the roles and rights of individual citizens, states, and National governmentpresented in the Articlesof Confederation [8.11.4]Warm Up: What is Republicanism? How do you think this would influence how America would create its first government?
Americans debate RepublicanismThe relationship between the new states and the nationalgovernment was difficult to defineThe Revolutionary War gave the colonies a commongoal, but as they became states, they remained reluctantto unite under a strong central government18th century Americans believed that a democracy placedtoo much power in the hands of uneducated massesFavored a republic [gov’t where people rule throughelected representatives]Republicanism meant different things to differentAmericans
Different ViewsJohn Dickinson [D. fromDelaware] believe a republicshould place the good of thenation above personalinterestsAdam Smith[economist, philosopher] &followers believed a republicwould benefit from self-interest and allowindependent citizens topursue their own economic& political interests
Republican Motherhood The role of women in the republic. Women were expected to raise the next generation of patriots by instilling democratic values in their children Still had no suffrage or property rights after 1780 private school emphasized the importance of educating women1789- MA, passed a law forbidding any town from excluding girls from its elementary schools
State ConstitutionsLimited powers of government leadersGuaranteed specific rights for citizens: Freedom of speech, religion & the pressEmphasized liberty rather than equalityFear of centralized authorityAfrican Americans generally not allowed to voteSome states gave all white males the vote, but MD madeproperty ownership a requirement; some states limited toactive church membersNJ gave women the right to vote until 1807- when it wasrevoked
Representation by Population or by State?Should delegates represent people or states?Should each state elect the same # of representativesregardless of its population?Should states with a larger population have morerepresentatives over those that have smaller populations?Continental Congress saw themselves as representingindependent stateAs a result they made the decision that each state wouldhave one vote regardless of population
Supreme Power: Can it be divided? Articles of Confederation – 2 levels of government shared fundamental powers State governments were supreme in some matters/ national government in others Called this government a confederation [alliance] National Government- declare war, make peace, sign treaties, borrow money, set standards for coins and for weights and measures, establish a postal service and deal with Native American peoples NO separate executive dept. to carry out and enforce the acts of Congress and no national court system to interpret the meaning of the law
Western Lands: Who Gets Them?1779- 12 states agreed to accept the newgovernment, but conflict over W. landsdelayed final approval for more than 2 yearsSome states had land claims W. of theAppalachiansMD had 0, feared states with land claimswould expand & overpower small onesLanded states gave up their westernclaims, and MD approved the Articles ofConfederation in March 1781
Governing the Western LandsLand Ordinance of 1785- law that est. a plan forsurveying & selling the federally owned lands west of theAppalachian Mts.Northwest Ordinance of 1787:1. Congress would appoint a territorial governor and judges2. When a territory had 5,000 voting residents, the settlers could write a temporary constitution and elect their own government3. When the total population of a territory reached 60,000 free inhabitants, the settlers could write a state constitution, which had to be approved by Congress before it granted statehood
Review What was the The Land Ordinance basic difference of 1785 est. a plan for between the surveying the land, whereas the NW Land Ordinance Ordinance of of 1785 and the 1787, provided for Northwest dividing the land into Ordinance of three to five territories 1787? and est. requirements for the admission ofConfederations greatest new states.achievements.
The Confederation Encounters ProblemsWhat weakness in the Confederation was highlighted by the actions of RI?
Weaknesses of the Articles of ConfederationCongress could not Articles could beenact & collect taxes amended only if all states approvedCongress could not There was no executiveregulate interstate or branch to enforce theforeign trade laws of CongressRegardless of There was no nationalpopulation, each state court system to settlehad only 1 vote in legal disputesCongressTwo-thirds majority- 9 There were 13 separateout of 13 states needed states that lacked
Classroom ActivityCreate an editorial cartoon thatdemonstrates a weakness of theArticles of the Confederation
Drafting the Constitution Section 2Learning Goal: Identify, compare and contrastthe roles of citizens, states and nationalgovernment implemented from the Declarationof Independence, Articles of Confederationand the Constitution. [8.11.4]Warm Up: Think about a dispute that was resolvedthrough a compromise. What steps did you take to reachthat compromise? What was given up or changed?
Veteran of Bunker Hill &Saratogab/c of heavy debt, faced Daniel Shaysdebtors prisonDuring the Summer and Fallof 1786, kept demanding forthe courts to be closed to notlose his farmBoiled over on September1786- when Shays led anarmy of farmers to close thecourts1787, Shay’s army [1,200]marched to an arsenal inSpringfield4 rebels killed, rest scattered
Shays’ RebellionAn uprising of debt-ridden Massachusettsfarmers protesting increased state taxes in 1787.
Nationalists Strengthen the GovernmentShays’ Rebellion caused panic and dismay acrossthe nationEvery state had debt-ridden farmers… would itspread?George Washington: “What a triumph for ourenemies… to find that we are uncapable ofgoverning ourselves.”In order to prevent abuse of power, the states hadplaced such severe limits on the government thatthe government was too weak.
George Washington“The consequences of…[an] inefficient governmentare too obvious to be dweltupon. Thirteensovereignties pullingagainst each other, and alltugging at the federal headwill soon bring ruin on thewhole… Let us have[government] and by whichour lives, liberty, andproperty will be secured orlet us know the worst at
Call for a convention…Sept. 1786- JamesMadison [VA] &Alexander Hamilton calledfor state delegates todiscuss interstate tradeOnly 5 states sent reps.Delegates decided to callfor a new mtg. a yr. laterin PhillyShays’ Rebellion led to allthe states sendingdelegates to Philly
James Madison Creator of the VA1751-1836 Plan, asked Edmund Randolph to present the plan due to a weak voice Brilliant political leader, also kept records of the debates Known as the father of the Constitution
RogerSherman, 1721- Born in MA1793 Successful merchant Studied law Helped draft the DEC. of IND. 66 yrs. Old at Constitutional Convention Introduced the Great Compromise Only man to sign: Continental Association 1774, Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation & the Constitution
Convention HighlightsMay 1787- delegates except RI attended the Philly StateHouse, where the DEC of IND was signed.Despite sweltering heat, the windows were tightly closed toprevent eavesdroppers55 delegates: lawyers. Merchants, rich well educated menranging 30s-40sBenjamin Franklin had chaperones during dinner parties toprevent the talkative and aging leader from disclosingdetails of the meetingWashington was elected presiding officer in a unanimousvote
Conflict leads to CompromiseVirginia Plan- proposed abicameral legislature, with New Jersey Plan-membership based on which proposed apopulation. The voters single-house congresswould elect members of the in which each statelower house, who would had an equal votethen elect members of theupper house
Sherman’s Great Compromise Plan pleased those who favored government by the people insofar as it preserve the power of state legislators.
Eerie PredictionJames Madison:“20 years will produce allthe mischief that can beapprehended from theliberty to import slaves. Solong a term will be moredishonorable to thenational character that tosay nothing about it in theConstitution”
Division of PowersFederalism- a political system in which a national government andconstituent units, such as state governments share power.Divided the national government and state governmentPowers granted to the national government = delegated powers orenumerated powers Control of foreign affairs, providing national defense, regulating trade between states, and coining moneyState powers = reserved powers providing and supervising education, establishing marriage laws, and regulating trade within a stateBOTH have the rights to tax, borrow money and pay debts, alsoshare the power to establish courts
Separation of PowersLegislative Branch- to make lawsExecutive Branch- to carry out lawsJudicial Branch- to interpret the law
Electing the PresidentWith no national political parties and limited traveland communication- the founding fathers feared apopular vote would be divided among regionalcadidatesMany upper class feared the lower classSome did not trust the common people to vote wiselyOthers trusted them to vote the upper class out ofpowerSO- voters [in a State] vote for a number of electorsequal to the # of senators and representatives inCongress
Creating the Constitution4 months of debate and compromiseCreated a flexible constitution to last the centuriesGW adjourned the convention on Sept. 17, 1787“I do not expect the Constitution to last for more than20 years”Constitution sent to Congress for approval…
ASSESSSummarize the three key conflictsin the Constitutional Convention.Compare your summaries with apartner.
Learning Goal: Identify and WARM UP: Based oncompare the position of yesterday’swomen, blacks, un- class, what do youpropertied males and Native think is missing in theAmericans at the Constitution? What do Ratifying theestablishment of the new you believe should benation. included? Constitution Section 3
What the what?!4 mo. To write the Constitution; Americansshocked when it was printed in thenewspaperExpected amendments to the Articles, not acompletely new document
Controversies over the ConstitutionVoters would elect a delegate to the convention to acceptor reject the ConstitutionRatification- official approval required for an agreementThis system largely bypassed state legislators [who werelikely to oppose the Constitution, since it reduced thepower of the states]Federalists- supporters of the Constitution Favored the Constitution’s balance of power b/w states and national governmentAnti-Federalists- opposed having a strong centralgovernment
The Debate Federalists Anti-Federalists Insisted that the division Countered with a long list of powers & of possible abuses by a checks/balances would strong central government protect from tyranny of a Fear government would centralized authority serve the interest of a privileged minority & ignoreThe leading argument the rights of the majoritycentered around the How could a single government manage aConstitution’s lack of large country?protection for individualrights.
Federalist SupportersUrban centersMerchantsSkilled workersLaborersFavored a national government in the regulation of tradeSmall states and those with weak economies favored astrong national government that would protect theirinterests
Opposing ForcesLeading Anti-Federalists Richard Henry Lee
Anti-Federalist SupportersRural AreasPeople feared a strong government that might add totheir tax burdensLarge states & those with strong economies [NY] hadgreater freedom with the Articles of ConfederationLaborersFavored a national government in the regulation oftrade
The Federalist85 Essays defending theConstitution appeared in NYpapers between 1787-1788Published under thepseudonym Publius, butwritten by AlexanderHamilton, James Madisonand John Jay.Analysis and explanation ofConstitutional provisions:separation of powers &limits on majority powers
Letters from the Federal Farmer Most likely written by Richard Henry Lee, the most widely read Anti- Federalist paper Lee listed the rights the Antifederalists believed should be protected: freedom of the press and of religion as well as guarantees against unreasonable searches and the right to a trial by jury
Serious DrawbackConstitution contained noguarantee that thegovernment would protectthe rights of the people orstates.Thomas Jefferson viewedthe Constitution’s lack of abill of rights- [formalsummary of citizens rightsand freedoms, as a seriousdrawback to ratification]
DEMAND for a Bill of RightsAntifederalists argued that the Constitutionweakened the states, the people needed a nationalbill of rights: Freedom of speech, press, religion Assurance of trial by jury Right to bear armsFederalists insisted the Constitution limited powersof the national government so it could not violate therights of states or people Gave the power to protect their rights through the elections of trust leaders HOWEVER yielded to people’s desire to add a Bill of Rights
Ratification of the Constitution VA- Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee and James Madison ledDelaware- 1st to ratify- opposition claiming ratificationDec. 1787 would place people under the power of an absolute ruler.June 1788- NH NY- John Jay and Alexanderbecame the Hamilton vs Antifederalist9th, fulfilling the majority.requirement for They launched a campaign of theratification FederalistVA & NY did not July 26, 1788- NY ratified by avote, and the 30-27 votegovernment needed RI- in 1790, even though it was athose large & reality in 1789influential states
The Bill of RightsRatification hinged on itsinclusionSeptember 1789- Congresssubmitted 12 Amendments tothe state legislators forratificationDec. 1791- the required ¾ofthe states ratified 10 of theamendments- the Bill ofRights1st 8 spell out personalliberties, 9th and 10th limitpowers of the nationalgovernment
Second Class CitizensNative Americans and Slaves were excluded, Womanwere not mentioned in the Constitution.Some Northern states permitted free blacks to vote, butthe Bill of Rights offered no protection against whitediscrimination and hostilityExpansion of democracy came from later amendmentsThe flexibility of the U.S. Constitution made it a model forgovernments around the world
Unequal ProtectionThe Bill of Rights reflectis the ideas and values of the time[late 1700s]Many Americans considered African Americans andWomen to be 2nd Class CitizensThe Women’s Movement and Civil Rights Movementbrough about the inclusion and equal protection under thelaw for these groupsBy organizing, petitioning the government and raisingpublic awareness, excluded groups gained access tothose rights previously withheld from them