Learning Goal 1/ Guiding Question 1IWBAT: Explain why people settledin the British North Americancolonies. -Did people come for primarilyeconomic concerns or forreligious/idealistic motivations?
Learning Goal 2Explain how the British NorthAmerican colonies developed intodistinctively different societiesand economies.Regions: (1) the Chesapeake andLower South, (2) New England, (3)Mid-Atlantic.
AmericanColonies atthe End of theSeventeenth Century
Settlement of Virginia• Virginia Company • House of Burgesses• Jamestown • indentured servants• John Smith • headright system• John Rolfe• Tobacco• “starving time” Jamestown Settlement (Computer Generated)
The Virginia Company• A joint stock company• Primary goal- Profit• Religious motivation was much less important than in the founding of: Maryland, PA, RI, Mass.
Tobacco • Intro. of tobacco cultivation made the British colonies in the Chesapeake region economically viable. • By the mid 1700s, tobacco was the most valuable cash crop produced in the Southern States
Early Colonial Tobacco1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco.1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco.1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco.1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.
Life in Early Virginia, 1620-1670s• “plantations”• society• economy• quality of life• religion? River Plantations in Virginia, c. 1640
The PlantationColonies & the Growth of Slavery
From Servitude to Slavery in the Chesapeake Region [1607-1690]• Indentured Servants • Planters in VA and MD played a key role in used the “headright” the growth of tobacco system to encourage plantation system in the importation of VA and MD. indentured servants.• They were the chief Whoever paid the source of agricultural passage of a laborer labor in both of these received the rights to colonies before 1675. acquire 50 acres of land. Masters thus enjoyed the benefits of this system.
Slave labor in colonial VA spreadrapidly in the late 17 th century, asBlacks displaced White indentured servants in the tobacco fields
Social Unrest in the Chesapeake• Bacon’s rebellion – causes • Backcountry [Indian land] settlement and Protection • Power of “eastern” elites and Taxation – significance Bacon’s rebellion in Virginia, 1676
Nathaniel Bacon – (1/2/1647-10/26/1676) • The colonists demanded• Virginia colonist war against all Indians• Wanted to settle in the Chesapeake Indian Land granted • Gov. William Berkeley by the Powhaten refused Treaty in 1646. • Bacon raised an army of• Once a group of western settlers in 1676- Susquehannock were attacking Indians, killed and no seizing and burning compensation was down Jamestown and made, the tribe taking over the attacked colonists government
By Howard Pyle, ca. 1905 The Burning ofJamestow n
Bacon’s Rebellion,1676• Exposed tensions between the former indentured servants, who were poor, and the gentry [the genteel class of planters], who were rich.• As planters became more suspicious of their former indentured servants, they turned to slaves as more reliable sources of labor.
The End of the Rebellion• Ending with Bacon dying of illness• King Charles II sent Gov. Berkeley back to Britain• The House of Burgesses, VA assembly- quieted opposition by limiting the Governors power over land and by opening Indian lands to colonists.
Significance of Bacon’s Rebellion• First large rebellion in colonies (political & social)• Social/political conflict: “eastern” elites vs. backcountry• Catalyst in transition from indentured servitude to slavery
Growth of Plantation Economies and Slave Societies, 1690-1754• Slavery developed and spread b.c. the cultivation of tobacco required inexpensive labor.• Legally established in all 13 colonies by the early 1700s• Although enslaved, Africans maintained cultural practices brought from Africa• Rice was the most important crop grown in SC during the mid 18th century
Reasons for Slavery• Decrease in indentured servants – English economy• Increase in availability of slaves – end of Royal African company monopoly – Decrease in price• Fears of growing number of landless freemen• Available supply from Caribbean
Slave Colonies of theSeventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Estimated Number of Africans Imported toBritish North America, 1701 –1775
Slavery Africans as a Percentage of Total Population of the British Colonies, 1650–1770• Where was slavery legal? In which colonies did it exist?
Deep The West Indies and Carolina in the Seventeenth Century South• Carolina (1682)• Georgia (1738)• rice• indigo Rice Indigo
The Carolinas • Settlers used African• Charles the II rice-growing knowledge granted land to of culture for farming supporters tecniques making• Later divided into profitable rice N. & S. plantations• 1720s, the Crown • Charles Town took over [Charleston] thriving• 1st colonists from port of Scots-Irish, Barbados Germans, Euro. Jews, – Raised cattle, cut West Indians, fleeing timber, traded Huguenots
Task System• System in which Plantation Slave were assigned specific duties each day.• Once completed laves could tend to their own small plots and raise stock• A few slaves earned enough to buy their freedom• Fearful of slaves outnumbering masters and buying their freedom- they pressed the colony to adopt a harsh slave code.
Spread ofSettlement: British Colonies,1650 –1700
Stono Rebellion (1739)• One of the earliest known acts of rebellion against slavery in America.• Greatly organized and led by slaves living south of Charleston, South Carolina.• Slaves tried to flee to Spanish Florida, where they hoped to gain their freedom.
Summarizer• At your table, summarize what has been learned today on one sheet of paper to hand in as you leave.
Warm Up• Have you ever heard anyone criticize someone or something as “too puritanical”?• What do they mean? Do you think the actual Puritans of New England were “too puritanical”?• Where have your own ideas about the Puritans come from?
Learning Goal• IWBAT compare and contrast Pilgrims and Puritans
AmericanColonies atthe End of theSeventeenth Century
Plymouth• Separatists• “Pilgrims”• Plymouth• Mayflower Compact Mayflower II
Plymouth• 1620- Mayflower reached Cape Cod Bay near Provincetown• Pilgrims- left England due to Religious Conflict• Travelled to worship God in their own way
The Pilgrim Faith• Conflict arose in • Protestants who 1534- when King wished to “purify” the Henry XVII broke Anglican Church of all the w/ the Roman Catholic Rituals and Catholic Church Traditions and formed the • Church leaders Anglican should be known for• Pilgrims a.k.a ‘purity of mind, not Separatists their abandonment of person’
Colonies• Originally left for the tolerant Netherlands, but were forced into poverty and children led into Dutch customs• William Bradford and others obtained permission from the Virginia Company to come to the new land
Plymouth Colonies• Mayflower Compact- est. a self-governing colony based on the majority rule of male church goers
Massachusetts Bay• Puritans• Great Migration• “City upon a hill”
PuritansPuritan non-separatists, while equallyfervent in their religious convictions,were committed to reformation of theChurch of England and restoration ofearly Christian society.Also believed in predestination
The Puritans- KEY FACTS• Came to New England in family groups.• Wanted to escape political repression, religious restrictions, and economic recession• Their leader was John Winthrop• The Puritans typically lived in small villages surrounded by farmland
Key Facts continued…• Typical Puritan community was characterized by a close relationship between church and state• Puritans believed in the necessity for a trained and educated ministry• Founded Harvard College and Yale College to ensure an adequate supply to ministers
“ A City Upon a Hill” • John Winthrop called on the Puritans to build a model society • Puritans had a powerful sense of mission- to build an ideal Christian Society • Created a model Christian society with a strict code of moral conduct. EX- banned the theater
“ A City Upon aHill” “For we must considerExcerpt from Withrop’s famoussermon, in which he defined the that we shall be as apurpose of the Puritan Colony: city upon a hill. They eyes of all people are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the
Analysis of Winthrop• He believed that the rich would practice charity and mercy, and the poor would show faith, patience, and fortitude in Gods will. In order for the ultimate goal to be attained, a social hierarchy needed to be established. It was proposed that the government would prevent the rich from exploiting the poor, who in turn would not disturb their fellow citizens.
The Puritans & Religious Freedom• The Puritans • Not everyone shared immigrated to America Winthrop’s vision. for religious freedom. Both Anne HOWEVER, they did Hutchinson and Roger NOT tolerate religious Williams were expelled dissent or diversity. for challenging the Puritan authorities.
Anne Hutchinson• Struggled with the Mass. Bay Authority over religious doctrine and gender roles• Challenged clerical authority and claimed to have had revelations from God• Bay officials banished Hutchinson to RI. Later moved to New York where she and all but 1 of her children were killed by Indians.
New England• towns• town meetings• church• Education• “Old Satan Deluder” Act (1647)• Harvard College (1636)• merchants Land Division in Sudbury, MA: 1639-1656
Puritan “Rebels”Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson
Roger Williams• Founded Rhode Island• Advanced the cause of religious toleration and freedom of thought• Believed that the state was an improper and ineffectual agency in matters of spirit.• Obtained a royal charter in 1644- giving RI religious freedom to inhabitants
Salem Witch Trials• By 1690 2 dozen people were accused of witchcraft in Massachusetts• Several girls in the farming community were stricken with seizures• The girls accused townsmen of being witches- responsible for their afflictions• Dozens tried, 19 hanged
Debunking the myths• Unsettled by economic pressure and the feeling that society was evolving beyond their control- farmers of Salem were too ready to go along with accusations.• Accusations were a convenient way to dispose of women who were viewed as too smart, too independent or too annoying. Most of the accused were single women or women who were highly visible in business
Witches• Added incentive for witch trials: the accuser would receive a portion of the convicted “witch’s” property
The Half Way Covenant• As time passed, the Puritans’ religious zeal began to diminish• The Half-Way Covenant eased requirements for church membership by allowing the baptism of the children of baptized but unconverted Puritans
Summarizer• What incidents threatened the unity of society is Massachusetts?
Activator:“What a Mighty God We Serve!” -- Modern day religious revival.1. What images come to mind when listening to this song?2. What do you think the term “revive” means? What about a religious revival?3. Why was religion important in early U.S. History?
Learning Goal• IWBAT List the beliefs the Great Awakening promoted and apply it to the founding of the Middle Colonies
New York• New Netherland (1613) – Who? Why?• New York (1664)• society• economy
New York & New Jersey• Dutch West Indian • Most believed leaders Company est. colony to be poor and in 1624 surrendered to an• “New Netherland” English fleet in 1644 extended inland [Gov. Stuyvesant] alongside Hudson • New Gov. Richard River Nicolls promised to• Had little Dutch treat all “with all settlers but attracted humanity and others- by 1644 gentless consistent settlers spoke 18 with safety & honor” different languages
Divvy up• Charles II gave James, the Duke of York- New Netherland• Renamed New York and gave the rest- NJ, to friends
Review• How did England settle the Carolinas and come to possess the New York and New Jersey colonies?
Pennsylvania • William Penn • Quakers • society • economy • Indian relationsRoyal Land Grant to Penn
Pennsylvania• 1681- King Charles II repaid a debt [16,000 pd.] to Sir William Penn by making his son proprietor of PA• Wanted it to be a haven for Quakers• Persecuted by Anglicans and Puritans• Had no formal clergy, opposed war, ignored class privilege• Holy Experiment where people of diff. nationalities and religious could live peacefully• Payed for Indian land/ treated farily
Pennsylvania Land Culture• Cheap, fertile • Philadelphia- [capital]-• waterfront with shops Mild climate and markets• Surplus of grain • Some bought slaves• Exported flour to West Indies• Exported Salted meat
Key Facts• The colony was founded by William Penn• Penn created an unusually liberal colony, which included representative assembly elected by the landowners.• Pennsylvania granted freedom of religion and did not have a state- supported church
Quakers• Quakers were pacifists who refused to bear arms• Quakers advocated freedom of worship and accepted a greater role for women in church services• Quakers opposed slavery and were among America’s first abolitionists
Georgia• Social Experiment• 1732- a century after Jamestown• James Oglethorpe and trustees planned to provide a fresh start to England’s poor• Parliament intended it to be a buffer b/w S. Carolina and Spanish Florida• Prohibitions against rum and slavery• 1750 allowed slavery, but became a royal colony in 1752 since it did not prosper
Review• How did social ideals influence the founding of Pennsylvania and Georgia?
The First Great Awakening• Key points to remember about the First Great Awakening: – It took the form of a wave of religious revivals that began in New England in the 1730s – The wave soon swept across all the colonies during the 1740s
Consequences• “New Light” ministers advocated an emotional approach to religious practice; this weakened the authority of traditional “Old Light” ministers and established churches
New Light Ministries• Promoted the growth of New Light institutions of higher learning, such as Princeton• Sparked a renewed missionary spirit that led to the conversion of many African slaves• Led to a greater appreciation for the emotional experiences of faith
Emphasis• Human reason as • Sparked new the key to improve Protestant society Churches:• G.A. launched by – Baptist Jonathan Edwards – Methodist of Connecticut • Appealed to poor &• British minister enslaved, those George Whitefield usually neglected spread message of by established G.A. Churches
Review• What religious beliefs did preachers of the Great Awakening hold?
AmericanColonies atthe End of theSeventeenth Century
Summarizer• 10 – 2:• 1. Individually come up with 4 main ideas from today’s lesson• 2. At your tables, discuss the main points of what we covered today.• 3. From everyone’s piles- select only two slips of what is the most important aspect of the lesson• 4. On a slip of paper with your tables name on it, hand in what your team selected
Colonial Society on the Road to the Revolution WARM UP:“The Road to Hell is paved with good intentions” – What does this quote mean? Whatexamples can you think of that fit this?
Learning Goal• Analyze the Cause and Effect of the economy in the colonies
Key Features• Northern merchants and Southern planters amassed great wealth. Nonetheless, colonial society did not have a hereditary aristocracy.• The number of non-English settlers continued to increase. For example, Scotch-Irish and German immigrants moved into Appalachia as the Native Americans were defeated.
Key Facts continued:• The 13 colonies were religiously diverse. As a result of this religious pluralism, there was no single dominant Protestant denomination.• Slavery was generally accepted as a labor system. The institution was legally established in all of the colonies.• Functioning primarily as mercantile centers, colonial cities collected agricultural goods and distributed imported manufactured goods. Most colonial cities were ports that maintained close economic and cultural ties with England.
MERCANTILISM• Mercantilism was England’s dominant economic philosophy during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.• The goal of mercantilism was for England to have a favorable balance of trade. To achieve this goal, the colonies were expected to export raw materials and import finished goods.• Mercantilism was designed to protect English industry and promote England’s prosperity.
Navigation Acts• The Navigation Acts were part of the British policy of mercantilism. They listed colonial products that could be shipped only to England.• The mercantilist system led to the subordination of the colonial economy to that of the mother country.• The North American colonies took advantage of Great Britain’s policy of salutary neglect to work out trade agreements so they could acquire needed products from other countries.
Salutary Neglect• a British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain. Prime Minister Robert Walpole stated that "If no restrictions were placed on the colonies, they would flourish".• This policy, which lasted from about 1607 to 1763, allowed the enforcement of trade relations laws to be lenient.
Review• In what ways did the Navigation acts both help and hurt the colonial economies?
Women in Colonial America• During the colonial period, a woman usually lost control of her property when she married.• During that period, a married woman had no separate legal identity apart from her husband.• During that period, single women and widows had the right to own property.
Republican Government• Republicanism is the belief that government should be based on the consent of the governed.• Republicanism inspired eighteenth- century American revolutionaries.
Key Principles• Sovereignty comes from the people. Representation should therefore be apportioned, based on population.• A republic is preferable to a monarchy because it would establish a small, limited government that is responsible to the people.• Widespread ownership of property is the bulwark of republican government.• Standing armies are dangerous and should be avoided.• Agrarian life is both desirable and virtuous.
Colonial Literature• Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672) was the first notable American poet and the first woman to be published in colonial America.• Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784) was the first published African American poet. Her writing helped create the genre of African American literature.
Review• Summarize the political ideologies of colonists pre-Revolution?
The Road to theRevolution is paved in Good Indian War, 1754-1763• The French & Intentions• The Proclamation of 1763• Stamp Act, 1765• The Coercive Acts, 1774• “Common Sense,” 1776• Enlightenment• Deism• The Declaration of Independence, 1776
Research and write in your own facts or use thePrelude: How ones below. Glue answers under tabs.did American Cut out and then cut in between tabs to form four side lift tabs.Indiansrespond to thecolonists’desires for furand land?
The French & Indian War, 1754- 1763• As a result of the French and Indian War, France relinquished its North American empire. England now dominated lands east of the Mississippi, as well as parts of Canada.• The French and Indian War was a pivotal point in America’s relationship with Great Britain, because it led Great Britain to impose revenue taxes on the colonies.
Summarizer• Write a one sentence summary to answer today’s learning goal.