“The Roaring Twenties”1920s: The U.S., The Myths, Juice Joints and All that Jazz
The Razzle Dazzle• The 1920s is also known as: – The Roaring Twenties or The Jazz Age [U.S.A, Canada or the U.K.] – Sometimes referred to as the “Golden Age 20s” due to an economic boom following the economic boom of WWI – Weimar Republic, like many other European countries faced severe economic downturn in the opening years of the decade due to enormous debt caused by WWI & the Treaty of Versailles – Decade included the rise of radical politics- • Communism, and the Bolsheviks’ to win the Russian Civil War • U.S. had a city population that surpassed rural population • Rise of far rights and fascism in Europe – Ended with the devastating Wall Street Crash in October 1929
Fear and Xenophobia Learning Goal: NJCCCS 6.1.12.A.8.c Relate social intolerance, xenophobia, and fear ofanarchists to government policies restricting immigration, advocacy, and labor organizations.
Seeing Red• Fear of Russia ran high even after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, which spawned a communist party in America.• The "red scare" of 1919-1920 resulted in a nationwide crusade against those whose Americanism was suspect.• Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer was chosen to round up immigrants who were in question.
Crime Syndication Laws • In 1919-1920, a number of states passed criminal syndicalism laws that made the advocacy of violence to secure social change unlawful. • Traditional American ideals of free speech were restricted.
Sacco and Vanzetti• Antiredism and antiforeignism were reflected in the criminal case of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti.• The two men were convicted in 1921 of the murder of a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard.• Although given a trial, the jury and judge were prejudiced against the men because they were Italians, atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers• Despite criticism from liberals and radicals all over the world, the men were electrocuted in 1927.
Hooded Hoodlums of the KKK• The Ku Klux Klan (Knights of the Invisible Empire) grew quickly in the early 1920s• The Klan was antiforeign, anti- Catholic, anti-black, anti- Jewish, antipacifist, anti- Communist, anti- internationalist, antievolutionist, antibootlegger, antigambling, antiadultery, and anti-birth control. It was pro-Anglo- Saxon, pro-"native" American, and pro-Protestant.
Spread of the KKK• The Klan spread rapidly, especially in the Midwest and the South, claiming 5 million members.• It collapsed in the late 1920s after a congressional investigation exposed the internal embezzling by Klan officials.• The KKK was an alarming manifestation of the intolerance and prejudice plaguing people anxious about the dizzying pace of social change in the 1920s.
Stemming the Foreign Blood• Isolationist Americans of the 1920s felt they had no use for immigrants.• The "New Immigration" of the 1920s caused Congress to pass the Emergency Quota Act of 1921,• restricting newcomers from Europe in any given year to a definite quota, which was at 3% of the people of their nationality who had been living in the United States in 1910.
Johnson Reed Immigration Act • The Immigration Act of 1924 replaced the Quota Act of 1921, cutting quotas for foreigners from 3% to 2%. Different countries were only allowed to send an allotted number of its citizens to America every year. • Japanese were outright banned from coming to America. • Canadians and Latin Americans, whose proximity made them easy to attract for jobs when times were good and just as easy to send back home when times were not, were exempt from the act.
• The quota system caused immigration to dwindle.• The Immigration Act of 1924 marked the end of an era of unrestricted immigration to the United States. Many of the most recent arrivals lived in isolated enclaves with their own houses of worship, newspapers, and theaters.
The Prohibition "Experiment"• The 18th Amendment, passed in 1919, banned alcohol.• Prohibition, supported by churches and women, was one the last peculiar spasms of the progressive reform movement.• It was popular in the South, where white southerners were eager to keep stimulants out of the hands of blacks, and in the West, where alcohol was associated with crime and corruption.
Putting on the Ritz • Prohibitionists were naïve in that Federal authorities had never been able to enforce a law where the majority of the people were hostile to it. • Prohibition might have started off better if there had been a larger number of enforcement officials. • "Speakeasies” [a place where alcoholic drinks were sold and consumed illegally during Prohibition. ] replaced saloons. • Prohibition caused bank savings to increase and absenteeism in industry to decrease.
The Golden Age of Gangsterism• The large profits of illegal alcohol led to bribery of police.• Violent wars broke out in the big cities between rival gangs, who sought control of the booze market.• Chicago was the most spectacular example of lawlessness.• "Scarface" Al Capone, a murderous booze distributor, began 6 years of gang warfare that generated millions of dollars• Capone was eventually tried and convicted of income-tax evasion and sent to prison for 11 years.
American Gangsters• Gangsters began to move into other profitable and illicit activities: – prostitution, – gambling, – narcotics, – kidnapping for ransom.
Crime in the 1920s• Police funding: INCREASED $11.4 Million• Arrests for Prohibition Las Violations: INCREASED 102+%• Arrests for Drunkenness and Disorderly Conduct: INCREASED 41%• Arrests of Drunken Drivers: INCREASED 81%• Thefts and Burglaries: INCREASED 9%• Homicides, Assault, and Battery: INCREASED 13%• Number of Federal Convicts: INCREASED 561%• Federal Prison Population: INCREASED 366%• Total Federal Expenditures on Penal Institutions: INCREASED 1,000%
Review- Analyzing Effects • How did criminals take • Answer: Criminals broke advantage of the law by smuggling, as Prohibition? well as by making alcohol and selling it for profit.
Prohibition, 1920-1933Causes EffectsVarious religious groups thought Consumption of alcohol declineddrinking alcohol was sinfulReformers believed that the government Disrespect for the law developedshould protect the public’s healthReformers believed that alcohol led to An increase in lawlessness, such ascrime, wife and child abuse, and smuggling and bootlegging, was evidentaccidents on the jobDuring WWI, native-born American Criminal found a new source of incomedeveloped a hostility to German-American brewers and toward otherimmigrant groups that used alcohol Organized crime grew
The Bum Rush• After the son of Charles A. Lindbergh [(February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974), nicknamed Slim, Lucky Lindy, and The Lone Eagle, was an American aviator, author, inventor, explorer, and social activist.]• was kidnapped for ransom and murdered,• Congress passed the Lindbergh Law in 1932, making interstate abduction in certain circumstances a death-penalty offense.
The Crime of the Century• The kidnapping of Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., the son of famous aviator Charles Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, was one of the most highly publicized crimes of the 20th century.• The 20-month-old toddler was abducted from his family home in East Amwell, New Jersey, near the town of Hopewell, New Jersey, on the evening of March 1, 1932.• Over two months later, on May 12, 1932, his body was discovered a short distance from the Lindberghs home.• A medical examination determined that the cause of death was a massive skull fracture.
Trial of the Century• After an investigation that lasted more than two years, Bruno Richard Hauptmann was arrested and charged with the crime. In a trial that was held from January 2 to February 13, 1935• Hauptmann was found guilty of murder in the first degree and sentenced to death.• He was executed by electric chair at the New Jersey State Prison on April 3, 1936, at 8:44 in the evening.• Hauptmann proclaimed his innocence to the end• Newspaper writer H. L. Mencken called the kidnapping and subsequent trial "the biggest story since the Resurrection".
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Progressive Education• Education made great strides in the 1920s.• Professor John Dewey set forth the principles of "learning by doing" that formed the foundation of so-called progressive education.• He believed that "education for life" should be a primary goal of the teacher• Science and better health care also resulted out of the 1920s.• Fundamentalists, old-time religionists, claimed that the teaching of Darwinism evolution was destroying faith in God and the Bible, while contributing to the moral breakdown of youth.• Progressive educators opposed a growing national movement that sought to separate academic education for the few and narrow vocational training for the masses.• During the 1920s, when education turned increasingly to "scientific" techniques such as intelligence testing and cost-benefit management, progressive educators insisted on the importance of the emotional, artistic, and creative aspects of human development--"the most living and essential parts of our natures," as Margaret Naumburg put it in The Child and the World.
Review- Summarizing • Answer: More students• How did schools change were able to attend school during the 1920s? during this prospering time; schools had to adapt to teaching students of new immigrant families; schools offered a broad range of courses for students to train for industrial jobs.
Monkey Business in Tennessee• In 1925, John T. Scopes was indicted in Tennessee for teaching evolution.• Scopes had violated the Butler Act, which made it unlawful to teach evolution in any state-funded school• Scopes was unsure if he had taught evolution or not, however he purposely incriminated himself so that the case could have a defendant• At the The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes ["Monkey Trial,”] Scopes was defended by Clarence Darrow, while former presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan prosecuted him.• Scopes was found guilty and fined $100.
The Battle over Evolution. Opponents of Darwin’s theories set up shop at the opening ofthe famed “Monkey Trial” in Dayton, Tennessee, in 1925. The trial was an early battle in anAmerican “culture war” that is still being waged more than 75 years later.
Review- Analyzing Issues • What was the conflict • Answer: Fundamentalists between fundamentalists believed that God created and those who accepted the world in six days, evolution? whereas evolutionists argued that modern species developed from earlier forms of life over millions of years ago.
The Mass-Consumption• Economy WWI and Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellons tax policies brought much prosperity to the mid-1920s.• Bruce Barton founded advertising which sought to make Americans want more and more.• Sports became a big business in the consumer economy of the 1920s.• Buying in credit was another new feature of the postwar economy.• Prosperity thus accumulated an overhanging cloud of debt, and the economy became increasingly vulnerable to disruptions of the credit structure.
Mass Consumption and Business Learning Goal: NJCCCS: 6.1.12.A.8.b Compare and contrast the global marketing practices of United States factories and farms with American publicopinion and government policies that favored isolationism.
Mellon’s Tax Cuts • Andrew Mellons plan had four main points: • Cut the top income tax rate from 77 to 24 percent - predicting that large fortunes would be put back into the economy. • Cut taxes on low incomes from 4 to 1/2 percent - tax policy "must lessen, so far as possible, the burden of taxation on those least able to bear it." • Reduce the Federal Estate tax - large income taxes tempted the wealthy to shift their fortunes into tax-exempt shelters. • Efficiency in government - lower tax rates meant few tax returns to process by few government workers, cutting the actual size of paper bills to fit into wallets saved expenses in paper and ink.
Reducing Public Debt• By 1926 65% of the income tax revenue came from incomes $300,000 and higher, when five years prior, less than 20% did.• During this same period, the overall tax burden on those that earned less than $10,000 dropped from $155 million to $32.5 million• Mellons policies helped reduce the overall public debt (the national debt skyrocketed from $1.5 billion in 1916 to $24 billion in 1919 because of World War I obligations) from $33 billion in 1919 to about $16 billion in 1929
Mass Consumption• Mass consumption, also called Consumerism, is a term used to describe the phenomena of people • standardized mass production led to purchasing goods in excess of their needs. • better machinery in factories, which• Mass Consumption occurred as a led to result of Mass Production, which was • higher production and higher wages, caused by better machines and new technologies in factories. This better which led to machinery and new technology lead • more demand for consumer goods to higher production and higher wages for workers. • which led back to more standardized• Higher wages lead to higher demand mass production. for consumer goods, which in turn lead to Mass production.
Credit• Credit allowed people to pay for goods, such as cars, in installments.• This meant that rather than paying for a car all at once, people were able to spread out the payments over time.• Later, overspending due to Credit would be a cause of the Great Depression, but during the 1920s the American economy was booming.• Wages were higher, Americans were spending their higher wages and improving the economy, and technology used in factories was advancing, meaning factories would only become better able to produce goods that consumers were so willing to buy.
New Technology• Just as technology within factories advanced, the technology of goods being produced advanced as well. New inventions using electricity were being discovered rapidly, and many had a profound effect on America as a whole.• Electric appliances emerged, many of which helped reduce the time it took to do everyday housework.• Products such as electric sewing machines, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, dishwashers, mixers, stoves, toasters, irons, hot-water heaters, space heaters, and refrigerators helped the American housewife by mechanically preforming tasks that were otherwise done by hand.• The American kitchen became "modernized", and ads showing the "perfect" American kitchen emerged.
United States Approximate House of Housework per Week, 1900- 1925 Year Meals and Dishwashing Laundry General Cleaning 1900 44 7 7 1925 30 5 9
Media gives prominence to Sport creating Male and Female Sporting Stars.• Sports which grew and flourished in the nineteen twenties due to unprecedented publicity and promotion included baseball, tennis, golf, swimmin g, football and boxing.• Newspapers, magazines, radio and movies all played a role in boosting the profile of sport and the sporting giants.
Baseball In America• In the 1920’s the first Negro leagues were started in America founded by Rube Foster.• In the 1920’s baseball became known as the American sport because it became so popular.• Babe Ruth was the most famous baseball player in the 1920. He was a little chunky guy who would hit homeruns out of the park like nothing ever seen before. 1927 he hit a record setting 60 homeruns which was a record that stood for 30 years.• Satchel Paige, James Bell, and Josh Gibson were some of the many famous black players in the Negro league.• Jackie Robinson was the first black player to play in the MLB in America. His inclusion sparked controversy between races• Baseball today is played all over the world.
Football• On September 17, 1920 the first American organized football league was established. Teams were only charged $100 to join the league.• The first ever trade was made in December of 1920 between Akron and Buffalo.(Tackle Bob Nash)• In 1921 the first use of football standings were put to use. The Green Bay Packers team was established.• The NFL,( National Football League) was established which consisted of 18 teams.• In 1925 one of the best football players, Harold (red) Grange joined the Chicago Bears. This brought lots of national attention because he was a player you had to see to believe.• By the end of the 1930’s the NFL was in full stride nation wide, Grange was still one of the best in the sport.
Boxing• Boxing was banned from America in the early 1900’s.• In 1920 New York passed the Walker Law, this law permitted boxing fights to be legal in New York.• As others states witness what was happening in New York so they also legalized boxing. Boxing in America at this point was in full stride.• The first million-dollar fight was fought between Jack Dempsey of the U.S. and Georges Carpenter of France.• The first 2 ½ million-dollar fight was a rematch between Jack Dempsey and Gene Tunney. Tunney won both of the fights.• This fight was viewed by 100,000 persons. To the boxing world in America this was a positive and great outcome.
Tennis• Tennis became an American sport just like all the other sports in the 1920’s.• William “Big Bill” Tilden was the best tennis player in the 1920’s.• In tournaments he was astonishing to watch. He was the first American to win the Wimbledon tennis title.• He was arrested and shunned for his homosexuality. He died penniless and alone.• Helen Wills won every single match “she” played from 1927 to the end of the decade.• She was the number one female tennis player in America in the 1920’s.
Golf• Golf was not one of the most popular sports during the 1920’s because all the other sports were in full stride.• There were three guys who help revolutionize the sport of golf in America; Boobby Jones, Walter Hagen, and Gene Sarozen.(all Americans)• Bobby Jones was playing the best golf of his life wining tournament after tournament.• Walter Hagen is well recognized for his style of dressing. He won 2 U.S. opens, 4 British opens, and 5 PGA tittles including 4 in a row. (1924-1927)• Gene Sarazone was consider on of the best golfers of the 1920’s and 1930’s. He is the first golfer to win 2 major tittles in the same year. In total he captured 10 major tittles.• Americans began to fall in love with a sport that was different from all the others.
Putting America on Rubber Tires • The automobile industrial started an industrial revolution in the 1920s. • It yielded a new industrial system based on assembly-line methods and mass- production techniques. • Detroit became the motorcar capital of the world. • Henry Ford, father of the assembly line, created the Model T and erected an immense personal empire on the cornerstone of his mechanical genius. • By 1930, the number of Model Ts in the nation had reached 20 million.
The Advent of the Gasoline Age • The automobile industry exploded, creating millions of jobs and supporting industries • Americas standard of living rose sharply, and new industries flourished while old ones dwindled. • The petroleum business experienced an explosive development and the railroad industry was hard hit by the competition of automobiles.
Gas Station, 1923. Gas stations like this one began to appear about 1913.Before that the nation’s handful of automobile owners bought fuel from theirlocal oil companies and stored it in tanks in their own yards.
Women, Cars, and Death• The automobile freed up women from their dependence on men, and isolation among the sections was broken down.• It was responsible for thousands of deaths, while at the same time bringing more convenience, pleasure, and excitement into more peoples lives.
Humans Develop Wings • Gasoline engines provided the power that enabled humans to fly. • On December 17, 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright made their first flight, lasting 12 seconds and 120 feet. • After the success of airplanes in WWI, private companies began to operate passenger airlines with airmail contracts. • Charles A. Lindberg became the first man to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. • His flight energized and gave a strong boost to the new aviation industry.
Lucky Lindy. Charles A. Lindbergh (1902-1974) stands in front of the aircraftthat made him famous. The first person to fly solo across the Atlantic,Lindbergh became an acclaimed celebrity- perhaps the first media “hero” ofthe twentieth century. His shining reputation later lost some of its lustedwhen he voiced anti-Semitic sentiments and opposed American entry intoWorld War II, though he went on to fly several combat missions in the waragainst Japan.
The Radio Revolution• Guglielmo Marconi invented wireless telegraphy (the telegraph) in the 1890s.• In the 1920s, the first voice- carrying radio broadcasts reached audiences.• While automobiles were luring Americans away from the home, the radio was luring them back.• Educationally and culturally, the radio also made a significant contribution.
Hollywoods Filmland Fantasies • As early as the 1890s, the motion picture, invented by Thomas A. Edison, had gained some popularity. • The true birth of motion picture came in 1903 with the release of the first story sequence: The Great Train Robbery. Hollywood became the movie capital of the world. • Motion picture was used extensively in WWI as anti-German propaganda. • Much of the diversity of the immigrants cultures was lost, but the standardization of tastes and of language hastened entry into the American mainstream-and set the stage for the emergence of a working-class political coalition that would overcome the divisive ethnic differences of the past.
1920’s Studio System• The 1920s saw a vast expansion of Hollywood film making and worldwide film going.• Throughout the decade, film production increasingly focused on the feature film rather than the "short" or "two-reeler."• This is a change that had begun with the long D.W. Griffith epics of the mid-1910s.• In Hollywood, numerous small studios were taken over and made a part of larger studios, creating the Studio System that would run American film making until the 1960s.• MGM (founded in the middle of the decade) and Paramount were the highest- grossing studios during the period, with Fox, Universal, United Artists, and Warner Brothers making up a large part of the remaining market.
Picture Palaces • The 1920s was also the decade of the "Picture Palaces": large urban theaters that could seat 1-2,000 guests at a time, with full orchestral accompaniment and very decorative design (often a mix or Italian, Spanish, and Baroque styles). These picture palaces were often owned by the studios and used to premier and first-run their major films.
Movie Stars and Genres• Key genres such as the swashbuckler, horror, and modern romantic comedy flourished during the decade.• Stars such as Douglas Fairbanks, Ramon Novarro, Pola Negri, Nazimova, Greta Garbo, Mary Pickford, Lilian Gish, Francis X. Bushman, Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, Harold Lloyd, Lon Chaney, Rudolph Valentino, John Gilbert, Clara Bow, Gloria Swanson, Joan Crawford, George OBrien, and John Barrymore created some of their most memorable roles and films during the period
Transition to “Talkies”• The transition to sound-on-film technology occurred mid-decade with the talkies developed in 1926-1927, following experimental techniques begun in the late 1910s.• Fox Studios and the Warner Brothers were crucial in the development and acceptance of the technology of sound in motion pictures.• With sound, the concept of the musical appeared immediately, as in The Jazz Singer of 1927, because silent films had been accompanied by music for years when projected in theaters.• Sound also greatly changed the Hollywood approach to storytelling, with more dependence on dialogue and less creative use of the visual element.• Also, in 1927, the International Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was formed. Later, "International" was removed from the name.• Today, The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is most famous for its annual presentation of The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars.
Wings is considered by media the first movie to win the Academy Award for Best Picture.Lewis Milestone, Best Director, Comedy PictureEmil Jannings, Best ActorJanet Gaynor, Best ActressCharles Chaplin, Honorary Award
Dynamic Decade & Women Learning Goal: 6.1.12.C.8.b Relate social, cultural, and technological changes in the interwar period to the rise of a consumer economy and the changing role and status of women.
The Dynamic Decade• In the 1920s, the majority of Americans had shifted from rural areas to urban (city) areas.• Women continued to find jobs in the cities.• Margaret Sanger led a birth-control movement.• Alice Paul formed the National Womens Party in 1923 to campaign for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution.• The Fundamentalists lost ground to the Modernists who believed that God was a "good guy" and the universe was a friendly place.• Fundamentalism n. a Protestant religious movement grounded in the belief that all the stories and details in the Bible are literally true.• The 1920s witnessed an explosion in sex appeal in America
Margaret Sanger (1879-1966) in Boston, 1929.Forbidden to speak on theinflammatory topic of birthcontrol, a defiant Sangercovered her mouth and“lectured” in Boston bywriting on a blackboard.Since 1912- Sanger haddevoted herself topromoting birth controland establishingcontraceptive clinicsthroughout the UnitedStates.
Enter: The Flapper• Young women, "flappers," rolled their stockings, taped their breasts flat, and roughed their cheeks• Flapper- one of the free-thinking young women who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes of the 1920s.• Women began to wear one-piece bathing suits.
Women Before 1920• Most women particularly white women did not work outside the home.• They performed traditional domestic responsibilities of conserving food and fuel resources in the early part of the war.
Women During World War One• Women joined the military and took the role as nurses.• After men began to get drafted over 23,000 women entered war time industrial plants for the first time.• These jobs consisted of shipment collectors, accountants, telephone operators, and steel mill workers.• Women who worked outside their homes before the war had better job opportunities and where able to move from domestic services to industrial jobs.• They were also working in dangerous day to day jobs building a munitions and working with TNT that was a life threatening especially to the fact that many of these factories were enemy targets.• Women who worked in these factories also ran a great risk of explosions within the factory and TNT poisoning.
The 19th Amendment• There was a view that women should not have the right to vote because it was not within her intellectual capacity to make reasonable judgment in an election.• There was also another view that if women get involved in politics they would stop getting married, stop having children, and the human race would die out. Also known as the Race Suicide Argument.• Finally after decades of suffrage in 1920 the 19th amendment was passed and it gave women the right to vote.• After women succeeded in traditional male jobs they began to demand better wages and more political rights.• 1848 the womens suffrage movement broke out in means to fight for womens right to vote.
Women’s New Rights • 19th amendment extended the rights of suffrage women. • Right to vote. • Equal rights towards women and men. • Making mother joint guardians over children. • Raising the age of protection of young girls to 18.
Women’s Role In Society• 1920’s brought new and exciting cultural innovations that shifted womens attention from politics into social life.• Social life consisted of new fashion trends, products, and sexier images.• Political success along with having more leisure time to spend during this era challenged traditional ideas of women’s role in society.• Unmarried working women had their own money to spend and had greater access to mobility.
Women’s New Fashion "There are no ugly women, only lazy ones.“ Helena Rubenstein• New fashion became immoral to Victorian mothers and grand mothers.• Womens fashion became personal expressions.• 1919 dresses uncovered 10% of womans bodies by 1927 womens skirts raised to knee length leaving 25% of body bare.• Less modest starting with shorter hem lines.• Body images became of greater importance as to staying thin.• Womens hairstyle went shorter to a “shingle bob”• Women took on smoking which double the number of women smokers during the decade.
The Flapper. New dance styles, like the “Charleston” flamboyantly displayed thenew social freedom of the “flapper”, whose dress and antics frequentlyflummoxed the guardians of respectability.
The Guardians of Morality. Women’s new one-piece bathing suits were asensation in the 1920s. Here a check is carefully made to ensure that not toomuch leg is showing.
Review- Evaluating • How was the flapper • Answer: Like: Flappers like and unlike women used clothing, of today? hairstyles, and behavior to claim a new freedom. Unlike: Today’s women have more freedoms.
Review- Analyzing Effects • How did the growth of • Answer: Big business and business and industry affect industry produced time saving women? appliances that freed women from some household chores, and business groweth also created jobs for millions of women, but more women were confined to traditional jobs.
The Psychology of it All• Dr. Sigmund Freud writings justified this new sexual frankness by arguing that sexual repression was responsible for a variety of nervous and emotional ills.
Art and Culture of the 1920s Learning Goal: NJCCCS 6.1.12.D.8.bAssess the impact of artists, writers, and musicians of the 1920s, including the Harlem Renaissance, on American culture and values. 6.1.12.C.8.a Analyze the push-pull factors that led to the Great Migration.
All That Jazz• Jazz thrived in the era of the 1920s.• jazz n. a style of music characterized by the use of improvisation.• originated at the beginning of the 20th century in black communities in the Southern United States.• It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. Its African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes, improvisation, polyrhythms, syn copation, and the swung note.• From its early development until the present day, jazz has also incorporated elements from American popular music.
The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s “Take The A Train” Billy Strayhorn for the Duke Ellington Orchestra You must take the A train To go to Sugar Hill way up in Harlem If you miss the A train Youll find you missed the quickest way to Harlem Hurry, get on, now its coming Listen to those rails a-humming All aboard, get on the A train Soon you will be on Sugar Hill in Harlem •What is the tone or mood of this recording? •Why do you think the original recording was made and for what audience? •List two things in this sound recording that tell you about life in the United States at the time.
What is it?• The Harlem Renaissance was a flowering of African American social thought which was expressed through – Paintings – Music – Dance – Theater – Literature
Where is Harlem? The island of Manhattan NeighborhoodsNew York City is on Manhattan island
Where was the Harlem Renaissance centered?• Centered in the Harlem district of New York City, the New Negro Movement (as it was called at the time) had a major influence across the Unites States and even the world.
How does the Harlem Renaissance connect to the Great Migration?• The economic opportunities of the era triggered a widespread migration of black Americans from the rural south to the industrial centers of the north - and especially to New York City.• In New York and other cities, black Americans explored new opportunities for intellectual and social freedom.• Black American artists, writers, and musicians began to use their talents to work for civil rights and obtain equality.
How did it impact history?• The Harlem Renaissance helped to redefine how Americans and the world understood African American culture. It integrated black and white cultures, and marked the beginning of a black urban society.• The Harlem Renaissance set the stage for the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 60s.
Now that you’ve learned more “Take The A Train”about the Harlem Renaissance, Billy Strayhorn for the Duke Ellington Orchestralisten again to this song. Does it You must take the A trainchange your answers to the To go to Sugar Hill way up in Harlemanalysis questions below? If you miss the A train Youll find you missed the quickest way to Harlem Hurry, get on, now its coming Listen to those rails a-humming All aboard, get on the A train Soon you will be on Sugar Hill in Harlem•What is the tone or mood of this recording?•Why do you think the original recording was made and for what audience?•List two things in this sound recording that tell you about life in the United States at thetime.
Who do we associate with the Harlem Renaissance?• Artists such as Jacob Lawrence• Authors such as Langston Hughes• Musicians such as Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, and Bessie Smith
Jacob Lawrence • Jacob Lawrence grew up in a settlement house in Harlem during the Harlem Renaissance • Lawrences parents were among those who migrated between 1916-1919, considered the first wave of the migration. • His own life in Harlem , and the struggle of other Black Americans inspired his earliest work
Lawrence’s Work• Jacob Lawrence painted his Great Migration series during the 1940s to capture the experience of African Americans during the 1920s http://www.columbia.edu/itc/history/odonnell/w 1010/edit/migration/migration.html
Painted scenes of: •his own background in HarlemJacob Lawrence Painter •the hard life of black Americans in the 1920s The Great Migration series is his most recognized work
Langston Hughes • Hughes is known for his insightful, colorful, realistic portrayals of black life in America. • He wrote poetry, short stories, novels, and plays, and is known for his involvement with the world of jazz and the influence it had on his writing. • His life and work were enormously important in shaping the artistic contributions of the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s. • He wanted to tell the stories of his people in ways that reflected their actual culture, including both their suffering and their love of music, laughter, and language itself.
The Negro Speaks of Rivers Ive known rivers: Ive known rivers ancient as the (1919) world and older than the flow of human blood in human To listen to Langston Hughes read veins. his poem, click here. My soul has grown deep like the rivers.One of Hughess poetic innovations was to draw on I bathed in the Euphrates whenthe rhythms of black musical traditions such as jazz dawns were young.and blues, but in The Negro Speaks of Rivers its I built my hut near the Congothe heritage of Negro spirituals which is recalled by and it lulled me to sleep.the poems majestic imagery and sonorousrepetitions. Written when Hughes was only I looked upon the Nile andseventeen as he traveled by train across the raised the pyramids above it.Mississippi, The Negro Speaks of Rivers is a I heard the singing of thebeautiful statement of strength in the history of Mississippi when Abe Lincolnblack people, which Hughes imagines stretching as went down to Newfar back as ancient Egypt and further into Africa Orleans, and Ive seen itsand the cradle of civilization. The poem returns at muddythe end to America in a moment of optimisticalchemy when he sees the "muddy bosom" of the bosom turn all golden in the sunset.Mississippi "turn all golden in the sunset". Ive known rivers:From PoetryArchive.org Ancient, dusky rivers. •What is the tone or mood of this poem? My soul has grown deep like •Why do you think the poem was written and for what audience? the rivers. •List two things in this poem that tell you about life in the United States at the time.
I, too, sing America I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. (1920s) They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, To listen to Langston Hughes read But I laugh, his poem, click here. And eat well, And grow strong. I, Too written just before Hughes’ return to the States from Europe and after hed been denied passage on a ship because of his color, has a Tomorrow, contemporary feel in contrast to the mythical Ill be at the table dimension of The Negro Speaks of Rivers. It is no When company comes. less powerful however, in its expression of social injustice. The calm clear statements of the I have Nobodyll dare an unstoppable force like the progress the poem Say to me, envisages. Hughess dignified introductions to "Eat in the kitchen,“ these poems and his beautiful speaking voice render them all the more moving. Then. From PoetryArchive.org Besides, Theyll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed--•What is the tone or mood of this poem?•Why do you think the poem was written and for what audience? I, too, am America.•List two things in this poem that tell you about life in the United States at the time.
Wrote poetry, short stories, novels, and plays.Langston Hughes Poet and Author Known for his colorful, realistic portrayals of black life in America.
Duke Ellington• Ellington was a jazz composer, conductor, and performer during the Harlem Renaissance.• During the formative Cotton Club years, he experimented with and developed the style that would quickly bring him worldwide success. Ellington would be among the first to focus on musical form and composition in jazz.• Ellington wrote over 2000 pieces in his lifetime.
The Cotton Club • The Duke Ellington Orchestra was the "house" orchestra for a number of years at the Cotton Club. The revues featured glamorous dancing girls, acclaimed tap dancers, vaudeville performers, and comics. All the white world came to Harlem to see the show. • The first Cotton Club revue was in 1923. There were two new fast paced revues produced a year for at least 16 years.
Jazz composer, conductor,Duke Ellington Composer/Conductor and performer during the Harlem Renaissance To hear Duke Ellington, click the link.
Louis “Satchmo”Armstrong • Louis Armstrong was a jazz composer and trumpet player during the Harlem Renaissance. • He is widely recognized as a founding father of jazz. • He appeared in 30 films and averaged 300 concerts per year, performing for both kids on the street and heads of state.
Composer and trumpet player during the HarlemLouis Armstrong Composer/Trumpeter Renaissance Widely recognized as a founding father of jazz To hear Louis Armstrong, click the link.
Bessie Smith • Bessie Smith was a famous jazz and blues singer during the Harlem Renaissance. • Smith recorded with many of the great Jazz musicians of the 1920s, including Louis Armstrong. • Smith was popular with both blacks and whites
Famous jazz and blues singer during the HarlemBessie Smith Jazz & Blues Renaissance Singer Popular with both blacks and whites To hear Bessie Smith, click the link.
Study the picture for 2 minutes. Form an overall impression of the painting, then start to focus on individual details. Questions to think about: 1. What do you see? 2. What people do you see? 3. What objects do you see? 4. What colors do you see? 5. What actions/activities do you see? 6. What questions does this painting raise in your mind? 7. How does this painting relate to the Harlem Renaissance? 8. Based on what you have observed, list what you may infer from this painting.“Ascent from Ethiopia”, Louis Mailou Jones. 1932
Review- Analyzing Effects • Answer: The movement of• How did the influx of millions of African African Americans change Americans to Northern Northern cities? cities greatly increased their black populations, and heightened racial tensions that sometimes resulted in discrimination and violence.
Great Migration and Racial Tension Learning Goal: NJCCCS: 6.1.12.D.8.a Explain why the Great Migration led to heightened racial tensions, restrictive laws, a rise in repressive organizations, and an increase in violence
Marcus Garvey & the UNIARacial pride blossomed in the northern black communities. Marcus Garvey foundedthe United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) to promote the resettlement ofblacks in Africa. In the United States, the UNIA also sponsored stores and otherbusinesses to keep blacks dollars in black pockets.
The Black Moses Born: August 17, • "I do not speak carelessly or recklessly but 1887 with a definite object of helping the people, St. Anns Bay, especially those of my race, to know, to Jamaica understand, and to realize themselves.“ Died: June 10, --Marcus Garvey, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1940 1937 London, England Jamaican activist-In the United States Garveyism was central to the and Africandevelopment of the black consciousness and pride at the core nationalistof the twentieth-century freedom-movement.-1910 Garvey began a series of travels that transformed himfrom an average person concerned about the problems ofthose with less opportunity, to an African nationalistdetermined to lift an entire race from bondage.- He visited Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador, and worked asan editor for several radical newspapers and that was a big partof where his leadership began. In each country he visited, henoted that the black man was in an inferior position, subject tothe ever-changing ideals of stronger races.
- After briefly returning home, he proceeded to England, where contacts with African nationalists stimulated in him a keen interest in Africa and in black history. - At his time Garvey met Duse Mohammed Ali, a Sudanese-Egyptian and strong supporter of African self-rule. Garvey began writing for Alis small magazines and was introduced to other black activists.- On his return to Jamaica in 1914 from England, Garvey formed the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA- ACL). These organizations were intended "to work for the general uplift of the Negro peoples of the world," and would become the centerpiece for his lifes work.
His Place In History• Garveys UNIA was bigger than the Civil Rights Movement.• Garveys influence extended well beyond the borders of the United States to the Caribbean, Canada, and Africa.• His message had a tremendous influence on later groups such as the Rastafarians and the Nation of Islam is also important.• Much of what he said concerning racial pride and the potential for great racial success can be heard in later figures such as Malcolm X and even Stokely Carmichael, leader of SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee).• Garvey, Malcolm, and Carmichael are all considered more radical than the mainstream civil rights protesters.
The Universal NegroImprovement Association • A black nationalist frat organization founded by Marcus Garvey. • The organization was strongest in the 1920s, prior to Garveys deportation from the United States of America. • Since 1949, there have been two organizations claiming the name. • According to the preamble of the 1929 constitution as amended, the UNIA is a “social, friendly, humanitarian, charitable, educational, institutional, constructive and expansive society, and is founded by persons desiring to do the utmost to work for the general uplift of the people of African Ancestry of the world.”
“One God! One Aim! One Destiny!”- And the members pledge themselves to do all in their power to conserve the rights of their noble race and to respect the rights of all mankind, believing always in the Brotherhood of Man and the Fatherhood of God.- The motto of the organization is One God! One Aim! One Destiny! Therefore, let justice be done to all mankind, realizing that if the strong oppresses the weak, confusion and discontent will ever mark the path of man but with love, faith and charity towards all the reign of peace and plenty will be heralded into the world and the generations of men shall be called Blessed.”
The Black Star Line-The Black Star Steamship Line, was an enterprise intendedto provide a means for African Americans to return to Africawhile also enabling black people around the Atlantic toexchange goods and services.-The company had three ships (one called the SS FrederickDouglass) that were owned and operated by black people andmade travel and trade possible between their United States,Caribbean, Central American, and African stops.-The economically independent Black Star Line was a symbolof pride for blacks.-Because of large financial obligations and managerial errors,the Black Star Line failed in 1921 and ended operations.Early in 1922 Garvey was indicted on mail fraud chargesregarding the Black Star Lines stock sale.-Garvey was convicted but released after serving three years infederal prison. He was then deported to Jamaica.
NEGROES SHOULD LINK STRENGTH MORALLY,The Commercial Future of the Continent of Africa Pictured FINANCIALLY, EDUCATIONALLY AND PHYSICALLYNow that the world is organizing itself into Race groups, and men everywhere are realizing the value oforganized movements, we of the UNIA, appeal to Negroes everywhere to reorganize, link up your strength,morally, financially, educationally, and physically, because out of this combination of strength will ultimatelycome the freedom of Africa. Let us buy and build new steamships. Let us float them on the bosom of theseven seas. Let us send them to the farthest ends of the world, carrying out commerce, and our trade. Letus link up, America, South and Central America, and the West Indies. Let us link up America with the greatcontinent of Africa through the steamships of the Black Star Line. The Untold wealth of Africa is yetunexploited. Africa still awaits the Negro explorer. Africa still has her hands outstretched beckoning to herchildren scattered the world over to come to succor her, and to be the fellow citizens of the scattered sonsand daughters of Africa. The disunited units everywhere must first come together, and first pledgethemselves to support one great and noble policy, and that policy today is no other than the Universal NegroImprovement Association. Let us support this great Organization everywhere. Let us rally to the colors ofthe Black Star Steamship Company. Let us prepare today, for the tomorrows in the lives of the nations willbe so eventful that Negroes everywhere will be called upon to play their part in the survival of the fittesthuman group.Marcus GarveyNew York City, February 22, 1921
Review- Summarizing • What approach to race • Answer: Garvey believed relations did Marcus that African Americans Garvey promote? should build a separate society, he preached a message of self pride and he promoted African American businesses.
Cultural Liberation• In the decade after WWI, a new generation of writers emerged. They gave American literature new life, imaginativeness, and artistic quality.• H.L. Mencken attacked marriage, patriotism, democracy, and prohibition in his monthly American Mercury.• F. Scott Fitzgerald published This Side of Paradise in 1920 and The Great Gatsby in 1925.• Earnest Hemingway was among the writers most affected by the war. He responded to propaganda and the overblown appeal to patriotism. He wrote of disillusioned, spiritually numb American expatriates in Europe in The Sun Also Rises (1926).• Sinclair Lewis wrote Main Street (1920) and Babbitt (1922).• Sherwood Anderson wrote Winesburg, Ohio (1919).• Architecture also became popular as materialism and functionalism increased.
F. Scott Fitzgerald and hisWife, Zelda. The Fitzgeraldsare shown here in the happy,early days of their stormymarriage.
Review- Analyzing Causes • Why did some writers • Answer: Many American reject American culture writers found American and values? culture shallow and materialistic; they believed society lacked any unified ideals.
1920s Art Realism (Hopper) Regionalism (Benton) Modernism (Stella, O’Keefe) Learning Goal: CRN Benchmark: 12.11.C- Identify, describe and analyze theflourishing of American literature, music and art during the Jazz Age: the Harlem Renaissance, etc.
Edward HopperChop Suey (1929) Edward Hopper was an American artist in the 1920s. Twocommon characteristics in his work show facets of American life, such asgas stations and theaters, and seascapes and rural landscapes. Becausefeminism was strong in the 1920s, many of his solitary figures are women.
Automat (1927). This painting as often been associated with theconcept of urban alienation. One critic has observed that, in a posetypical of Hoppers melancholic subjects, "the womans eyes aredowncast and her thoughts turned inward."(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automat_(painting))
Georgia O’KeefeYellow Calla (1926) Black Iris (1926)
Art Deco• Was an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s and into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and jewelry, as well as the visual arts such as painting, graphic arts and film.• The term "art deco" was coined in 1966, after an exhibition in Paris, Les Années 25 sub-titled Art Deco, celebrating the 1925.• At its best, art deco represented elegance, glamour, functionality and modernity.
Art Deco: Design A Typical Building in Florida Cowan Art Deco Pottery Chickadee Green 1920s
Art Deco: Fashion Sterling Silver- 1920s Art Deco 8- sided Guilloche Powder/rouge Compact
Art Deco: Architecture The Chrysler BuildingBroadway Building
Art Deco: Automobiles 1926 Rolls-Royce Phantom
Wall Streets Big Bull Market• In the 1920s, the stock market became increasingly popular.• In Washington, little was done to curtail money management.• In 1921, the Republican Congress created the Bureau of the Budget in order to assist the president in preparing estimates of receipts and expenditures for submission to Congress as the annual budget. It was designed to prevent haphazardly extravagant appropriations.• Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellons belief was that taxes forced the rich to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in the factories that provided prosperous payrolls. Mellon helped create a series of tax reductions from 1921-1926 in order to help rich people. Congress followed by abolishing the gift tax, reducing excise taxes, the surtax, the income tax, and estate taxes. Mellons policies shifted much of the tax burden from the wealthy to the middle-income groups. Mellon reduced the national debt by $10 billion.