10.2 islam expands


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10.2 islam expands

  1. 1. Chapter 10 The Muslim World Section 2 Islam Expands Pages 269 - 271
  2. 2. Learning Goals Describe how Muhammad’s successors spread Islam List conflicts within the Umayyad state Explain how rivalries split Islam
  3. 3. Muhammad ’s Successors Spread Islam - A New Leader <ul><li>In 632 Muhammad dies; Muslims elect Abu-Bakr to be first caliph </li></ul><ul><li>What is Caliph? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title for Muslim leader, means “ successor ” or “ deputy ” </li></ul></ul>http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/media/iot_caliph.jpg
  4. 4. Muhammad ’s Successors Spread Islam - “Rightly Guided” Caliphs <ul><li>First four caliphs guided by the Qur ’ an and Muhammad ’ s actions </li></ul>http://islamichistory.files.wordpress.com/2006/12/age_of_caliphs.png
  5. 5. Main Differences in Islam <ul><li>Prophet Muhammad dies in 632 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Question of Sucession: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunni- Abu Bakr [close companion] lead 632-634 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omar [634-644] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Othman [644-656] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ali [656-661] </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Main Differences [continued] <ul><li>Shi’I – believed Ali [cousin, son-in-law to the Prophet] should have been the first leader & the Prophet wanted that </li></ul><ul><li>2. Imamate- who should come after Ali </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shi’I- believe Imans should pass through the line of Ali </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Arab Conquests: <ul><li>Muslims were in search of new resources, wealth, and the spread of their faith </li></ul><ul><li>Mecca was a trade city and merchants were able to spread faith/ideas </li></ul>
  8. 8. Muhammad ’s Successors Spread Islam - “Rightly Guided” Caliphs <ul><li>What is Jihad? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A rmed struggle against unbelievers, used to expand Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 750, Muslim empire stretches from Atlantic Ocean to Indus River </li></ul>http://www.historyofjihad.org/israel1.jpg
  9. 9. Muhammad ’s Successors Spread Islam - Reasons for Success <ul><li>Muslim armies are well disciplined and expertly commanded </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine and Sassanid empires are weak from previous conflict </li></ul>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/Sassanid-empire.gif http://www.libyana.org/maps/atlas/byzant.jpg
  10. 10. Muhammad ’s Successors Spread Islam - Reasons for Success <ul><li>Why did Persecuted citizens welcome Islam? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracted to Islam ’ s offer of equality and hope </li></ul></ul>http://www.nullifidian.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/behead_those_who_insult_islam_london.jpg
  11. 11. Muhammad ’s Successors Spread Islam - Treatment of Conquered Peoples <ul><li>Muslim invaders tolerate other religions </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Christians & Jews receive special consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were “ people of the book ” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis - Rise of the Umayyads <ul><li>What was the result of the struggles for power? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End of the elective system and choosing a caliph </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis - Rise of the Umayyads <ul><li>Who takes power & moves the Muslim capital to Damascus? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy family, Umayyads, </li></ul></ul>http://static.lonelyplanet.com/worldguide/maps/wg-syria-3339-400x300.gif
  14. 14. Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis - Sunni—Shi ’a Split <ul><li>Who are the Shi ’ a? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Party ” of Ali—believe caliph should be Muhammad ’ s descendant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who are the Sunni? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers of Muhammad ’ s example— support Umayyads </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. http://quote.multiservers.com/muslim_distribution.jpg
  16. 16. Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis - Sunni—Shi ’a Split <ul><li>Sufi followers pursue life of poverty, spirituality; reject Umayyads </li></ul><ul><li>In 750, a rebel group—the Abbasids—topple the Umayyads </li></ul>
  17. 17. Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis - Fall of the Umayyads <ul><li>Abbasids murder Umayyad family; </li></ul><ul><li>Who was the one prince who escaped? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abd al-Rahman </li></ul></ul>http://www.duke.edu/web/spanish-lit/images2/abd-al-rahman1.jpg
  18. 18. Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis - Fall of the Umayyads <ul><li>Where does Abd al-Rahman go? What does he do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flees to Spain; establishes new Umayyad caliphate in al-Andalus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is al-Andalus? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim state in southern Spain settled by North Africans </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Control Extends over 3 Continents - Abbasids Consolidate Power <ul><li>In 762, Abbasids move Muslim capital from Damascus to Baghdad </li></ul><ul><li>Location provides access to trade goods, gold, information </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Abbasids manage the empire? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong bureaucracy </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Control Extends over 3 Continents - Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands <ul><li>Independent Muslim states spring up; Shi ’ a Muslims form new caliphate </li></ul><ul><li>What is the signifigance of the Fatimid caliphate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claim descent from Fatima, daughter of Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Begins in North Africa; spreads to Red Sea, western Arabia and Syria </li></ul>
  21. 21. Control Extends over 3 Continents - Muslim Trade Network <ul><li>Muslims trade by land and sea with Asia and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>What do these Muslim merchants use to exchange? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabic, single currency, and checks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Córdoba, in al-Andalus, is dazzling center of Muslim culture </li></ul>
  22. 22. Outcome of the Arab Conquest <ul><li>A. Territorial Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>B. Social/Cultural Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Syria/Egypt [Muslim armies: Bedouins, nomadic] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Set up garrison cities [places to house troops] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Troops are separate from civilians and allows for continued life outside of their influence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: Basra [Iraq], Fustat [Egypt], Kufa [Iraq] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Significance of Arab Conquests <ul><li>First time that Arabs conquered the Middle East and incorporate N. Africa, Spain, & Central Asia into their Empire </li></ul><ul><li>The breakdown of barriers between Arabs and Non-Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>Eventual Diffusion of a common culture and sociopolitical identity in the name of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>The development of a cosmopolitan culture in Islamic territories [no longer exclusively Arabic] </li></ul>