Chapter 11Byzantines, Russians and Turks Interact                       S
Byzantine Empire     A.D. 395 – A.D. 1589                            S
RememberWhen?Roman leaders had dividedthe empire in 395, due todifficulties in communicationsbetween the eastern andtroubl...
Byzantine Empire’s GrowthS Justinian- high ranking Byzantine nobleman  S Emperor 527-565, succeeded his Uncle  S Preserved...
Justinian CodeS 1. The Code contained nearly   5,000 Roman laws that were still   considered useful for the Roman   Empire...
Justinian’s AdvisorsS Theodora  S Wife  S Women got more rights    S Divorce    S Own property = to dowryS Belisarius  S G...
Fight to  Restore the    EmpireS City continued to face attacks from Germanic TribesS Over 16 years, Rome changed hands si...
Strengths of the EmpireS All-powerful emperorS Strong central governmentS Officials were:  S Skilled  S Efficient  S Well ...
• It burned on               water, and, according to someGreek Fire     interpretations, was ignited by               wat...
Strength’s con’tS Constantinople  S Strategically locatedS Imperial tax policies  S Raised $$$
Byzantine CultureS   Cyrul & Methodius    S Missionaries to Slavs    S Created alphabet-CyrillicS   Art    S Murals & icon...
Byzantine Art    S Influenced from Greek art    S Subject matter was primarily religious       and imperial    S Portraits...
Hagia Sophia- “Holy Wisdom”S   Rebuilt church of the same    name [originally destroyed in    532]S   Hailed as the best c...
Decline of EmpireS Justinian’s death-565- although his codes last 900 more  yearsS War w/ PersiansS Ottoman TurksS The Cru...
The Plague of JustinianS   The 1st Crisis- a disease resembling    the bubonic plagueS   Hit Constantinople- probably arri...
Attacks from East & WestS Faced constant challenges from invadersS Lombards overran Justinian’s conquests in the WestS Avr...
Byzantine StruggledS Used bribes, diplomacy, political marriages and military power   to keep enemies @ bayS Emperor Herac...
S Was Justinian a great leader? Why or why not? S What various methods did the Byzantines use to   hold off their enemies?...
11.1 the byzantine empire
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11.1 the byzantine empire

  1. 1. Chapter 11Byzantines, Russians and Turks Interact S
  2. 2. Byzantine Empire A.D. 395 – A.D. 1589 S
  3. 3. RememberWhen?Roman leaders had dividedthe empire in 395, due todifficulties in communicationsbetween the eastern andtroubled western parts.Rulers in the East still sawthemselves as emperors.
  4. 4. Byzantine Empire’s GrowthS Justinian- high ranking Byzantine nobleman S Emperor 527-565, succeeded his Uncle S Preserved the Roman law S Justinian Code S Crime S Marriage S Property S slavery
  5. 5. Justinian CodeS 1. The Code contained nearly 5,000 Roman laws that were still considered useful for the Roman EmpireS 2. The Digest quoted and summarized the opinions of Rome’s greatest legal thinkers about the laws. [50 volumes]S 3. The Institutes- textbook that told law students how to use the lawsS 4. The Novellae [New Laws] presented legislation passed after
  6. 6. Justinian’s AdvisorsS Theodora S Wife S Women got more rights S Divorce S Own property = to dowryS Belisarius S General of Army S Experienced- sent by Justinian to recover North Africa from invading Germanic Tribes [533] S Crushed the Nika Revolt S 535 AD- attacked Rome, and seized it from a group called the Ostrogoths
  7. 7. Fight to Restore the EmpireS City continued to face attacks from Germanic TribesS Over 16 years, Rome changed hands six timesS After numerous campaigns, Justinian’s armies won nearly all of Italy and parts of Spain. Now he owned almost all the territory that Rome had ever ruled- called himself a new CaesarS Ruled with absolute power, head of church as well.S Appointed and dismissed bishops at willS Ruled brutally- politics deadly- Emperors lived under constant risk of assassinationsS Of 88 Byzantine Emperors- 29 died violently, 13 abandoned the throne to live in monasteries
  8. 8. Strengths of the EmpireS All-powerful emperorS Strong central governmentS Officials were: S Skilled S Efficient S Well paidS Strong military S Strong Navy S “greek fire”
  9. 9. • It burned on water, and, according to someGreek Fire interpretations, was ignited by water. In addition, as numerous writers testify, it could be by Incendiary weapon used extinguished only by a typically the Byzantine Empire few substances, such as sand (which used in naval battles to great deprived it of oxygen), strong effect. vinegar, or old urine, presumably by some sort of chemical Notably used in the salvation reaction. of Constantinople from 2 Arab • It was a liquid substance, and sieges not some sort of projectile, as verified both by descriptions and the very name "liquid fire”. • At sea, it was usually ejected from siphons,although earthenware pots or grenades filled with it or similar substances were also used. • The discharge of Greek fire was accompanied by "thunder" and
  10. 10. Strength’s con’tS Constantinople S Strategically locatedS Imperial tax policies S Raised $$$
  11. 11. Byzantine CultureS Cyrul & Methodius S Missionaries to Slavs S Created alphabet-CyrillicS Art S Murals & icons S Subject: religionS Architecture S Hagia Sophia-church in Constantinople S Round dome on rectangle building
  12. 12. Byzantine Art S Influenced from Greek art S Subject matter was primarily religious and imperial S Portraits of later Byzantine emperors decorated the interior of the 6th century church0 Hagia Sophia in Constantinople S One of the most important genres of Byzantine art was the icon- an image of Christ, the Virgin, or a saint used as an a object of veneration in Orthodox churches
  13. 13. Hagia Sophia- “Holy Wisdom”S Rebuilt church of the same name [originally destroyed in 532]S Hailed as the best church in the Christian worldS Changed the history of architectureS Designed by Greek scientistsS Contained a large collection of holy relics, and was famous for its massive dome
  14. 14. Decline of EmpireS Justinian’s death-565- although his codes last 900 more yearsS War w/ PersiansS Ottoman TurksS The Crusades
  15. 15. The Plague of JustinianS The 1st Crisis- a disease resembling the bubonic plagueS Hit Constantinople- probably arrived from India on a ship infested with ratsS 542 CE- 10,000 people were dying every dayS By 700 it finally faded but destroyed a huge % of the population
  16. 16. Attacks from East & WestS Faced constant challenges from invadersS Lombards overran Justinian’s conquests in the WestS Avrs, Slavs, and Bulgars made frequent raids on N. bordersS Sassanid Persians attacked relentlessly to the EastS Persians and Avars attacked Constantinople in 626S Rise of Islam, Arab armies attacked in 674 and 717S Russians attacked 3x- b/w 860-1043S 11th Century, Turks took over Muslim world and slowly into Byzantine territory
  17. 17. Byzantine StruggledS Used bribes, diplomacy, political marriages and military power to keep enemies @ bayS Emperor Heraclius reorganized the empire along military linesS Provinces became themes, or military districts ruled directly by a generalS Byzantine Empire shrank under the impact of foreign attacksS 1350- reduced to the tip of Anatolia and a strip of the BalkansS Constantinople held out until 1453- when the Ottoman Turks took over
  18. 18. S Was Justinian a great leader? Why or why not? S What various methods did the Byzantines use to hold off their enemies?S How did the Byzantines help to preserve Greco- Roman culture? Review

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