Learning Goals: NJCCCS 6.1.12.D.13.c Analyze the successes and failures ofwomen’s rights organizations in their pursuitof civil rights and equal opportunities. 6.1.12.D.13.f Relate the changing role of women inthe labor force to changes in familystructure. 6.1.12.A.14.b Analyze how the Supreme Court hasinterpreted the Constitution to define therights of the individual, and evaluate theimpact on public policies.
The Economy Stagnatesin the 1970s Unlike the economic boom in America during the 1950sand 1960s, the economy of the 1970s was declining. A large part of the decline was caused by more womenand teens entering the works force; these groups typicallywere less skilled and made less money than males. Deteriorating machinery and new regulations also hinderedgrowth. Former President Lyndon B. Johnsons lavish spending onthe Vietnam War and on his Great Society also depletedthe U.S. Treasury, giving citizens too much money andcreating too great a demand for too few products. As the United States lacked advancement, countries suchas Japan and Germany leaped forward in the productionof steel, automobiles, and consumer electronics.
The Nixon Wave. DuringRichard Nixon’spresidency, Americansexperienced the firstserious inflation since theimmediate post-WorldWar II years. Theinflationary surge grew toa tidal-wave proportionsby the late
Nixon "Vietnamizes" the WarPresident Nixon brought to theWhite House his broadknowledge and thoughtfulexpertise in foreign affairs.He applied himself to puttingAmericas foreign-policy inorder.President Nixons announcedpolicy, called "Vietnamization,"was to withdraw the 540,000 U.S.troops in South Vietnam over anextended period.The South Vietnamese, withAmerican money, weapons,training, and advice, would thengradually take over the war.
The Nixon DoctrineThe Nixon Doctrine proclaimedthat the United States wouldhonor its existing defensecommitments but in the future,Asians and others would haveto fight their own wars withoutthe support of large numbers ofAmerican troops.On November 3, 1969, Nixondelivered a televised speech tothe "silent majority," whopresumably supported the war;he hoped to gain supporters.
The My Lai Massacre Domestic disgust with thewar was further deepenedin 1970 by revelations of theMy Lai Massacre, in whichAmerican troops hadmurdered innocent womenand children in the villageof My Lai two years earlier.
Cambodianizing theVietnam War For several years, the NorthVietnamese and the VC had beenusing Cambodia as a springboardfor troops, weapons, and supplies. On April 29, 1970, President Nixonwidened the war when he orderedAmerican forces to join with theSouth Vietnamese in cleaning outthe enemy in officially neutralCambodia. The United States fell into turmoil asprotests turned violent. Nixon withdrew the troops fromCambodia on June 29, 1970,although the bitterness betweenthe "hawks" and the "doves"increased.
Kent State University Angry students nationwideresponded to theCambodian Invasion withrock throwing, windowsmashing, and arson. At Kent State in Ohio, jumpymembers of the NationalGuard fired into a noisycrowd, killing four andwounding many more; at ahistorically black JacksonState College in Mississippi,the highway patroldischarged volleys at astudent dormitory, killing twostudents.
The War at Home,Spring 1970.President Nixon’sorder to invadeCambodiasparked angryprotests onAmericancampuses. AtKent StateUniversity in Ohio,the nationwatched inhorror as fourstudentdemonstratorswere shot byjittery NationalGuardsmen
• In 1971, the 26th Amendment waspassed, lowering the voting ageto 18.• In the spring of 1971, mass ralliesand marches erupted again allover the country as antiwarsentiment grew
The Pentagon PapersJune 1971- a formerPentagon official leaked tothe New York Times thePentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study thatdocumented the blundersand deceptions of theKennedy and Johnsonadministrations, especiallyprovoking the 1964 NorthVietnamese attack in theGulf of Tonkin
June 8, 1972: Kim Phuc, center left, running down a road nude near TrangBang after a South Vietnamese Air Force napalm attack.A South Vietnamese Air Force pilot mistook the group for enemy soldiers anddiverted to attack. The bombing killed two of Kim Phucs cousins and twoother villagers. Kim Phuc was badly burned and tore off her burning clothes
Communist Clashes The two great communist powers,the Soviet Union and China, wereclashing bitterly over their rivalinterpretations of Marxism. Nixon perceived that the Chinese-Soviet tension gave the UnitedStates an opportunity to play offone antagonist against the otherand to enlist the aid of both inpressuring North Vietnam intopeace. Dr. Henry A. Kissinger reinforcedNixons thinking. In 1969, Kissingerhad begun meeting secretly withNorth Vietnamese officials in Paristo negotiate an end to the war inVietnam.
Nixons Détente with Beijing(Peking) and Moscow In 1972, Nixon made a visit to China and paved theway for improved relations between the UnitedStates and Beijing. In May 1972, Nixon traveled to Moscow, which wasready to deal. Nixons visits ushered in an era ofdétente, or relaxed tensions between the SovietUnion and China. Détente- From the french word for “reducedtensions”, the period of Cold War thawing when theU.S. and the Soviet Union negotiated reducedarmament treaties under Presidents: Nixon, Ford, andCarter. As a policy of prescription, détente marked adeparture from the policies of proportional response,mutually assured destruction, and containment thathad defined the earlier years of the Cold War.
AMB and SALT The Great Grain Deal of 1972 was a3-year arrangement by which theUnited States agreed to sell theSoviets at least $750 million worthof wheat, corn, and other cereals. More important steps were takento stem the dangerous race ofnuclear arms. The first major achievement, ananti-ballistic missile (AMB) treaty,limited the U.S. and the SovietUnion to two clusters of defensivemissiles. The second significant pact,known as SALT (Strategic ArmsLimitation Talks), froze the numbersof long-range nuclear missiles for 5years.
Balancing Act. Nixontreads delicatelybetween the twocommunist superpowersin 1973, holding some ofthe wheat with which heenticed both intodétente.
Chilean Issues Nixon was staunchly anti-communistand strongly opposed the electionof Marxist Salvador Allende to thepresidency of Chile in 1970. Nixon’s administration slapped anembargo of the Allende regime,and the C.I.A worked covertly toundermine the legitimately electedleftist president. When Allende died during a Chileanarmy attack on his HQ in 1973, manyobservers smelled a “Yankee Rat” When Washington embracedAllende’s successor, military dictatorGeneral Augusto Pinochet, thisfurther supported the claim of U.S.involvement.
A New Team on the Supreme Court Earl Warren was appointed as a Justice to the Supreme Court, makingmany controversial rulings- Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) struck down a state law that banned theuse of contraceptives, even by married couples, creating a "right toprivacy." Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) ruled that all criminals were entitled to legalcounsel, even if they were unable to afford it. Escobedo (1964) and Miranda (1966) ruled that those who were arrestedhad to the "right to remain silent.” [Miranda warnings/rights] Engel v. Vitale (1962) and School District of Abington Township vs. Schempp(1963) led to the Supreme Court ruling against required prayers and havingthe Bible in public schools, basing the judgment on the First Amendment,which separated church and state. Reynolds vs. Sims (1964) ruled that the state legislatures would be requiredto be reapportioned according to population. In an attempt to end the liberal rulings, President Nixon set Warren E. Burgerto replace the retiring Earl Warren in 1969. With this a success, the SupremeCourt had four new Nixon-appointed members by the end of 1971.
Racial Dissention In 1974, the Supreme Court ruled in Milliken v. Bradley thatdesegregation plans could not require students to moveacross school-district lines. This reinforced the "white flight" that pitted the poorestwhites and blacks against each other, often with explosivelyviolent results.
The Embattled WarrenCourt. The United StatesSupreme Court, presidedover by Chief Justice EarlWarren, made historicdecisions in areas rangingfrom criminal justice tocivil rights and politicalrepresentation. Itsachievements provokedoften ferociousconservative backlash, asseen in this billboardadvertisement calling forWarren’s impeachment.
University of California v.Bakke 1970s affirmative action program at UCDavis Medical School set a specific racialquota, setting aside 16% of its admits forminority applicants Rejected white applicant Allan Bakkesued, alleging that the quota violated hisright to equal protection under the 14thAmendment Supreme Court ruled in Bakkes favor,banning fixed racial quotas, but did allowschools to consider race as one factoramong many in admissions decisions The Supreme Courts only black justice,Thurgood Marshall, warned that the denialof racial preferences might sweep awaythe progress gained by the civil rightsmovement.
Nixon on the Home FrontNixon expanded the Great Society programs by increasingfunding for Medicare, Medicaid, and Aid to Families withDependent Children (AFDC).He also created the Supplemental Security Income (SSI),giving benefits to the poor aged, blind, and disabled.Nixons Philadelphia Plan of 1969 required construction-tradeunions working on the federal pay roll to establish "goals andtimetables" for black employees.This plan changed the definition of "affirmative action" toinclude preferable treatment on groups, not individuals; theSupreme Courts ruling on Griggs v. Duke Power Co. (1971)upheld this.Whites protested to this decision, calling it "reversediscrimination."
National Women’sPolitical Caucus The National Womens Political Caucus (NWPC) is anational multi-partisan grassroots organization in theUnited States dedicated to recruiting, training, andsupporting women who seek elected and appointedoffices.
Founders of the Women’sLiberation MovementGloria Steinem, Bella Abzug, Shirley Chisholm, Betty Friedan, MyrlieEvers, several congresswomen, heads of national organizations,and others who shared the vision of gender equality includingDolores Delahanty of Kentucky and writer and journalist LettyCottin Pogrebin founded NWPC in 1971.three main issues: reproductive freedom, affordable childcare,and passage of the Equal Rights Amendment.Also: addressing male–female income disparity in the UnitedStates and diversity at the decision-making levels.The NWPC held its first convention in Houston from February 9 to11, 1973.
Silent Spring The Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA) and theOccupational Health and SafetyAdministration (OHSA) werecreated. In 1962, Rachel Carson boostedthe environmental movement withher book Silent Spring, whichexposed the disastrous effects ofpesticides. By 1950, Los Angeles had an AirPollution Control Office. April 22nd, 1970- millions ofenvironmentalists around theworld celebrated the 1st Earth Dayto raise awareness andencourage leaders to act.Author Rachel Carson (1907-1964) Somecall her the mother od the modernconservation movement because ofthe impact of her 1962 book, SilentSpring
Clean Air Act/Currency The Clean Air Act of 1970 and theEndangered Species Act of 1973 bothaimed at protecting and preserving theenvironment. Worried about inflation, Nixon imposed a90-day wage freeze and then took thenation off the gold standard, thus endingthe "Bretton Woods" system of internationalcurrency stabilization, which hadfunctioned for more than a quarter of acentury after WWII. A reserve currency, is a currency that isheld in significant quantities by manygovernments and institutions as part oftheir foreign exchange reserves. This permits the issuing country to purchasethe commodities at a marginally lower ratethan other nations, which must exchangetheir currencies with each purchase andpay a transaction cost.
The Nixon Landslide of1972 In the spring of 1972, the NorthVietnamese burst through thedemilitarized zone separating thetwo Vietnams. Nixon ordered massive bombingattacks on strategic centers,halting the North Vietnameseoffensive. Senator George McGovern wonthe 1972 Democratic nomination. He based his campaign on pullingout of Vietnam in 90 days. President Nixon, though, won theelection of 1972 in a landslide.
European Attacks on the Vietnam War.The prolonged American involvement inVietnam became increasingly unpopularabroad, including among U.S. allies. ThisGerman cartoon from 1972 decried howmuch tiny Vietnam had suffered under anendless string of so-called liberators.
Bombing North Vietnamto the Peace Table Nixon launched the heaviest assault of thewar when he ordered a two-week bombingof North Vietnam in an attempt to force theNorth Vietnamese to the conference table. It worked and on January 23, 1973, NorthVietnamese negotiators agreed to a cease-fire agreement, in the Treaty of Paris. U.S. was to withdraw 27,000 troops and couldreclaim 560 American prisoners of war. N. Vietnamese were allowed to keep some145,000 troops in S. Vietnam, where theyoccupied 30% of the country The shaky "peace" was in reality little morethan a thinly disguised American retreat.
Watergate Woes On June 17, 1972, five menworking for the RepublicanCommittee for the Re-election ofthe President [CREEP] were caughtbreaking into the Watergate Hoteland bugging rooms. Following was a great scandal inwhich many prominent membersof the presidents administrationresigned. Lengthy hearings proceeded,headed by Senator SamErving. John Dean III testified of allthe corruption, illegal activities,and scandal.
The Great TapeControversy When conversations involving the Watergate scandal werediscovered on tapes, President Nixon quickly refused to hand themover to Congress, despite denying any participation in the scandal. In 1973, Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign due to taxevasion. In accordance with the newly-passed 25th Amendment(1967), Nixon submitted to Congress, for approval as the new vicepresident, Gerald Ford. On October 20, 1973 ("Saturday Night Massacre"), Archibald Cox, theprosecutor of the Watergate scandal case who had issued asubpoena of the tapes, was fired. Both the attorney general and deputy general resigned becausethey, themselves did not want to fire Cox.
The Secret Bombing ofCambodia Despite federal assurances to theAmerican public thatCambodias neutrality was beingrespected, it was discovered that secretbombing raids on NorthVietnamese forces in Cambodiahad taken place since March of1969; this caused the public toquestion trust of thegovernment. Nixon ended thebombing in June 1973. However, Cambodia was soontaken over by the cruel dictatorPol Pot, who later committedgenocide of over 2 millionpeople over a span of a fewyears.
War Powers Act In November 1973,Congress passed the WarPowers Act, requiring thepresident to report allcommitments of U.S. troopsto foreign exchanges within48 hours. A new feeling of "NewIsolationism" thatdiscouraged U.S. troops inother countries began totake hold, yet Nixon stoodstrong.
The Arab Oil Embargoand the Energy Crisis Following U.S. support of Israelduring Israels war against Syriaand Egypt to regain territory lostduring the Six-Day War, the Arabnations imposed an oil embargo,strictly limiting oil in the UnitedStates. A speed limit of 55 MPH wasimposed, the oil pipeline inAlaska was approved in 1974despite environmentalists cries,and other forms of energy wereresearched. OPEC (Organization of PetroleumExporting Countries) lifted theembargo in 1974, yet it thenquadrupled the price of oil.Oil Shock. When OPEC dramaticallyjacked up oil prices in the 1970s, manyAmericans- as represented by theHenry Kissinger figure in this cartoon-were slow to realize that an era of lowenergy prices had ended forever.
Uncle Sam’s Bed of Nails. The oil crises of the 1970s tortured theAmerican economy.
Nixon’s List of Dirty Tricks Forging documents to discredit Democrats Using the Internal Revenue Service to harass innocentcitizens named on a White House “Enemies List” Burglarizing the office of the psychiatrist who hadtreated the leaker of the Pentagon Papers Perverting the FBI and CIA to cover the tricksters’tracks October 20th, 1973- The Saturday Night Massacre,firing his own special prosecutor appointed toinvestigate the Watergate scandal, as well as hisattorney general and deputy attorney generalbecause they had refused to go along with firing theprosecutor Attempting to use Executive Privilege to prevent thepublic from hearing his recordings
Smoking Pistol Exhibit A. The tape-recordedconversations between President Nixon and histop aide on June 23rd, 1972, proved mortallydamaging to Nixon’s claim that he had playedno role in the Watergate cover-up.
The Unmaking of aPresident On July 24, 1974, the Supreme Court ruled thatPresident Nixon had to submit all tapes toCongress. Late in July 1974, the House approved its firstarticle of impeachment for obstruction ofjustice. On August 5, 1974, Nixon released the threetapes that held the most damaging information-the same three tapes that had been "missing." On August 8 of the same year, Nixon resigned,realizing that he would be convicted ifimpeached, and with resignation, he could atleast keep the privileges of a president.
The First UnelectedPresident Gerald Ford became the firstunelected president; his name hadbeen submitted by Nixon as a vice-presidential candidate. All other previous vice presidents thathad ascended to presidency had atleast been supported as running matesof the president that had beenelected. President Fords popularity and respectsank when he issued a full pardon ofNixon, thus setting off accusations of a"buddy deal." In July 1975, Ford signed the Helsinkiaccords, which recognized Sovietboundaries and helped to easetensions between the two nations.
Defeat in Vietnam Early in 1975, the North Vietnamese made their full invasion of SouthVietnam. President Ford requested aid for South Vietnam, but was rejected byCongress. South Vietnam quickly fell. The last of Americans were evacuated onApril 29, 1975. The United States had fought the North Vietnamese to a standstill andhad then withdrawn its troops in 1973, leaving the South Vietnamese tofight their own war. The estimated cost to America was $188 billion, with 56,000 dead and300,000 wounded. America had lost more than a war; it had lost face in the eyes offoreigners, lost its own self-esteem, lost confidence in its military power,and lost much of the economic strength that had made possible itsglobal leadership after WWII.
Passing the Buck. A satirical view of where responsibility forthe Vietnam debacle should be laid.
Makers: Feminists 2nd Wave Feminists were eager tochallenge almost every traditionalmale and female gender role andtake the cause to the streets Feminists disagreed over manyissues from marriage, how muchto expect from the government,capitalism and men Some placed a priority of genderequality, others defended fenderdifference Most demonstrated a desire forwomen to have choices, and tobe able to make their own lives.
Ms. Magazine Feminists believed women shouldhave economic, political, andsocial equality with men. Around this time, Gloria Steinem,a journalist, political activist, andardent supporter of the women’sliberation movement, made hervoice heard on the subjects offeminism and equality She, and other women, created anew women’s magazine, Ms.,designed to treat contemporaryissues from a feminist perspective And to provide women with a titlethat didn’t focus on marital status
Feminist Victories Won legislative and judicialvictories and provoked an intenserethinking of gender roles. Thousands of women marched inthe Women’s Stride for Equality onthe 50th Anniversary of womansuffrage in 1970 1972- Congress passed Title IX ofthe Education Amendments,prohibiting sex discrimination inany federally assisted educationalprogram or activity which createdan opportunity for girls’ andwomen’s athletics at schools andcolleges,
The Equal RightsAmendment ERA to the Constitution woncongressional approval in 1972 It declared: “Equality of rightsunder the law shall not be deniedor abridged by the United Statesor by any State on account ofsex” 28:38 states quickly ratified theamendment, 1st proposed bysuffragists in 1923
Feminist wins in theSupreme Court Reed v. Reed (1971) & Frontiero v.Richardson (1973) the Court challenged sexdiscrimination in legislation andemployment. Roe v. Wade (1973)- Court struck down lawsprohibiting abortion, arguing that awoman’s decision was protected by theconstitutional right of privacy
Feminist Defeats 1972- Nixon vetoed a proposal to set upnationwide day care, saying it wouldweaken the American family Antifeminists blamed the women’smovement for the rising divorce rate, whichtripled between 1960 and 1976 The Catholic Church and the religious rightorganized powerful grassroots movementsto oppose the legalization of abortion.
The Abortion Wars. Pro-Choice and Pro-Life demonstrators brandish theirbeliefs. By the end of the 20th century, the debate over abortion hadbecome the most morally charged and divisive issue in American societysince the struggle over slavery in the 19th century,
March for Women’s Rights, 1977. A multiethnic and multiracial group ofwomen accompanied by noted “second-wave” feminists- Bella Abzug, BettyFriedan and Gloria Steinem, helped to carry a torch from Seneca Falls, NY,birthplace of the feminist movement, to Houston Texas, site of the NationalWomen’s Conference.
ERA is Struck Down For many feminists the most bitter defeat was the death of theERA Antifeminists, led by conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly, arguethat the ERA would remove traditional protections that womenenjoyed by forcing the law to see them as men’s equals They further believed that the amendment would threaten thebasic family structure of American society Schlafly charged the ERA’s advocates were just “bitter womenseeking a constitutional cure for their personal problems” In 1979 Congress extended the deadline for ratification of theamendment, but opponents dug in their heals The ERA died in 1982, three states short of success.
Antifeminist Phyilis Schlafly(b. 1924). Schlafly traveledthe country promoting her“Stop ERA” campaign. Sheargued that ratification ofthe Equal RightsAmendment wouldundermine the Americanfamily by violating “the rightof a wife to be supportedby her husband”, requiringwomen to serve in combat,and legalizing homosexualmarriage.
The Bicentennial Campaignand the Carter Victory In the election of 1976,Democrat Jimmy Carter beatRepublican Gerald Ford to winthe presidency. Carter promisedto never lie to the Americanpublic. In 1978, President Carterconvinced Congress to pass an$18 billion tax cut. Despite this, the economycontinued to tumble. Although early in his presidencyhe was relatively popular, thepopularity of President Cartersoon dropped as world eventstook a turn for the worse.
Carters Humanitarian Diplomacy Carter championed for human rights, and in Rhodesia (knowntoday as Zimbabwe) and South Africa, he championed forblack rights. On September 17, 1978, President Anwar Sadat of Egypt andPrime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel signed peaceaccords at Camp David. Mediated by Carter after relations had strained, this was agreat success. Israel agreed to withdraw from territory gained in the 1967 waras long as Egypt respected Israels territories. In Africa, though, many communist revolutions were takingplace; although not all were successful, the revolutions didcause disheartenment and spread fear. President Carter pledged to return the Panama Canal toPanama by the year 2000 and resume full diplomatic relationswith China in 1979.
Celebrating the Camp DavidAgreement, September 1978. AnwarSadat of Egypt and Menachem Beginof Israel join U.S. president JimmyCarter in confirming the historic accordthat brought the hope of peace to thewar-torn Middle East.
Historical Double Take.Many Americans wholooked back reverentlyto TheodoreRoosevelt’s “RoughRider” diplomacy wereoutraged by thePanama “giveaway”.But the CarterAdministration, lookingto the future, arguedpersuasively thatrelinquishing control ofthe canal would behealthy for U.S.-LatinAmerican relations
Carter Tackles the AilingEconomy Inflation had been steadily rising,and by 1979, it was at 13%. Americans learned that theycould no longer hide behind theirocean moats and live happily. Carter diagnosed Americasproblems as stemming primarilyfrom the nations costlydependence on foreign oil. He called for legislation toimprove energy conservation,without much public support.
Carters Energy Woes In 1979, Irans shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi, who had beeninstalled by America in 1953 and had ruled Iran as a dictator, wasoverthrown and succeeded by the fundamentalist muslim,Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Iranian fundamentalists were very opposed Western customs, andbecause of this, Iran stopped exporting oil; OPEC also raised oilprices, thus causing another oil crisis. In July 1979, Carter retreated to Camp David and met withhundreds of advisors to contemplate a solution to Americasproblems. On July 15, 1979, Carter chastised the American people for theirobsession of material woes during his malaise speech ("If its cold,turn down the thermostat and put on a sweater."), stunning thenation. A few days later, he fired four cabinet secretaries and tightenedthe circle around his advisors.
Foreign Affairs and theIranian Imbroglio In 1979, Carter signed the SALT II agreements with SovietPremier Leonid Brezhnev, but the U.S. senate refused to ratify it. On November 4, 1979, a group of anti-American Muslimmilitants stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran and took hostages,demanding that the U.S. return the exiled shah who had arrivedin the U.S. two weeks earlier for cancer treatments. On December 27, 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan,which ended up turning into the Soviet Unions ownVietnam. Because of the invasion of Afghanistan however, theSoviet Union posed a threat to Americas precious oil supplies. President Carter placed an embargo on the Soviet Union andboycotted the Olympic Games in Moscow. He also proposeda "Rapid Deployment Force" that could quickly respond tocrises anywhere in the world.
Europeans are Skeptical aboutUS-USSR SALT II Talks. As PresidentCarter and Soviet leader LeonidBrezhnev prepared to meet forarms-reduction talks in Vienna inJune 1979, a Germannewspaper cartoonistquestioned the depth of theircommitment to genuinedisarmament.
Iranians Denounce PresidentJimmy Carter, November 1979.Scenes lie this one appearedalmost nightly on Americantelevision during the 444 days ofthe Iranian hostage crisis,humiliating Carter and angeringAmerican citizens.
The Iranian HostageHumiliation During the Iranian Hostage Crisis, the Americanhostages languished in cruel captivity while newsreports showed images of Iranian mobs burning theAmerican flag and spitting on effigies of Uncle Sam. Carter first tried economic sanctions to force therelease of the hostages, but this failed. He then trieda commando rescue mission, but that had to beaborted. When two military aircraft collided, eight ofthe would-be rescuers were killed. The stalemate hostage situation dragged on for mostof Carters term, and the hostages were neverreleased until January 20, 1981-the inauguration dayof Ronald Reagan.