Divided We Stand 1848- the world climate: rash of revolutions in Europe Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo officially ended the war w/ Mexico, but initiated a perilous atmosphere of political warfare in the U.S. The issue of extending slavery in the newly acquired lands Wilmot Proviso was rallied by the North Southern senators blocked it, but the issue would not die Debate over the Mexican Cession disrupted the ranks of the Whigs & Democrats and split national politics along North-South sectional lines
Vaya con Dios, Polk 1848- President Polk broken Enemies referred to Cass as in health by overwork and General “Gass” or jackass chronic diarrhea Democratic platform was Pledged himself to a single silent on the issue of slavery term Cass himself was not silent At the Democratic National and became the father of Convention at Baltimore, the popular sovereignty Democrats chose General Lewis Cass, a veteran of the war of 1812, as their candidate for presidency. Cass supported slavery.
The Popular Sovereignty Panacea Popular sovereignty- meant that the sovereign people of a territory should determine the statues of slavery. It was popular with politicians because it was a comfortable compromise between the abolitionists and the slaver-holders.
Why would popular sovereignty have a persuasive appeal to politicians/public? Politicians Public Seemed a comfortable Accorded with the compromise between the free-soiler’s bid for a ban on democratic tradition of slavery in the territories and self-determination southern demands that Congress protect slavery in the territories Tossed the issue of slavery into the laps of the people in the various territories Hoped to turn a national issue into local ones
Free-Soil Party The Whigs, who met in They supported federal aid Philadelphia, chose Zachary for internal Taylor as their candidate for improvements. They argued presidency. Taylor did not that with slavery, wage labor have an official stance on would wither away and with slavery, but he did own it, the chance for the many slaves. American worker to own property. Henry Clay had not been chosen because he had too many enemies. The Free Soil Party emerged. It was formed by antislavery men of the North, who didnt trust Cass or Taylor
Welcome to the presidency, ZacharyTaylor- hope you survive the experience! Taylor’s admirers puffed him up as a gallant knight with the slogan: “Gen. Taylor never surrenders!” Wartime popularity pulled him through 1,360,967 popular votes, 163 electoral votes Free-Soiler Van Buren, although winning no state won 291,263 ballots diverting enough Democratic strength from Cass in NY to throw the election to Taylor
Democratic Campaign cartoon 1848-charges that Taylor’s reputationrested on Mexican skulls
Taylor’s Wings Tobacco-chewing w/ stumpy legs, rough features, heavy jaw, black hair, ruddy complexion and squinty gray eyes Would have been spared much turmoil if he could have continued to sit on the slavery lid However- the beginning of his presidency started with an economic boom
"Californy Gold" In 1848, gold was discovered in Sutter’s Mill, California The rush of people in search of gold in California brought much violence and disease that the small government in California couldnt handle. In SF 1848-1856: scores of lawless killings but only 3 semilegal hangings Needing protection, the Californians bypassed the territorial stage of a state, drafted their own Constitution (excluding slavery) [privately encouraged by Taylor] in 1849, and applied to Congress for admission into the Union. The southerners objected to Californias admission as a free state because it would upset the balance of free and slave states in the Senate.
California Gold Rush CountryMiners fromall over the world swarmedover the rivers that drained thewestern slope of California’sSierra Nevada.Their nationalitiesand religions, their languagesand their ways of life, arerecorded in the colorful placenames they left behind.
Placer Miners in California Cheap but effective, placer mining consisted of literally “washing” thegold out of surface deposits. No deep excavation was required. This crew of male and female miners in CA  was using a “long torn” sluice that washed relatively large quantities of ore.
Sectional Balance South of 1850 was relatively well-off Taylor was a VA born, slave owning planter from LA Boasted a majority in the cabinet & on the Supreme Court- where it could neutralize northern maneuvers Cotton fields were expanding, and cotton prices were profitably high Few sane people, North or South, believed that slavery was seriously threatened when it already existed below the Mason-Dixon line 15 slave states could easily veto any proposed constitutional amendment
Southern worries The ever-tipping political balance worried the south 15 slaves states; 15 free states Admission of California would destroy the delicate equilibrium in the Senate [perhaps forever] Potential slave territory under the American flag was running short Agitation in the territories of New Mexico and Utah for admission as nonslave states California might create a precedent for the rest of the Mexican Cession territory Many southerners also angered by the nagging agitation in the North for the abolition of slavery in D.C.- the thought of a 10 mil. Sq. piece of free soil between MD and VA was apprehensible.
How did the California gold rush result in inflaming strong sectional disputes?North South
Texas & the Disputed Areabefore the Compromise of 1850 Texas claimed a hige area east of the Rio Grande and north to the 42nd parallel ½ the territory of present-day New Mexico Federal government was proposing to detach this prize Texas threatened to descend upon Santa Fe and seize what they regarded as rightfully theirs Explosive quarrel foreshadowed shooting
the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman- conductor of the Underground Railroad who rescued hundreds of slaves. Illiterate runaway slave from MD 19 forays into the South, rescued more than 300 slaves Earned the title “Moses” The Underground Railroad- informal network of volunteers that helped runaway slaves escape from the South and reach free-soil Canada. Seeking to halt the flow of run-away slaves to the North, Southern planters and congressmen pushed for a stronger fugitive slave law.
A Stop on the Underground RailroadEscaping slaves could be hidden in this small upstairs room of Levi and CatharineCoffin’s House in Newport, Indiana. The beds were moved in front of the door tohide its existence. The Levis were Quakers from North Carolina who, duringtwenty years in Newport, helped more than 2,000 fleeing slaves safely reachCanada—and freedom.
Harriet Tubman (on left) with Some of the Slaves She Helped to Free John Browncalled her “General Tubman” for her effective work in helping slaves escape to Canada on the Underground Railroad. During the Civil War, she served as a Union spy behindConfederate lines. Herself illiterate, she worked after the war to bring education to the freed slaves in North Carolina.
Outcry! In 1850, southerners were demanding a new and strict fugitive-slave law. (The old fugitive-slave law passed by Congress in 1793 was very weak.) The slave owners rested their argument on the Constitution, which protected slavery.
Escaped Slaves 1850- South was loosing 1,000 runaways a year More blacks gained their freedom by self-purchase or voluntary emancipation than escaping Southern Senator: “Although the loss of property is felt, the loss of honor is felt still more”
Twilight of the Senatorial Giants The congressional debate of 1850 was called to address the possible admission of California to the Union and threats of secession by southerners. Known as the "immortal trio," Henry Clay, John Calhoun, and Daniel Webster spoke at the forum. Henry Clay, the "Great Pacificator," proposed a series of compromises. He suggested that the North enact a stricter fugitive- slave law. John Calhoun, [68, dying of TB] the "Great Nullifier," proposed to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the South its rights as a minority, and restore the political balance. His view was that two presidents would be elected, one from the South and one from the North, each yielding one veto. Daniel Webster [68, suffering from liver ailments] proposed that all reasonable compromises should be made with the South and that a new fugitive-slave law be formed. Although, he was against slavery and he supported Wilmot Proviso, because he felt that cotton could not grow in the territories gained from the Mexican-American War.
Swan Song Calhoun died in 1850- before the debate was over “The South! The South! God knows what will become of her!” Charleston monument inscribed: “Truth, Justice, and the Constitution” Webster’s famed Seventh of March Speech: Daniel Webster’s impassioned address urging the North to support of the Compromise of 1850. Webster argued that topography and climate would keep slavery from becoming entrenched in Mexican Cession territory and urged Northerners to make all reasonable concession to prevent disunion Helped turn the tide in the North toward compromise Webster mailed out more than 100,000 printed copies, remarking that 200,000 would not satisfy the demand Strengthened Union sentiment Pleasing to the banking and commercial centers of the North, which stood to lose millions of dollars by secession Free-soilers and abolitionists viewed Webster as a traitor and compared him to Benedict Arnold Webster had long regarded slavery as evil, but disunion as worse
Deadlock and Danger on Capital Hill William H. Seward- senator of New York; antislavery and argued that Gods moral law was higher than the Constitution. President Zachary Taylor seemed bent on vetoing any compromise between the North and South that went through Congress. Taylor’s ire was aroused by the threats of Texas to seize Santa Fe Doggedly determined to “Jacksonize” the dissenters’ If need be, would have led an army against the Texans and hang all “damned traitors” If troops had begun to march, the South would rally to Texas’ defense and the Civil War might have erupted in 1850
Welcome to the presidency Millard Fillmore- you’ve inherited hell In 1850, President Taylor died suddenly [acute intestinal disorder] and Vice President Millard Fillmore took the presidency. As former presiding officer of Senate, he gladly signed the series of compromise measures that passed Congress after 7 months of debate
Breaking the Congressional Logjam Compromise of 1850- Admitted California as a free state, opened New Mexico and Utah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave trade [but not slavery itself] in Washington D.C. and introduced a more stringent fugitive slave law. Widely opposed in both the North and South it did little to settle the escalating disputed over slavery. “Union savers”: Clay, Webster, Douglas orated on behalf of the compromise Southern opinion reluctantly accepted the verdict of congress During this time period, a second Era of Good Feelings came about. Talk of succession subsided and the Northerners and Southerners were determined that the compromises would end the issue of slavery.
Henry Clay Proposing theCompromise of 1850This engraving captures one of themost dramatic moments in thehistory of the United StatesSenate. Vice PresidentMillard Fillmore presides, while onthe floor sit several of the“Senatorial Giants” of theera, including Daniel Webster,Stephen A. Douglas, and John C.Calhoun.
Discussion Question Was the Compromise of 1850 a wise effort to balance sectional differences or a futile attempt to push the slavery issue out of sight?
Balancing the Compromise Scales Who got the better deal of the Compromise of 1850? Definitely the North: Thus, the Senate was unbalanced in favor of the North.
The One Southern gain from the Compromise The Fugitive-Slave Law of 1850, the Bloodhound Bill, passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, it set high penalties for anyone who aided escaped slaves and compelled all law enforcement officers to participate in retrieving runaways. Strengthened the antislavery cause in the North. The events in the 1850s caused the Northerners to resist succession. Arguably the Compromise of 1850 won the Civil War for the Union
The Legal Status of Slavery, from Revolution to Civil War
Protesting the Fugitive Slave Law, 1850 The cartoonist makes bittersport of the hated law and heaps scorn on Daniel Webster, on hishands and knees at the right, who voted for the law as part of theCompromise of 1850.The outspoken abolitionist William LloydGarrison is depicted much more favorably on the left.
Discussion Question Why did the North so strongly resent the Fugitive Slave Law, and why did the South resent northern resistance to enforcing it?
Defeat and Doom for the Whigs In the Democratic Convention of 1852 in Baltimore, the Democrats chose Franklin Pierce as their candidate for presidency. He supported the finality of everything, including the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law. Meeting in Baltimore, the Whigs chose Winfield Scott as their candidate for presidency. He also praised the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law. The votes for the Whig party were split between Northern Whigs, who hated the partys platform but accepted the candidate, and Southern Whigs, who supported the platform but not the candidate.
“We Polked ‘em in ‘44; we’ll Pierce ‘em in ‘52” Franklin Pierce won the election of 1852. 254 electoral votes to 42 1,601,117 to 1,385,453 popular vote The election of 1852 marked the end of the Whig party. It died on the issue of the Fugitive-Slave Law. The Whig party had upheld the ideal of the Union through their electoral strength in the South.
President Pierce the Expansionist The victory of the Mexican War stimulated the spirit of Manifest Destiny. Americans were looking ahead to possible canal routes and to the islands near them, notably Spains Cuba. Americans lusted for territory after the Compromise of 1850.
Latin American Envy William Walker installed himself as the President of Nicaragua in July 1856. He legalized slavery, but was overthrown by surrounding Central American countries and killed in 1860. Nicaragua was the worlds leading marine and commercial power. The British, fearing the Americans would monopolize the trade arteries there, secured a foothold in Greytown.
Vaya con Dios, Walker Walker’s briefly successful dictatorship in Nicaragua in 1855 began to collapse when he attempted to seize control of overland transit in the country from Cornelius Vanderbilt’s company. An angry Vanderbilt helped turn other Central American countries and U.S. authorities against Walker, and his southern friends in the American navy proved unable to save him from capture and execution.
Southern plans for expansion A full-blown confrontation with Britain was avoided by the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty- signed by Great Britain and the United States, it provided that the two nations would jointly protect the neutrality of Central America and that neither power would seek to fortify or exclusively control any future isthmian waterway. Later revoked by the Hay- Pauncefote Treaty of 1901, which have the U.S. control of the Panama Canal Southern “slavocrats” cast especially covetous eyes southward in the 1850s. Lusted for new slave territory after the Compromise of 1850 seemingly closed most of the Mexican Cession
Central America, ca. 1850, Showing British Possessions and Proposed Canal RoutesUntil President Theodore Roosevelt swung into action with his big stick in 1903, aNicaraguan canal, closer to the United States, was generally judged more desirablethan a canal across Panama.
Yo quiero Cuba. Sugar-rich Cuba, was an enticing prospect for annexation. Already held a large population of enslaved blacks, and it might be carved into several states, restoring political balance in the Senate. President Polk had considering offering Spain $100 million for Cuba Spain replied that they would sooner see the island sunk into the sea than in the hands of the hated Yankees
filibustero South shook the tree of Manifest Destiny and during 1850-1851: 2 filibustering expeditions- ea. w/ several hundred armed men descended upon Cuba Both feeble efforts were repelled 1 ended in tragedy when the leader and fifty followers- some from “the best families” of the South were shot or strangled Outraged Southerners led by an angry mob sacked Spain’s consulate in New Orleans
1854- Showdown Spanish forces in Cuba seized the American steamer- Black Warrior The time came for President Pierce, dominated by the South, to provoke a war with Spain to seize Cuba England, France, and Russia were about to become bogged down in the Crimean War and hence could not aid Spain
Cloak & Dagger Ostend Manifesto-  Secret Franklin Pierce administration proposal to purchase, or that failing, to wrest militarily Cuba from Spain. Once leaked, it was quickly abandoned due to vehement opposition from the North. Document urged an offer of $120 million for Cuba The document eventually leaked out and the Northerners foiled the Presidents slave-driven plan.
A political cartoondepicts JamesBuchanansurrounded byhoodlums usingquotations fromthe OstendManifesto tojustify robbinghim. The captionbelow reads "TheOstend Doctrine".
Discussion Question Earlier American expansionism had generally enjoyed widespread popular support. Why was expansionism, including the possible American acquisition of Nicaragua and Cuba. so controversial in the 1850s? Was there any way that some of the Caribbean islands or parts of Central America could have become incorporated as slave states with the United States?
The Allure of Asia After acquiring Oregon and California- breaking into the Asian market was next on American agenda Rivalry between the British once again ignited Post-the Opium War- war between British and China over trading rights, particularly Britain’s desire to continue trading opium to Chinese traders. The resulting trade agreement prompted Americans to seek similar concessions from the Chinese 1842- Britain gained free access to the five so-called treaty ports as well as control of Hong Kong President Tyler sent Caleb Cushing to secure similar concessions for the US
Success with China Impressed by Cushing, Chinese diplomats signed the Treaty of Wanghia-  signed by the U.S. and China, it assured the United States the same trading concessions granted to other powers, greatly expanding America’s trade with the Chinese Secured other rights: “Most favored nation” status which allowed the U.S.: “Extraterritoriality” which meant Americans accused of crimes in China would be tried by American officials not in Chinese courts Helped thousands of missionaries flooding to China to cure the “heathen Chinese”
Next Stop: Japan! After disagreeable experiences with Europe, Japan withdrew from all settlement and cultural diffusion into a cocoon of isolationism lasting for 2 centuries The long-ruling warrior dynasty known as the Tokugawa Shogunate was so protective that it prohibited shipwrecked sailors from leaving and refused to readmit Japanese sailors who washed up on foreign shores By 1853- Japan was ready to emerge onto the new Global arena
Domo arigato, United States 1852- President Fillmore dispatched a fleet of warships commanded by Commodore Matthew C. Perry the brother of the hero of the battle of Lake Eerie. Entering Edo Bay [later Tokyo] on July 8th, 1853; he almost inspired a near-panic. After tense negotiations and plying the Japanese with gifts he persuaded the Japanese to sign the: Treaty of Kanagawa [March 31st, 1854] – ended Japan’s 200-year period of economic isolation, establishing an American consulate in Japan and securing American coaling rights in Japanese ports Propelling the Land of the Rising Sun into the modern world and an eventual epochal military clash with the U.S.
Commodore Matthew Perry in Japan, 1853 Among Perry’s gifts to the Japanesewas a miniature railway, complete with engine, cars, and track, which made a vividimpression on the Japanese artist who created this work.
Pacific Railroad Promoters With the acquisition of California and Oregon, the transcontinental railroad was proposed. The question was where to have the railroad begin- the North or the South. The South, losing the economic race with the North, was eager to extend a railroad through adjacent southwestern territory all the way to California The transcontinental railroad was built largely by Chinese migrant workers who came during the Gold Rush. Chinese [gam san haak: “travellers to gold mt.”]
Treatment of the Chinese Chinese miners suffered violent attacks and little legal protection CA placed high monthly taxes to foreigners in 1852 U.S. government did not allow Chinese to become American citizens
The Gadsden Purchase Secretary of War Jefferson Gadsden Purchase: Davis had James Gadsden buy acquired additional land an area of Mexico from Santa from Mexico for $10 million Anna for which the railroad to facilitate the would pass. construction of a southern transcontinental railroad Gadsden negotiated a treaty in 1853 and the Gadsden Purchase area was ceded to the United States for $10 million. The railroad ran from California to Houston, Texas.
Douglass Kansas-Nebraska Scheme Stephen A. Douglas- longed to break the North-South deadlock over westward expansion; proposed the Territory of Nebraska be sliced into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. Their status on slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty. Kansas would be presumed to be a slave state, while Nebraska would be a free state. This Kansas-Nebraska Act ran into the problem of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which forbade slavery in the proposed Nebraska Territory. Douglas was forced to propose the repealing of the Missouri Compromise. President Pierce fully supported the Kansas-Nebraska Bill.
Douglas Hatches a SlaveryProblem Note the alreadyhatched Missouri Compromise,Squatter Sovereignty, andFilibuster (in Cuba), and theabout-to-hatch Free Kansasand Dred Scott decision. Sobitter was the outcry againstDouglas at the time of theKansas-Nebraska controversythat he claimed withexaggeration that he couldhavetraveled from Boston toChicago at night by the lightfromhis burning effigies.
Kansas and Nebraska, 1854 The futureUnion Pacific Railroad (completed in1869) is shown. Note the MissouriCompromise line of 368 30’ (1820).
Congress Legislates a Civil War The Kansas-Nebraska Act:  Proposed that the issue of slavery be decided by popular soverignty in the Kansas and Nebraska territories, thus revoking the 1820 Missouri Compromise. Introduced by Stephen Douglass in an effort to bring Nebraska into the Union and pave the way for a northern transcontinental railroad. The Kansas-Nebraska act wrecked two compromises: the Compromise of 1820 which the act repealed; and the Compromise of 1850, which northern opinion repealed indirectly.
That S.O.B broke up the Par-ty The Democratic Party was shattered by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Republican Party was formed in the Mid-West and it had moral protests against the gains of slavery. It included Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know- Nothings, and other foes of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. [i.e. Abraham Lincoln] The Southerners hated the Republican Party. The Sectional Rift appeared and the new Republican Party would not be allowed south of the Mason-Dixon line Southerners called the Republican Party “a nigger stealing, stinking, putrid, abolition party”… the union was officially in dire peril
Discussion Question Would the sectional conflict have been reheated had Douglas not pushed through the Kansas-Nebraska Act? Why or why not?