+ Washington Heads the New Governmenta. Had no desire to be presidentb. wanted to retire in Mt. Vernonc. Washington became the unanimous choice in the 1stpresidential ballotd. reluctantly accepted on April 16th, 1789 and set off toNYC [1st capital] to take the Oath of Office
+ The New Government Takes Shape 1st time a nation tried a government on Enlightenment ideals Constitution was not a detailed blueprint for governing Washington & Congress had to make many decisions How the raise revenue? Provide for defense? [w/ no precedent] James Madison: “We are in a wilderness without a single footstep to guide us”
+ Judiciary Act of 1789 Constitution authorized Congress to set up a federal court system- the Supreme Court- but gave no details How many additional courts? What happens if federal court decisions conflicted with states? JA1789- created a judicial structure that is essentially intact: Supreme Court- Chief Justice, 5 Associate Justices 3 Federal Circuit Courts 13 Federal District Courts [the # of justices and courts increased over time] S. 25- allowed state court decisions to be appealed to a federal court when constitutional issues were raised Guaranteed the federal laws remained: “the supreme Law of the Land” as directed by Article 6 of the Constitution
A decision by the Supreme Court to hear an appeal from a lower court.
+ Washington Shapes the Executive Branch Building the Executive branch [to make policies and carry out the laws passed by Congress], while Congress built the judiciary 1789- EB = President + VP Created to assist: [3 Executive Depts.] 1. The Dept. of State [foreign affairs] – Thomas Jefferson 2. Dept. of War [military matters] – Henry Knox [Gen. or Artillery] 3. Dept. of Treasury [manage finances] – Alexander Hamilton Department heads = President’s chief advisers [Cabinet]
+ Jefferson and Hamilton Debate Who’s views proved to be the most enduring in American politics?
+ Contrasting How did Answer: Jefferson Jefferson’s & emphasized the rights Hamilton’s view of states and average citizens. Hamilton of government emphasized the rights differ? of the national government and the ruling elite.
+ Hamilton revives the Corpse of Public Credit An unquestionable genius, Hamilton still had critics who claimed he loved his adopted country more than his countrymen Doubts to his character and loyalty towards the republic always swirled Hamilton regarded himself as a prime minister, and interfered with other departments, including Jefferson’s [his archrival] Dept. of State
+ Financial Wizard Hamilton set out to correct the economic vexation that crippled the AoC Plan: have the fiscal policies of the adm. in a way to favor the wealthier groups They, in turn, would lend the gov’t monetary and political support New federal regime would thrive, the propertied classes would fatten, & prosperity would trickle down to the masses.
+ Economic viability1. Bolster the national credit 1. w/out public confidence in the gov’t, Hamilton could not secure the funds to float his risky schemes2. Urge Congress to “fund” the entire national debt “at par” & assume completely the debts incurred by the states during the war 1. Funding at par = fed. Gov’t. would pay off its debts at face value, + accumulated interest – totaling: $54 million 2. Many believed the infant treasury could not meet these obligations 3. Gov’t bonds depreciated to ten or 15 cents on the dollar 4. Speculators held fistfuls of them 5. Congress passed Hamilton’s measure in 1790 6. Speculators/rich bought paper holdings of farmers, war veterans and widows
+ Assumption Hamilton urged Congress to assume the debts of the states, totaling $21.5 million Regarded as proper national obligation- for they had been incurred during the war for independence Hamilton believed assumption would chain the states to the “federal chariot” He wanted to shift the attachment of wealthy creditors from the states to the national gov’t Support of the rich for the national adm. crucial in Hamilton’s strategy of strengthening the central gov’t MA liked proposal, VA [w/ small debts] was less charmed Southerns resented assumption of state debts b/c they though that they would be taxed to help pay N states debts
+ Good ol’ fashioned Horse Trading VA did not want the state debts assumed- but it did want the forthcoming federal district* [*Auth. By the Constitution, Art I, Sec. VIII, para. 17] The District of Columbia- located by the Potomac River Hamilton persuaded a reluctant Jefferson to line up votes for assumption in Congress In return, VA gets D.C. – bargain carried through in 1790
+ Customs, Duties and Excise Taxes keep a national debt, believing that the more creditors to whom the government owed money, the more people there would be with a personal stake in the success of the government. In this objective, he expected tariff revenues to pay interest on the huge debt and run the government. The first tariff law, a low tax of 8% on the value of imports, was passed by Congress in 1789. to create revenue & to create a small protective wall around small industries. He passed additional internal revenue and, in 1791, convinced Congress to pass an excise tax on a few domestic items, notably whiskey.
+ Hamilton’s Financial Structure Supported by Revenues
+ Analyzing Issues Why did the Answer: Demonstrating new nation that the new government need to pay was financially responsible would make it more off its debts? credible in the eyes of creditors, including foreign governments, and bolster the nation’s reputation.
+ Plan for a National Bank Having a national bank funded by both the federal government and wealthy private investors would help the country’s welfare Bank of the United States – issue paper money & handle tax receipts & other government funds Opponents like James Madison- Claimed bank would forge alliance between gov’t & wealthy business interests. Argued that Constitution Oh Heck no! made no provisions for a national bank
+ DEBATE: Strict vs. Loose Interpretation of the Constitution Strict Construction Loose Construction The federal gov’t has very Favors greater federal powers. limited powers Appealed to the so-called Favored states’ rights, and an elastic clause of the agrarian future for the nation Constitution [Article 1, Sec. 8, Clause 18]- gave Congress the Planter-slaveholders auth. To do whatever is “necessary and proper” to carry out enumerated powers [i.e. regulating commerce] Favored commerce and manufacturing
+ The 1st Political Parties: 2-Party System Washington tried to remain above the arguments b/w H/J & encouraged them to work together despite their differences. Conflict divided the cabinet and fueled growing division in nat. politics Federalists Democratic-Republicans Hamilton’s vision Jefferson’s vision: no relation to today’s Republican Party- ancestors to today’s Democratic party
+• During Washington’s 2nd term• 1794- farmers in w. PA refused to pay excise taxes• Whiskey main source of cash for farmers• Hamilton saw this as an opportunity for the fed. Gov’t to show it can enforce laws along w. frontier• PA threatened to secede from Union
15,000 militiamencalled uponLed by Washingtonpart of the way,Hamilton the wholewayScattered rebelsw/out loss of lifeConsolidated federalpower in domesticaffairs
+ Summarizer: Tell a partner why President Washington created a cabinet. Tella partner the debates between Jefferson and Hamilton over strict and loose construction. Explain how the Whiskey Rebellion was an opportunity for the federal government to demonstrate its authority.
+ Learning Goal: Analyze the impact of the French Revolution on America’s Foreign policies [7.11.3] Foreign Affair Trouble the Nation Warm Up: What would you do if two of your friends were fighting with each other?
+ U.S. Response to Events in Europe Most American initially supported the French Revolution, b/c it was inspired by the ideal of republican rule Few non-American events left a deeper scar on American political and social life French Revolution was a historic, global revolution Heartened by the American struggle against royal tyranny, the French set out to create a government on the will of the people Alliance b/w France and the U.S. [Treaty of 1778] Whether or not the U.S. should support the French Revolution- one of the most important foreign policy questions the young nation faced
+ Reaction to the French Revolution Americans ÷ over Revolution The key to the liberated Bastille was given to George Washington Earl 1793, Jacobins seized power- beheading Louis XVI, Marie In Philly- effigies of King Louis XVI were Antoinette, & launching the Reign of giollotined 20-30x a day during the winter Terror and summer- men, women and children French Revolution became more repeatedly watched and not one paper ominous when France declared war commented negatively of this on Austria Federalists were worried by the Reign of France named a republic leaving Terror, and Jeffersonians regretted the Americans to sing “The Marseillaise” bloodshed King St. NY became Liberty Steet, Jeffersonians did understand the new for a Boston: Royal Exchange Alley few thousand aristocratic heads were became Equality Lane necessary for human freedom
+ Reign of Terror + Neutrality Washington declared neutrality [Neutrality Proclamation 1793] Hamilton and Jefferson agreed French sent a young diplomat: Edmond Genêt to win American support Before following diplomatic procedure & presenting credentials to adm., Genêt began to recruit Americans on the war effort Outraged Washington, who demanded that the French remove Genêt, whose political Jacobins also declared war on backers fell from power in Paris monarchies like Great Britain Fearing for his life, he became a US citizen Expected American help Federalists called Jefferson a radical for supporting France Democratic-Republicans [Jefferson/Madison] wanted to honor Frustrated, Jefferson resigned in 1793 Treaty Federalists [Hamilton] wanted to back
+ Treaty with Spain Despite stating Neutrality, British and French officials seized American ships overseas seeing them as a military liability Meanwhile the U.S. wanted to secure land claims w. of the Appalachians and gain shipping rights on the Mississippi River Negotiations stalled due to the turmoil in Europe Spain, unlike Britain signed a treaty with France Spain feared British retaliation and suspected a joint British- American action might be launched against the Louisiana Territory Spain agreed to meet with US minister to Britain, Thomas Pinckney on Oct. 27th, 1795
+ Pinckney’s Treaty  aka Treaty of San Lorenzo Spain gave up all claims to land east of the Mississippi [except Florida] Recognized the 31st parallel as the southern boundary of the US and the northern boundary of Florida Opened the Mississippi River to traffic by Spanish subjects and US citizens Allowed American traders to use New Orleans
+ Recognizing Effects Why did the Answer: Travel and U.S. want trade were difficult on access to the the frontier, and the Mississippi offered Mississippi the easiest means of River? transportation for frontier farmers and merchants.
+ Native Americans resist White Settlers Pioneers assumed 1783 Treaty of Paris gave free rein to the area British still maintained forts in the NW Territory: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan & Wisconsin – a direct violation of the treaty Settlers met fierce resistance from Native Americans Native Americans claimed they never accepted treaty & claimed their tribal lands British encouraged their resistance Native Americans often attacked white settlers
+Cause: Native Americans reject Treaty of Paris Note Taking Skills Effect: Effect: Effect:
+ Native American Conflicts Cause: Native Americans Fed gov’t set army led by Native Americans reject Treaty of Paris Gen. Josiah Harmar vs attacked settlers Miami tribe: Little Turtle Defeated them & Gen. Arthur St. Clair Fallen Timbers  Gen. Anthony Wayne- Little Turtle replaced Little Turtle urged peace August 20th, 1794- Wayne Treaty of Greenville- gave defeated Miami up Ohio for $20k of goods Confederacy and annual fee of $10k
+ Jay’s Treaty Vs. Britain for territories of Appalachian Mts. Wayne’s victory prompted British to agree to evacuate thieir posts Treaty signed on Nov. 19th, 1794 Treaty passed Senate, but many Americans angry with terms AllowedBritish to cont. their fur trade on the American side of the U.S.-Canadian border
+ Analyzing Issues Why were so Answer: Because many Americans it allowed the dissatisfied with British to continue Hay’s Treaty with their fur trade on Britain? the U.S. side of the Canadian border.
+ Washington leaves… Bitter fight over Jay’s Treaty and the division of Federalists and D-R convinced Washington not to seek a 3rd term Urged the U.S. to “steer clear of permanent alliances” w/ other nations 1797- retired to Mt. Vernon
+ Election of 1796 Federalists nominated VP: John Adams and Thomas Pinckney for VP D-R: Thomas Jefferson for president, Aaron Burr for VP Adams received 71 electoral votes, Jefferson 68 Constitution stated that the runner-up should be VP; country had a Federalist President, D-R VP Election led to sectionalism- placing 1 region’s interests over the whole S. voted for Jefferson; N. for Adams
+ Adams tries to avoid War Pres. Adams faced his 1st crisis: a looming war w/ France Jay Treaty was seen as a violation of the French-American alliance France refused to receive the new American ambassador and began to seize American ships bound for Britain Adams sent a 3-man delegation: Charles Pinckney, minister to France; future Chief Justice- John Marshall; & Eldbridge Gerry to Paris to negotiate a solution Reign of Terror had ceased, French gov’t had a legis. And 5-man ex. Branch called the Directory. Gen. Napoleon Bonaparte was popular due to conquering most of western Europe The Directory had little patience for U.S.; who planned to meet with French foreign minister: Talleyrand
+ XYZ AffairDirector sent 3 low officials:X, Y & ZOfficials demanded $250,000as a bribe for seeingTalleyrandProvoke anti-French feeling“MILLIONS FOR DEFENSE,BUT NOT ONE CENT FORTRIBUTE” became a sloganAudiences refused to listen toFrench music
+ Millions for Defense… 1798- Congress created a navy- auth. American ships to seize French vessels 1,200 men marched to the president’s residence to volunteer for war Congress auth. An army of 50,000 troops and brought Washington out of retirement to be Lt. Gen. & Com in Chief- war was never officially declared, but for 2 years naval war occured
+ Witch-Hunt Anti-French feeling flourished Many Federalists believed French agents were everywhere, plotting to overthrow the gov’t. New arrivals from foreign countries were soon held in particular suspicion- esp. b/c many immigrants were active in the D-R party Some of the most vocal critics of the Adams adm. Were foreign-born Included French & British radicals as well as recent Irish immigrants who lashed out at anyone pro-British inc. Adams Talleyrand let it be known if a new minister was sent, he’d receive them with proper respect
+ Alien and Sedition Acts Federalists pushed through Congress- 1798: 4 measures: Raises residence requirement for American citizenship from 5yrs to 14 yrs Allowed the president to deport or jail any alien considered undesirable Sedition Act- set fines and jail terms for anyone trying to hinder the operation of the gov’t or expressing “false, scandalous and malicious statements” against the gov’t Federal gov’t prosecuted and hailed a number of D-R jounralists Law seen as a violation of freedom or speech
+ Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 Federalists planned to have the law expire in 1801 so it could not be used against them in the next election
+ VA [Madison] & KY [Jefferson] Resolutions Jefferson feared the acts would choke free speech and press Fearing prosecution for sedition, he penned a series of resolutions KY approved in 1798-1799 Madison did the same in VA Both stressed compact theory- in creating the fed gov’t, the 13 states entered into a compact or contract re: jurisdiction Individual states were the final judges of whether the contract was broken Federal regime had exceeded its constitutional powers and the acts were nullified by the states due to it being unconstitutional No other state agreed- but they highlighted the balance of power controversy- the 1800 election would center on this debate
+ Analyzing Issues How did the Answer: They asserted Kentucky the principal of Resolutions nullification, which held that, if a state considered challenge the an act of Congress to be authority of the unconstitutional, it had federal the right to declare that government? action null and noid- that is not binding as law
+ The Death of Washington GW remained active until Dec. 14th, 1799 when he died from a severe cold Buried with a military funeral in Mt. Vernon Death instrumental in improving relations with France Napoleon ordered 10 days of mourning to be observed for Washington Napoleon hoped to lure American friendship away from the British
+ The Country is too young for War 1799- Adams submitted to the Senate a new name for a minister to France Hamilton and his war-hawk faction were enraged Public opinion, Jeffersonian and reasonable Federalist alike- favored one last try for peace 1800- Napoleon seized dicatorial power, eager to free his hands of the American squabble to continue European expansion and maybe a New World Empire in Louisiana Convention of 1800 signed in Paris, France agreed to annul the 22 yr. old marriage of inconvenience- Franco-American Alliance U.S. agreed to pay the damage claims of American shippers Peace began, and the foundation for the Louisiana Purhcase was placed
+ Summarizer Doyou see any comparisons to the present day or other historical events with: The Alien and Sedition Acts? The XYZ Affair?
+ Learning Goal: Compare Jefferson’s Presidency with his beliefs as a founding father pre-presidency 6.11.4, 6.11.1 Jefferson alters the Nation’s Course Warm Up: Rank the successes of the Presidential office by this time.
+ Ugly politics of the 1800s Bitter campaign between Jefferson and Adams Hurled wild charges at others D-R: Adams was a tool of the rich who wanted to turn the executive branch into a British-style monarchy Alien and Sedition Acts aroused host of enemies Federalists split with Hamilton’s group mad about being robbed out of war with France, and Hamilton attacked the President in a private pamphlet, Jeffersonians got and published Federalists believed Jefferson was a dangerous supporter of Revolutionary France and an atheist bent on destroying organized religion
+ Mudslinging Jefferson accused of having robbed a widow and her children of a trust fund Having numerous mulatto children via his slave [confirmed true through DNA testing in 2001 proved he fathered 6 children] As a liberal in religion, Jefferson incurred the wrath of orthodox clergy They slandered him as an atheist Old ladies fearing Jefferson’s electionburied their Bibles orhung them in wells
+ Electoral Deadlock Jefferson defeated Adams bu 8 electoral votes Aaron Burr, Jefferson’s running mate- receives the same # of votes HoR- called to choose between the 2 highest vote getters 6 days later the House took a new vote- 35 ballots Hamilton intervened and persuaded enough Federalists to cast blank votes to give Jefferson a majority Burr became vice president
+ Flaw in the electoral college Revealed by the deadlock As a result Congress passed the 12th Amendment, which called for electors to separate ballots for president and vice-president. This system is still in effect today Decisive in Jefferson’s win was the ⅗ Compromise Northern critics called Jefferson a “Negro President” and an illegitimate embodiment of the “slave power” s. states had Jefferson claimed the election as the Revolution of 1800 since it was a peaceful transfer of power between rival parties and solidified faith in America’s political system
+ The Midnight Judges Judiciary Act of 1801- last important law passed by the expiring Federalist Congress, increased # of Judges to 16 President Adams remained at his desk until 9pm on his last evening of office- signing midnight judges [3 commissions] Federalist judges now appointed to the Supreme Court- whose term of office is life Jeffersonians condemned the last-minute appointees in violent language, denouncing the trickery of Federalists Congress attempted to repeal the Act Take that, Jefferson! I will have the last word
+ Jefferson as President Inaugural address:[March 4th, 1801] “Every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle”; “We are all [Democratic-] Republicans; we are all Federalists” Jefferson replaced some Federalist officials with Democratic- Republicans 1803- government bureaucracy was more evenly balanced
+ Simplifying the Presidency Walked to his inauguration rather then riding in a carriage Took of his powdered wig, and work work clothes and frayed slippers Tried to shrink the government and cut costs wherever possible Reduced size of the army Halted planned expansion of the navy Lowered expenses for government social functions Rolled back Hamilton’s economic program by eliminating all internal taxes and reducing the influence of the Bank of the U.S. Favored free trade, then gov’t controlled trade & tariffs Believed free trade beneficial with raw materials and food Americans had being in short supply in Europe
+ Drawing Conclusions How did Answer: He Jefferson’s simplified the actions reflect his federal government and emphasized the philosophy of importance of government? ordinary citizens through such policies as free trade.
+ Fall of the Federalists Decline hastened by Jefferson’s political moderation Refused to participate in political campaigns b/c they did not want to appeal to common people for support National expansion worked against them- new states tended to vote for D-R, who represented farmers interests
+ John Marshall & the Supreme Court Federalistscontinued to exert control in the Judicial Branch [Midnight Judges] John Marshall- chief justice, Federalist- served for more than 30s, strengthened the power of the Supreme Court & Federal Gov’t
+ Marbury v. Madison  The argument over Midnight Judges led one of the most important Supreme Court cases of all time William Marbury was a midnight judge who never received his official papers James Madison was the Sec. of State whose duty it was to deliver them Judiciary Act 1789 req. Supreme Court to order that the papers be deliver- Marbury sued to enforce this Chief Justice Marshall decided this provision was unconstitutional b/c the Constitution did not empower the Supreme Court to issue such an order Affirmed the principle of judicial review- the ability of the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
+ Summarizing What is judicial Answer: It is the principle that the review and why Supreme Court has is it important? the right to review acts of Congress to determine if they are unconstitutional. The Supreme Court checks the power of Congress.
+ French Louisiana 1800- Leader of France: Spain struggled to hold its Napoléon Bonaparte, wanted territory in Louisiana to rebuild France’s empire in ForeignMinister- Manuel North America de Godoy worried about Plannedto send troops to keeping Americans out: Louisiana. “You can’t put doors on open country” Spain traded Louisiana to France under a secret treaty [Third Treaty of San Ildefonso]
+ French Ambitions Bonaparte needed to recapture former French Colony- St. Domingue [Haiti] St. Domingue needed as a supply base near Louisiana Enslaved Africans had taken over in the 1790s to gain freedom Toussaint-Louverture [former slave] ruled the island Napoléon’s army failed to retake the island in 1802
+ American Concerns Jefferson learned of Spain’s secret Treaty; feared French control would block U.S. Western expansion Withcontrol of New Orleans, France could interfere with American trade along the Mississippi
+ Doubling the U.S. 1800- Napoleon Bonaparte persuaded Spain to return the Louisiana Territory taken in 1762] News leaked, Americans were alarmed of a strong French presence which may force a British-American alliance Sent James Monroe to join Robert Livingston in Paris to purchase New Orleans and West Florida Territory By the time Monroe arrived in April 1803- Napoleon decided to sell the entire territory to the U.S. With no time to consult the government, Monroe and Livingston closed the deal for $15 million on October 20th, 1803 Jefferson was unsure if the purchase was constitutional However he submitted the treaty and the Senate ratified it, Jefferson used loose construction to acquire the lands or enumerated powers, arguing that it was in the nation’s best interest The U.S. was now doubled
+ Why, Napoleon, why? vie… Cest la Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana and abandon his dream of a New World Empire for 2 reasons: He failed in his efforts to re-conquer the island of Santo Domingo, for which Louisiana was to serve as a source of foodstuffs. b/c Britain controlled the seas, Napoleon didnt want Britain to take over Louisiana. So he wanted the money from the Americans. He also hoped the new land for America would help to thwart the ambitions of the British king in the New World. “I have given England a rival who, sooner or later, will humble her pride” The Purchase: 820,000 square miles at 3 cents/acre.
+ Lewis & Clark Jefferson appointed Meriwether Lewis to lead the expedition- Corps of Discovery [St. Louis to Pacific Coast] Collect sci. info. On unknown plants/animals Learn as much about the Native American tribes Lewis chose William Clark as 2nd in command 50 soldiers and woodsman, pack became smaller but added Sacajawea who served as interpreter and guide Took 2 years and 4 mo. And recorded valuable info.
+ A Conspiracy and a shot to pierce the dark After being dropped from the cabinet in Jefferson’s 2nd term, Burr joined with a group of Federalist extremists to plot the secession of New England & NY Alexander Hamilton, exposed and foiled the conspiracy Burr then challenged Hamilton to a duel
+ The War Hawks demand WAR Jefferson won reelection in 1804 During 2nd term- Fighting b/w Britain & France threatened American shipping 1806- Napoleon decided to exclude British goods from Eurple G.B then created a blockade of Napoleon’s Europe By 1807, Britain had seized more than 1,000 ships and confiscated their cargoes and France had seized about ½ that number Americans focused anger on British policy of impressment- seizing Americans at sea and drafting them into British navies
+hesapeake incident CJune 1808- commander of a Britishwarship demanded the right to boardand search U.S. naval frigate- U.S..Captain refused, British opened fire,killing 3 Americans and wounding 18.Jefferson convinced Congress todeclare an embargo banning onexporting products to other countries,believed Embargo Act of 1807 wouldhurt Britain and Europe and forcethem to honor American neutralityEmbargo hurt Americans more thenBritish, lifted in 1809 exceot withFrance and Britain
+ Repeal Embargo Act repealed on March 1, 1809 Jefferson miscalculated the unpopularity of such a self- crucifying weapon and the difficulty of enforcing it 3 days before Jefferson’s retirement: Non-Intercourse Act, formally opened trade with all nations except Britain and France Economic coercion continued to be the policy of Jeffersonians until 1812
+ Tecumseh’s Confederacy 1809- Gen. William Henry Harrison, gov of Indiana Territory invited several Native American chiefs to Fort Wayne, Indiana and persuaded them to sign away 3 million acres of tribal land to U.S. Shawnee chief, Tecumseh formed a confederacy against white settlers aided by his brother, the Prophet Cast off all traces of white civilization i.e.- Christianity Warned that the Great spirit was angry with all the tribes for abandoning their beliefs
+ Alliances Tecumseh was a brilliant strategist and a skillful diplomat Pressed Harrison to withdraw from Native American land Began negotiations with the British Through 1810 and 1811 travelled to increase Confederacy Prophet led an attack on Harrison at Tippecanoe Harrison’s troops suffered losses, but he burned the Shawnee capital
+ War Hawks Young congressmen from the South and West Called for war against Britain Motto: “On to Canada” Sen. John C. Calhoun [SC] Henry Clay, KY- Speaker of the House
+ Election of 1808 James Madison took the presidential oath on March 4th, 1809 Unable to dominate Congress like Jefferson could- he found himself holding the bag for foreign policies not of his own making Congress dismantled the Non- Intercourse Act with Macon’s Bill no. 2 Lured British or France into retaliation Ultimately Madison had no choice but to reestablish embargo with just Britain ending American neutrality
+ A Declaration of War Madison told Congress in 1808, Madison’s complaints on that Britain was already in a State British: of War w/ the U.S. Impressment of U.S. citizens Continued violations of U.S. neutrality War Hawks complained of British aid to American Indians and a desire for: American Expansion Protecting American honor
+ Congress Acts Southern and Western Representatives vote for WAR! Delaware, New England States [NY, NJ, PA] oppose war… War Hawks won
+ The War in Canada American military unprepared for war Detroit captured by the British shortly Failed attempt to take Montreal Oliver Hazard Perry defeated a British fleet on Lake Eerie American soldiers retook Detroit Native American groups allied with both factions Tecumseh fought for the British Tecumseh killed in the Battle of the Thames in 1813
+ Battle of LakeTheEerieSept. 1813-Perry fought theBritish for 3 hours &finally his small fleetdefeated the Britishwho were forced towithdraw
+ The War at Sea Young U.S. Navy tested Badly outnumbered w/ only 16 ships; aided by its three 44-gun frigates, or warships: the President, the United States, the Constitution- known for their speed and ability to sail close to enemy vessels and open fire Each scored victories against British vessels Nov. 1812- British government ordered a blockade of the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays w/ more victories, more blockades occurred- by the end of 1813 most American ships were bottled at ports
+ British burn the White House 1814- British were raiding towns all along Atlantic Brushed aside U.S. troops and entered D.C. In retaliation for victory at the Battle of York- the capital of upper Canada, in which U.S. burned the governors mansion and legislative assembly buildings- the British burned the Capitol, White House and other buildings August 24th, Madison and other federal officials had to flee from their own capital http://youtu.be/Ety2FEHQgwM
+ The Battle of New Orleans @ the same time, Gen. Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, won a series of battles gaining national fame Defeated Native Americans of the Creek tribe at Horseshoe Bend in March of 1814 All but 36 of 553 were killed Greatest victory on Jan. 8th, 1815 defeating British troops at the Battle of New Orleans… which occurred AFTER the war was over.
+ If only they knew… New England Federalists [who opposed the war] met @ Hartford Convention Some delegates wanted NE to withdraw from the U.S. Decided to send a group to Congress to demand more states rights… HOWEVER before reaching Washington…
+ But… why? Why should seafaring New England oppose the war for a free sea? 1. The pro-British Federalists in the NE sympathized with Britain and resented the Republicans’ sympathy with Napoleon- aka “anti-Christ of the age” Federalists also opposed the acquisition of Canada, which would merely add more agrarian states from the wild N.W. This would increase the voting strength of Jeffersonian Republicans
+ The Treaty of Ghent British and American diplomats signed the Treaty of Ghent on Christmas Even 1814- declaring an armistice, or end to the fighting In 1815- a commercial treaty reopened trade between the two countries 1817- Rush-Bagot agreement limited the number of warships on the Great Lakes 1818- British-American commission set the Northern boundary of the Louisiana Terr. At the 49th parallel- as far West as the Rocky Mts. Agreed to a ten year joint occupation of the Oregon Territory Treasury however, was bankrupt and unable to meet maturing obligations
+ Aftermath Federalists were accused of Americans were proud that treason and lost much their young nation had political power stopped the mighty British!
+ Summarizer What was the most important achievement of the U.S. in this period? Think about: Relations between the U.S. and Britain The results of the war