The Origins of Rome• Founded – 753 BC by Romulus & Remus,• twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin Princess• Abandoned on Tiber River- raised by a she-wolf
Rome’s Geography• Built on seven rolling hills @ a curve of the Tiber River• Mid-way between the Alps and Italy’s southern tip• Near midpoint of Mediterranean Sea• [Provides:] ▫ Commerce from abroad; but distance from invasion ▫ Produce from inland regions
The 1st Romans• Earliest settlers of Italian Penn. prehistoric• 100-500 B.C., 3 Groups inhabitated: ▫ Latins – built original settlement of Rome [Palatine Hill] ▫ Greeks [750-600BC] est. colonies along S. Italy & Sicily ▫ Etruscans – native to N. Italy, skilled metalworkers/engineers. Influenced Roman architecture [arch] & alphabet
Republic= a form of government in which power restswith citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders.The Early RepublicCitizenship with voting rights, granted to free-born malecitizens• 600 BC – Etruscan became King of Rome• In decades grew from hilltop villages to 500 sq. mi. city• Various kings ordered first temples & public centers ▫ Forum, of Roman Political life• Last King of Rome- Tarquin the Proud ▫ Harsh tyrant, driven from power in 509 BC ▫ Afterwards est. a republic
Patricians &Plebians• Patricians [wealthy landowners] and plebians [farmers, artisans, merchants, & maj. of pop.] struggled for power• Patricians- inherited power/social status ▫ Claimed ancestry gave them authority to make laws for Rome• Plebians citizens w/ right to vote ▫ Barred from law and holding most government positions ▫ In time, leaders allowed to form own assembly & elect representatives called tribunes [protected plebians from unfair acts of patrician officials.]
The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C.) A “Balanced” Government• Rome elects two consuls– one to lead army, one to direct government• Senate- chosen from patricians (Roman upper class), make foreign and domestic policy• Popular assemblies elect tribunes, make laws for plebeians (commoners)• Dictators- leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis (appt. by consuls and senate)
Twelve Tables• Plebeians forced officials to make written law code so patricians code not interpret the law to fit their own needs.• Carved on tablets that hung in Forum• Basis of Roman law- idea that all free citizens had right to protection of the law
The Twelve Tables: Primary Source Review• What can we infer about Roman values based on the laws cited in the Twelve Tables?• How do the Twelve Tables compare to modern laws in the United States?
Government under the Republic• Took the best of the monarchy , arist., dem.• Monarchy: 2 Consuls: commanded army and directed gov. 1 years term. Could veto other consuls decisions• Aristoracy: Senate: 300 upperclass members ▫ Influence over domestic and foreign policies ▫ Had legislative and administrative functions ▫ Plebeians allowed in later• Democracy: Tribal Assemblies ▫ Tribal Assembly- formed by pleb.- elected tribunes ▫ Made laws for people and later the republic itself ▫ In times of crisis, republic could appoint a dictator- leader with absolute power to make laws and command army In power for 6 months Chosen by consuls and elected by senate
Comparing Republican Governments • What similarities do you see in the governments of the Roman Republic and the United States? • What do you think is the most significant difference between the Roman Republic and that of the United States today?
Military Organization: The Roman Army
The Roman Army• All citizens were required to serve• Army was powerful: ▫ Organization & fighting skill• Legion- military unit of 5,000 infantry (foot soldiers) supported by cavalry (horseback)• Legions divided into smaller groups of 80 men, called a century
Roman Soldiers Roman Legionary Roman CenturionCenturions were mid-ranking officers in charge of groups of 100 soldiers within their legions
Rome Spreads its Power• Romans defeat Etruscans in north and Greek city- states in south• Treatment of Conquered: ▫ Forge alliances ▫ Offer citizenship• By 265 B.C., Rome controls Italian peninsula
Rome’s Commercial Network• Rome establishes a large trading network• Access to Mediterranean Sea provides many trade routes• Carthage, powerful city-state in North Africa, soon rivals Rome
Military Organization: The Punic Wars
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.) • Three Wars between Rome and Carthage • 1st Punic War- Rome gains control of Sicily & western Mediterranean Sea.The destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars.New York Public Library Picture Collection
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)• 2nd Punic War- Carthaginian General Hannibal’s “surprise” attack through Spain & France ▫ 60,000 soldiers and 60 elephants ▫ Romans experience severe losses, but eventually ward off attacks & invade North Africa
2nd War: Hannibal-Carthaginian generalwho led large armyand elephants onlong trek from Spainacross Francethrough Alps. Tosurprise Rome andinflicted enormouslosses on Rome.Rome used helpfrom allies toprevent H. fromovertaking them
Hannibals troops crossing the Rhone River on theirway to attack northern Italy.
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)• 3rd Punic War- Rome seizes Carthage ▫ Scipio- Roman Strategist ▫ Conquered people sold into slavery
Scipio• Scipio, Roman military leader forced H. back to Carthage At Zama H. was defeated. Carthage was burnt, pop. was enslaved, and Carthage was made a Roman province
Victories gave Rome dominance overW. Med. Then conquered East:Anatolia to Spain.