA. became a state 2 years after the U.S. acquired itAgriculture/Industry flourishedEven after rush, frontier life remained prosperous
CAUSE & EFFECT Pop. rapidly = Immigrants CA. from all becomes over come a state 2 years after Discovery being a of Gold territory
THE MORMONS & MIGRATIONMormons- members of a church founded by Joseph Smith and his associates in 1830.Migrated westward on the Oregon TrailHistory began in NY in 1827 when Joseph Smith and 5 associates established the Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Fayette, NY in 1830Smith and band moved to Nauvoo, Illinois in 1839Within 5 yrs. The community numbered 20,000Smith’s angry neighbors printed protests against polygamy- the practice of having more than 1 wife, Smith destroyed their printing pressAs a result, in 1844 he was jailed for treasonAn anti-Mormon mob broke into the jail and murdered Smith and his brother
BRING IN BRIGHAMFollowing Smith’s murder- Brigham Young became the leaderMoved Mormons to Utah, then in Mexican Territory1847- July10s of thousands travelled to Utah- The Mormon Trail
MORMON TRAILMany pushed hand carts across rough groundJoined by converts from G.B.1860- 40,000 Mormons settled in Salt Lake City Utah Broad Roads Gridlike street patterns Spacious lots Surrounding farms
MORMON SETTLEMENTSet about turning desert into promise landDeveloped strict water use code due to water scarcityDams/canals neededUnder law: 1st person to use water had full rights to itWater used for farming, mining, manufacturingDisputes settled by good of community over individual interestsCode set example for modern water-rights laws in the west
REVIEW- ANALYZING MOTIVESWhy did the Answer: the Mormons move Mormons were further west in fleeing from their search for religious a new home? persecution
SUMMARIZERCreate a chart to show the lives of different groups of people in the growth of the West.
Ngai, Mae M. Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliensand the Making of Modern America. PrincetonUniversity Press, New Jersey, 2004
LEARNING GOAL6.1.12.D.3.bExplain how immigration intensified ethnic and cultural conflicts and complicated the forging of a national identity.NJCCCSWarm Up:1. How do you think people of other cultures and nations viewed Manifest Destiny?2. What special purpose in the world do you think the United States has today?
ANIMOSITY GROWSReactions to With the Civil War Chinese became economy in volatile decline- ChineseAfter being forcibly immigrants driven out of blamed for mines- moved to depressed wage San Francisco laborsWorked low end Discriminated wage labor against by politicians, police Restaurants Blamed by Laundry Services newspapers for white unemployment
CHINESE EXCLUSIONSigned into law by President Arthur on May 8th, 1882Excluded Chinese “skilled and unskilled laborers and Chinese employed in mining” from entering the country for ten years under penalty of imprisonment and deportation. Many Chinese were relentlessly beaten just because of their race
CHINESE VS. MANIFEST DESTINY According to Ngai: “Asian migrants collided with the racial imperatives of American Manifest Destiny, the ideology of continental expansion that had declared the West the domain of Anglo-Saxon civilization” (18).
EFFECTS OF CHINESE EXCLUSIONLaw & federal courts declared Asians “racially ineligible for naturalization” (18).Made Asians permanent foreigners and guaranteed they would be but a small population in America for nearly 100 yearsCongress/Supreme Court believed immigration to be a form of “foreign aggression and encroachment”Court gave Congress absolute control over immigrationEstablished restrictions for selective exclusion- those not welcome included: “criminals, prostitutes, paupers, the diseases, and anarchists, as well as Chinese laborers”
BANNEDImmigration Service excluded only 1% of 25million immigrants from Europe who came from 1800-WW I while Asian/African countries were only allowed 100 immigrants a year.
JOHNSON-REED IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1924Marked end of open immigration from EuropeStarted an era of immigration restrictionLaw placed numerical limits on immigrationEstablished a quota system that classified world’s population according to nationality and raceRanked these populations in a hierarchy of desirability for admission to U.S.Remapped ethno-central contours of the nationGenerated illegal immigration as the central problem in immigration law
NEW REQUIREMENTSIntroduction of passport control in U.S. and Europe began as emergency war measureBecame norm in regulating international migrationRequirement of visas [documentary proof as permission to enter]Literacy tests also given to immigrants before entering
EXCLUDEDJohnson-Reed excluded immigrants: Chinese Japanese Indians Other AsiansOn the grounds that they were “racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship”Declared by Supreme Court in early 1920sAlso solidified legal boundaries of the white race
AFFECT ON MEXICANSImmigration laws of the 1920s did not assign quotas to MexicansVisa requirements and broader-control affected MexicansMexican became a separate racial category in the census by federal lawMexicans seen as “Race problem”Allowed in through work visas to do cheap labor, but the deportedDivisions led to racist formations and keeping Asians and Mexicans [who were U.S. citizens] as still “alien”
What is the effect of Manifest Destiny on Race and Racial Relations today?