Complex Societies in the West In many ways the early cultures in North America were less developed than those of South America and Mesoamerica. North American groups had no great empires and few ruins as spectacular as those ancient Mexico or Peru, but never the less the first peoples of North America did created complex societies.
Kwakiutl, Nootka, & Haida Peoples All three groups lived in the Pacific Northwest--- form Oregon to Alaska--- and relied on the sea to support their sizable populations. They hunted whales in canoes: the canoes were large enough to carry at least 15 people. In addition they relied on the coastal forest to provide plentiful food.
Hohokam Civilizations also started to emerge in Southwest America--- in the dry, desert lands of Central Arizona--- where the Hohokum used irrigation to produce harvest of corn, beans, and squash.
Anasazi They lived in the four corners region, where Utah, Arizona, Colorado and New Mexico meet. They built impressive cliff dwelling society: These were large houses built on flat hill tops or shallow caves in the walls of deep canyons. These skilled builders used mud-like mortar to construct walls up to 5 stories high and they built small window to keep the burning sun out.
They were large villages of apartment- style compounds made stone and sun- baked clay. These villages were called pueblos. The largest Anasazi pueblo was Pueblo Bonito meaning “beautiful village”. Pueblo Bonito probably housed about 1,000 people and contained 600 rooms.
Mound BuildersThe Mississippian Beyond the Great Plains in the woodlands, east of the Mississippi River, other ancient mount building people emerged. They would build huge earthen mounds in which they buried their dead. These mounds held bodies of tribal leaders and where often filled with gifts and finely crafted copper and stone objects.
The last mound building culture was the Mississippians that lasted form 800 AD until 1500 AD. They created a thriving village based on farming and trade. Perhaps, at its height 30,000 people lived in its capital Cahokia. It was located near the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers which made transportation easy and encouraged trade. Cahokia was led by a priest ruler that regulated farming activities.
Also common to Cahokia and North American clans was the use of totems The totem was used as a symbol of the unity of a group or clan. It also helped define certain behaviors and social relationships of a group. They were usually placed in front of their homes and clans would do rituals and dances around them associated with important group events such as marriages, naming of children, ocupation, religious services, planting crops or gathering harvests.
Maya Created City-States The homeland of the Maya stretched from southern Mexico into northern Central America. This area included a highland region in the South and a lowland region to North. The Highlands: Are a range of cool cloud-weathered mountains that stretch form southern Mexico to El Salvador. The Lowlands: include the dry scrub forest of the Yucatan Peninsula and the dense steamy jungles of southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala. While the Olmec were developing their civilization along the Gulf Coast the Mayans were evolving. They took on Olmec influences, and blended them with local customs. By AD 250 Maya culture had burst forth a flourishing civilization.
Classic Period AD 250 to 900 is known as the Classic Period of Maya civilizations. During this period archaeologists have discovered at least 50 major Mayan sites all with monumental architecture. (TIKAL) Each of these were an independent city-state, and was ruled by a god-king. Mayan cities featured giant pyramids, temples, palaces and elaborate stone carvings dedicated to the gods and important rulers. Mayan cities also featured a ball court in which they played games that had religious and political significance. The Mayans believed that the playing of games would maintain the cycles of the sun and moon and bring life-giving rains.
Trade and Agriculture Although the Maya city-states were independent of each other, they were linked through alliances and trade. They would exchange their local products such as salt, flint, feathers, shells and honey. They also traded crafted goods like cotton textiles and jade ornaments. And despite having no uniform currency, the cacao (chocolate) beans served as a common currency. As with the rest of the Mesoamericans, agriculture--- particularly the growing of maize, beans, and squash--- provided the basis for Mayan life. They practiced slash-and-burn farming and among other farming techniques.
Mayan Society Successful farming methods led to the accumulation of wealth and the development of social classes. The Noble Class: priests, and leading warriors. Middle Class: merchants, and those with specialized knowledge, such as a skilled artisan. Bottom Class: was the peasant majority. They Mayan King sat at the top of the class structure and were regarded as a holy figure.
Mayan Religion The Mayans believed in many gods: There were gods of corn, gods of death, of rain, and of war. Gods could be good or evil. Sometimes both. Mayans worshiped their gods in various ways: They prayed, and made offerings of food, flowers and incense. They also pierced and cut their bodies and even offered their own blood, believing that this would nourish the gods. Sometimes the Mayan gods even carried out human sacrifices (usually of captured enemies). They believed that human sacrifice pleased the gods and kept the world in balance.
The Mayan religious beliefs also led to the development of the calendar, mathematics and astronomy. The Mayans believed that time was a burden carried on the backs of the gods and thus a day would be lucky or unlucky depending on the mood of the god. So it was very important to have an accurate calendar to know which god was in charge of the day. So, they created a 260 day religious calendar to tell which gods where in charge of what days and a 365 day solar calendar to determine the seasons. The 2 calendars were linked together so that they could identify the best times to plant crops, attack enemies, and crown new rulers.
Written Language The Mayans developed the most advanced writing system in the ancient Americas. Their writing consisted of about 800 hieroglyphic symbols called glyphs which stood for words and syllables. Their writing system also help them record history on stone tables or bark paper know as codex.
Fall of Maya In the late 800s the Mayans suddenly abandoned many of their cities. They are a couple guesses on what the reason for their departure: 1. Because warfare had broken out among various city-states which disrupted trade and resulted in economic hardship. 2. Because there was population growth and over-farmed land lead to a food shortage, famines and disease.
16.2 Maya Kings and Cities Environment – Dry forest of the Yucatan, dense jungles of the south eastern Mexico Urban Centers – City States Such as TIKAL, each ruled by a god-king, comprised of giant pyramids, temples and palaces Economy – based on trade and farming sophisticated methods such as planting on raised platforms above swaps and on hillside terraces Social Structure – three social classes; nobles (priests and warriors), middle class (merchants and artisans), lower class of peasants. Religion – polytheistic, offered human sacrifices Achievements – developed calendar, math astronomy and writing system
Geography of Americas: what is the character of the land? THE CENTRAL VALLEY OF MEXICO WAS THE SITE OF NUMEROUS CIVILIZATIONS. WHY THERE?
An Early City-State The first major civilization of central Mexico was Teotihuacán, a city-state whose ruins lie just outside Mexico City. In the first century A.D., villagers at this site began to plan and construct a monumental city, even Teotihuacán was the largest urban larger than Monte Albán, in center in pre-Columbian America Oaxaca (south central and, in the hey-day of its existence, Mexico). one of the three largest cities in the This civilization predated world, rivaling Rome in Europe and the Aztecs Beijing in Asia. Is city size a reasonable way to measure the complexity of a civilization?
An Early City-State At its peak in the sixth century, Teotihuacán had a population of between 150,000 and 200,000 people, making it one of the largest cities in the world at the time. The heart of the city was a central avenue lined with more than 20 pyramids dedicated to various gods. Two great pyramids (the Sun and Moon) formed the axis of the central avenue
Teotihuacán became the center of a thriving trade network that Teotihuacán extended far into Central America. The city’s most valuable trade item was obsidian, a green or black volcanic glass found in the Valley of Mexico and used to make razor-sharp weapons. There is no evidence that Teotihuacán conquered its neighbors or tried to create an empire. However, evidence of art styles and religious beliefs from Teotihuacán have been found throughout Mesoamerica.
“City of the Gods.” After centuries of growth, the city abruptly declined. Historians believe this decline was due either to an invasion by outside forces or conflict among the city’s ruling classes. Regardless of the causes, the city was virtually abandoned by 750. The vast ruins astonished later settlers in the area, who named the site Teotihuacán, which means “City of the Gods.”
2a. What does this knife suggest about this early culture and theirtechnological and artistic skills?2b. Look carefully at the construction of the knife. For what do youthink it was used? What evidence supports your hypothesis?
Toltecs Take Over After the fall of Teotihuacán, no single culture dominated central Mexico for centuries. Then, around 900, a new people, the Toltecs, rose to power. For the next three centuries, the Toltecs ruled over the heart of Mexico from their capital at Tula. Like other Mesoamericans, they built pyramids and temples. They also carved tall pillars as shown on the next slide
Toltecs Take Over In fact, the Toltecs were an extremely warlike people whose empire was based on conquest. They worshiped a fierce war god who demanded blood and human sacrifice from his followers.
Toltecs Take Over Sometime after 1000, a Toltec ruler named Topiltzin tried to change the Toltec religion. He called on the Toltec people to end the practice of human sacrifice. He also encouraged them to worship a different god, Quetzalcoatl, or the Feathered Serpent.
Toltecs Take Over Followers of the war god rebelled, however, forcing Topiltzin and his followers into exile on the Yucatán Peninsula. There, they greatly influenced late-Mayan culture. After Topiltzin’s exile, Toltec power began to decline. By the early 1200s, their reign over the Valley of Mexico had ended.
The AztecsThis is the flag of MexicoThe eagle represents an ancient Aztec symbol; it is perchedatop a cactus and is eating a snake. An Aztec myth told them tosettle where they found an eagle eating a snake.Historians believe the Aztecs migrated from the deserts ofnorthern Mexico into the central valley, where they created theirempire
AZTEC GEOGRAPHY What does this map tell us about Aztec geography? Mayan lands below and What was their capital and where was it located?
DIAGRAM OF TENOCHTITLANThis is water This is an elevated roadway
POWER AND AUTHORITY Through alliances and conquest, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in Mexico.
The Aztec Empire The Aztecs arrived in the Valley of Mexico around A.D. 1200. The valley contained a number of small city-states that had survived the collapse of Toltec rule. The Aztecs, who were then called the Mexica, were a poor, nomadic people from the harsh deserts of northern Mexico. Fierce and ambitious, they soon adapted to local ways, finding work as soldiers-for-hire to local rulers.
Aztecs Grow Stronger Over the years, the Aztecs gradually increased in strength and number. In 1428, they joined with two other city-states— Texcoco and Tlacopan —to form the Triple Alliance. This alliance became the leading power in the Valley of Mexico and soon gained control over neighboring regions.
Aztecs Grow Stronger By the early 1500s, the alliance controlled a vast empire that covered some 80,000 square miles stretching from central Mexico to the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and south into Oaxaca. This empire was divided into 38 provinces. It had an estimated population of between 5 and 15 million people.
Aztec Power The Aztecs based their power on military conquest and the tribute they gained from their conquered subjects. The Aztecs generally exercised loose control over the empire, often letting local rulers govern their own regions What other civilizations ruled this way? The Aztecs did demand tribute, however, in the form of gold, maize, cacao beans, cotton, jade, and other products. If local rulers failed to pay tribute, or offered any other kind of resistance, the Aztecs responded brutally. They destroyed the rebellious villages and captured or slaughtered the inhabitants (recall how the Romans also did this)
Aztec warriors: what do the costumes tell usabout them? Can you tell anything about their weapons?
Sacrifices for the Sun God Religion The most important rituals involved a sun god, Ruled Huitzilopochtli. Aztec Life According to Aztec belief, Huitzilopochtli made the sun rise every day. When the sun set, he had to battle the forces of evil to get to the next day. To make sure that he was strong enough for this ordeal, he needed the nourishment of human blood.
Aztec priests usedsharp obsidian bladesto cut open victims.Obsidian, a volcanicrock, is like glass.Most sacrifices werecaptive warriors.Why would theyespecially want thestill-beating heart ofthe victim?
Human sacrifice is an extreme and rather rare occurrence historically, especially as it allegedly developed on the scale the Aztecs practiced it. Some scholars claim that Spanish observers deliberately exaggerated human sacrifice among the Aztecs as a means of justifying the conquest of Mexico. But there is indeed evidence that human ritual killing was an Aztec trait. Besides religion, what “purposes” might such killing have had?
Problems in the Aztec Empire In 1502 Montezuma II was crowned emperor. Under Montezuma, the Aztec Empire began to weaken. For nearly a century, the Aztecs had been demanding tribute and sacrificial victims from provinces under their control. Now, Montezuma called for even more tribute and sacrifice. A number of provinces rose up against Aztec oppression. This began a period of unrest and rebellion, which the military struggled to put down.
Over time, Montezuma tried to lessen the pressure on the provinces. Montezuma’s For example, he reduced the demand Reign for tribute payment by cutting the number of officials in the Aztec government. But resentment continued to grow. Many Aztecs began to predict that terrible things were about to happen. They saw bad omens in every unusual occurrence—lightning striking a temple in Tenochtitlán, or a partial eclipse of the sun, for example. Where else have we seen such developments and related responses?
Montezuma’s Reign The most worrying event, however, was the arrival of the Spanish. For many Aztecs, these fair-skinned, bearded strangers from across the sea brought to mind the legend of the return of Quetzalcoatl.
The Inca Create aMountain Empire Chapter 16 section 4
Inca Beginning• Lived in high plateaus in the Andes• Valley of Cuzco 1200’s• Rulers were descended from the sun god Inti• Bring prosperity and greatness• Men from one of eleven families could serve• Believed to be descendants of the sun god
Pachacuti Builds an Empire• 1438 Pachacuti took the throne• Inca conquered all of Peru• 1500 Inca empire stretched 2,500 miles on western coast of South America• “Land of Four Quarters” 80 provinces 16 million people
Pachacuti Builds an Empire• Used diplomacy and conquest• Before attacking offered an honorable surrender• Keep customs and rulers in exchange for loyalty• Many states gave up without resistance• Once defeated Inca tried to gain loylaty
Incan Government Creates Unity• Extensive road system• Rulers divided their territory• Quechau- official language• Founded schools to tech the Incan ways• Groups identified by certain patterns of clothing
Incan Cities Show Government Presence• Built many cities in conquered areas• Architecture was the same throughout the empire• All roads led to the capitol• Cuzco-stone homes, stones fit together without mortar
Incan Government Total control over economic and social life Regulated production and distribution of goods Inca allowed little private commerce Allyu- communinty cooperation
Incan Government• Ayllu-extended family, undertook tasks not too big for one family – Irrigation canals – Cutting agricultural terraces – Stored food to distribute during hard times• Families divided into groups of 10, 100, 1000, 10,000
Incan Government A chief led each group Chain of command stretched all the way to Cuzco Inca ruler and council of state held court If a group resisted Inca control the were relocated
Incan Government• Main demand was for tribute (usually labor)• Mita- was the labor tribute• Have to work for the state a certain number of days• Incan system more like socialism or modern welfare state
Incan Government Aged and disabled taken care of by the state State fed people Freeze-dried potatoes (chunos) Stored in warehouse for food shortages
Public Work Projects 14,000 mile road program Paved to simple paths Built guest houses and shelters along the road Chasquis- traveled the road as a postal service Easy way to move troops
Government Record- Keeping Inca never developed a writing system History and literature done through oral tradition Quipa- series of knots used as an accounting system
Government Record Keeping Position of knots and colors meant different things Res strings- warriors Yellow strings-gold Inca had two different calendars Gods ruled the day and the time
Religion Supports the State Worshipped fewer gods Key nature spirits Moon Stars, thunder Viracocha- the creator Sun worship amounted to worshipping the king
Great Cities Temple of the sun , Cuzco most sacred Decorated in gold Gardens of plants and animals made out of gold and silver Walls of several buildings covered in gold
Great Cities Hiram Bingham in 1912 found Machu Picchu Isolated and mysterious Religious center Retreat for rulers of Pachacuti
Discord in the Empire 1500’s Huayan Cupac ruler Inca’s at their peak Received a gift in Ecuador Filled with butterflies and moths (bad omen) Few weeks later died of small pox
Discord in the Empire Empire split by his sons Atahualpa received Ecuador Huascar received the rest Soon Atahulpa claimed the whole empire Fought each other Tore empire apart