Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The City of Bakersfield, CA GIS Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)

312

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
312
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The City of Bakersfield Geographic Information System Implementation Plan (1997 - 1998)August 30, 2012Prepared for City of Bakersfieldby Juan TobarFilename: P:projects19961996.1 Implementation Planreport_main.wpd i
  • 2. 1 Introduction.................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 State of the COBGIS from 1990 to 1997 ......................................................... 2 1.2 Direction for 1997 - 1998 ................................................................................ 32 Data Survey and Needs Analysis .................................................................................. 4 2.1 Departmental Results ....................................................................................... 5 2.1.1 City Manager‟s Office ..................................................................... 5 2.1.1.1 Data Survey ..................................................................... 5 2.1.1.2 Needs Analysis ................................................................ 5 2.1.2 Community Services - Parks and Recreation................................... 5 2.1.2.1 Data Survey ..................................................................... 5 2.1.2.2 Needs Analysis ................................................................ 5 2.1.3 Developmental Services - Building and Planning Division ........... 5 2.1.3.1 Data Survey ..................................................................... 5 2.1.3.2 Needs Analysis ................................................................ 6 2.1.4 Economic and Community Development ........................................ 6 2.1.4.1 Data Survey ..................................................................... 6 2.1.4.2 Needs Analysis ................................................................ 6 2.1.5 Financial Services ............................................................................ 7 2.1.5.1 Data Survey ..................................................................... 7 2.1.5.2 Needs Analysis ................................................................ 7 2.1.6 Fire Department ............................................................................... 7 2.1.6.1 Data Survey ..................................................................... 7 2.1.6.2 Needs Analysis ................................................................ 7 2.1.7 Police Department............................................................................ 8 2.1.7.1 Data Survey ..................................................................... 8 2.1.7.2 Needs Analysis ................................................................ 8 2.1.8 Public Works Department - Engineering ......................................... 9 2.1.8.1 Data Survey ..................................................................... 9 2.1.8.2 Needs Analysis ................................................................ 9 2.1.9 Public Works Department - Operations and Streets ........................ 9 2.1.9.1 Data Survey ..................................................................... 9 2.1.9.2 Needs Analysis ................................................................ 9 2.1.10 Public Works Department - Solid Waste ....................................... 9 2.1.10.1 Data Survey ................................................................... 9 2.1.10.2 Needs Analysis ............................................................ 10 2.1.11 Public Works - Wastewater ......................................................... 10 2.1.11.1 Data Survey ................................................................. 10 2.1.11.2 Needs Analysis ............................................................ 10 2.1.12 Water Resources Department ...................................................... 10 2.1.12.1 Data Survey ................................................................. 10 2.1.12.2 Needs Analysis ............................................................ 11 2.2 Summary of Results ....................................................................................... 11 2.2.1 Digital Imagery .............................................................................. 11 2.2.2 USGS Digital Elevation Models .................................................... 12 2.2.3 Core Data ....................................................................................... 123 System Design............................................................................................................... 14 3.1 Software Platform .......................................................................................... 14 3.1.3.1 INFO .............................................................................. 16 3.1.3.2 DB2 ................................................................................ 16 3.1.3.3 ORACLE ....................................................................... 16 ii
  • 3. 3.2 Hardware Platform ......................................................................................... 16 3.3 GIS Standards ................................................................................................ 17 3.4 Metadata Standards ........................................................................................ 174 GIS Implementation Plan 1997-1998 ........................................................................ 19 4.1 Road Center Lines ......................................................................................... 19 4.2 Base Map Porting........................................................................................... 19 4.2.1 Road Center Lines ......................................................................... 19 4.2.2 Control Monuments ....................................................................... 19 4.2.2.1 Master Tic Coverage...................................................... 20 4.2.2.2 Primary Control ............................................................. 20 4.2.3 Parcel ............................................................................................. 20 4.2.3.1 Master Tic or Primary Control....................................... 20 4.2.3.2 Control Ties or Secondary Control ................................ 20 4.2.3.3 Boundaries. .................................................................... 20 4.2.3.4 Parcels and Land Properties........................................... 20 4.2.4 Township/Range and Sections ....................................................... 21 4.2.5 2010 Boundary............................................................................... 21 4.2.6 Ward Boundaries ........................................................................... 21 4.2.7 Railroad Centerlines ...................................................................... 21 4.2.8 River Centerline ............................................................................. 21 4.2.9 Canal Centerline ............................................................................ 21 4.3 COGO Parcels................................................................................................ 21 4.4 APN Update ................................................................................................... 21 4.5 Linking HTE to ARC/INFO and ArcView .................................................... 22 4.6 ArcStorm........................................................................................................ 22 4.7 Linking „PERMITS‟ to ARC/INFO and ArcView ........................................ 22 4.8 Image Classification and Analysis ................................................................. 22 4.8.1 City Limits ..................................................................................... 23 4.8.2 Classification and Analysis ............................................................ 23 4.9 Street Centerlines ........................................................................................... 23 4.10 Implementation Time Lines ......................................................................... 235 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 24Notes 25Appendix AAppendix BAppendix C iii
  • 4. iv
  • 5. 1 Introduction The objective of the City of Bakersfield Geographic Information System (COBGIS) is the development of a system which can be used as a shared resource for geographic and spatial information by City departments, private and public sectors. Within a municipality all departments operate with the same customer base and geographic domain. This has led to the recognition that making quality geographic data available for sharing and manipulation can be a key factor in improving the effectiveness of day to day operations and long term decision making in municipalities. This implementation plan is divided into five sections as follows. Section 1: Introduction - Provides a history of the GIS efforts so far and overall goals for the 1997 - 1998 fiscal year. Section 2: Data Survey and Needs Analysis - Categorizes the needs of City departments individually and for the City as a whole. Section 3: System Design - Provides information on hardware, software, GIS data base management, relational database management system software and the COBGIS Model. Section 4: GIS Implementations - Descries the GIS projects to be completed by the end of the 1998 fiscal year. Section 5: Conclusion City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 1
  • 6. 1.1 State of the COBGIS from 1990 to 1997 The City of Bakersfield began implementing its GIS in 1990 using existing City staff. In 1994 two technicians were hired on contract to work on creation of a base map. A full time coordinator was hired in February 1997. The Planning Department has spearheaded the development of the existing COBGIS through the use of AutoCAD, GEO/SQL, and ORACLE to create a base map consisting of the following coveragesi: 1) Monuments. The initial monuments entered came primarily from County File Maps survey and perpetuation data. Monuments shown on these maps represent section and 1/4 section corners of the State Planes Coordinate System. These in turn are used to geo-reference many of the other layers in the base map. Eventually, all monuments including street and property line monuments and City benchmarks should be included in this database. This data set is approximately 90% complete. 2) Control Grid. This coverage consists of section, township and range data tied to monuments in the Monument coverage. This data set is also approximately 90% complete. 3) Street Centerlines. This data set includes freeways, state highways, county roads, arterials, collectors and local streets. This data set is about 85% complete. 4) Other man made features such as canals, railroads, bridges, etc. These data sets are at different stages of completion, in general more than 50% and below 90%. 5) Natural Features such as rivers, lakes, etc. This data sets are mostly 100% complete. 6) Cadastral. This coverage includes property lines, right-of-ways and easements. To the extent of the 2010 boundary this data set is approximately 40% complete. 1.2 Direction for 1997 - 1998 The GIS activities planned for this fiscal year include the following: 1) implementing the Tri-Service Spatial Data Standards as the model for the COBGIS (see section 3.3); 2) porting coverages from the six classes above into ARC/INFO; 3) continued parcel database creation and update using COGO and the updating of Appraiser Parcel Numbers (APN); 4) the linking of HTE and the „PERMITS‟ database; City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 2
  • 7. 5) the classification of satellite imagery for Solid Waste.Please see section 4 for detailed information on these implementations. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 3
  • 8. 2 Data Survey and Needs Analysis As part of the development of this Master Plan a data survey and needs analysis was conducted based on discussions with various interested parties in all City departments and many sub-departments. The goals of the data survey and needs analysis are as follows: 1) To identify as many spatial data sets as possible and to catalog these as: core or departmental; raster, vector or data sets on two dimensional media; and tabular. Where core data is defined as those data sets which are used by three or more departments and departmental data are data sets used primarily by a single department. Where raster is defined as a data structure consisting of an array of grid cells (sometimes termed pixels or picture elements). Each grid cell is referenced by a row and column number and it contains a number representing the type or value of the attribute being mapped. In raster structures a point is represented by a single grid cell; a line by a number of neighboring cells strung out in a given direction and an area by an agglomeration of neighboring cells (Figure 1(a)). Where vector is defined as a data structure consisting of points, lines, polygons and some form of connectivity. The starting and end points of the lines define vectors that represent the form of an object; pointers between the lines indicate to the computer how the points, lines, and polygons link together to form the object (Figure 1(b)). Where a data sets on two dimensional media are defined as maps, mylars, microfiche, and any other data sets on flexible media. Where tabular data contains attribute information about the spatial objects being stored in a database. (a) (b) Figure 1: An image of a chair (a) raster or grid-cell and (b) vector format. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 4
  • 9. 2) To gain an understanding of each departments functionality, general geographic activities, possible GIS projects, and levels of GIS users throughout the City. 3) To prioritize the order of data set incorporation and project implementation into the COBGIS. 4) To serve as a starting point for a COBGIS Data Dictionary. A data dictionary is a list that maintains, for each coverage, the names of the attributes and a description of the attribute values. The construction of a data dictionary for the COBGIS would serve as an invaluable reference during projects as well as for transferring information to others.2.1 Departmental Results 2.1.1 City Manager’s Office 2.1.1.1 Data Survey The most important database housed in the MIS Department is the HTE Financial Database. This database is populated with items from the Kern Integrated Property System (KIPS) which contains attributes such as a land use code, parcel owner name, parcel owner address, land acres, mineral value and land value. 2.1.1.2 Needs Analysis In order to support the planned Citywide GIS implementation the MIS department will need the addition of two full time staff personnel to Geographic Information Services. It is estimated that to complete the tax parcel vector database will require approximately one more year of continuous effort by two individuals. In addition, it is estimated that maintenance of this database once complete will require at least one full time person. Thus, in order to achieve the timely completion of other GIS projects and support GIS users at least two full time staff members will be required. The City Clerks Office also will have the periodic need for council district reapportionment. With the establishment of ArcView Desktop GIS it is possible to create an application which would allow reapportionment to be done by staff from this department with minimal supervision once trained to use the application, the last reapportionment was done in 1995. Other needs include basic GIS mapping functionality for upper management and the City Clerk. 2.1.2 Community Services - Parks and Recreation 2.1.2.1 Data Survey Some of the data sets in this department include sump locations maintained on Thomas Brother‟s maps. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 5
  • 10. 2.1.2.2 Needs AnalysisMembers of this department stated that an important need was the development of a treeand shrubbery inventory for the entire city. A possible application in this department mayinclude the use of GIS to help in park planning and park inventorying.2.1.3 Developmental Services - Building and Planning Division2.1.3.1 Data SurveyThe Planning Division has produced the bulk of the existing vector data sets. These datasets include control monuments, sections, townships, street centerlines, parcels, railroads,rivers, lakes, canals, subdivisions, land-use, voter precincts, council wards, schooldistricts, traffic analysis zones, census tracts, city limits, the 2010 boundary, andurban/open lands. Tabular data sets include Building‟s Sierra Permits database from SierraComputer Systems, Inc. Data sets on 2D media include zoning/land-use, annexations,noise contours, seismic hazards and addressing grid maps. Aerial photography sets for theCity are available for the years 1952, 1959, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1995.2.1.3.2 Needs AnalysisThe needs of Building and Planning include the following: a complete and current parcelbase map, the development of a methodology for the more timely update of APN numbers,and the development of a relation between Sierra „PERMITS‟ database and the COBGISand the HTE Financial database and the COBGIS.2.1.4 Economic and Community Development2.1.4.1 Data SurveyThe data survey revealed that Economic/Community Development has several digitaltabular data sets. These data sets track financial information on loan recipients such asnumber of loans, addresses of home loans, demographics, structural information (i.e., 2, 3bedrooms), and demographic data sets from the U.S. Census Bureau. Vector data sets oflow accuracy exist of census tracts, block groups, city boundaries, street center lines,enterprise zones and redevelopment areas. Most of these data sets were acquired or derivedfrom TIGER while others have been acquired and also modified by consultants. The termTIGER comes from the acronym Topographically Integrated Geographic Encoding andReferencing which is the name for the system and digital data base developed at the USCensus Bureau to support its mapping needs for the Decennial Census and other Bureauprograms.Other data sets include a seven-year-old redevelopment survey which was conducted indowntown Bakersfield which may be of interest for conversion.2.1.4.2 Needs AnalysisED/CD Services was one of the first departments to start using GIS due to the submissionrequirements which HUD has imposed on these organizations throughout the country.HUD requires that institutions provide them with up to date information on how theirdisbursements are being used to help local communities. To achieve this goal HUD andMapInfo Corp. developed a partnership by which they would provide a copy of MapInfoGIS, custom mapping applications, and connectivity software for use with HUD‟s bulletin City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 6
  • 11. board system for the timely update of their database. HUD requires map updates to be inMapInfo‟s MIF format. This compatibility needs to be maintained as we make ArcViewthe standard desktop GIS package for the City. This compatibility conflict betweenMapInfo and ArcView could be eased by use of software which allows maps produced inArcView to be read by MapInfo and vice versa. ArcView comes with a utility which allowsthe importing of MapInfo data sets. MapInfo produces a product to import ArcView datawhich costs about $100.Other basic GIS needs in the department include the ability to query data spatially and tohave connectivity to the HTE and Sierra „PERMITS‟ databases. Sample needs include theability to display and report on the amount of funds spent in wards or census tracts, and theability to display business licences by geographic regions.Other higher level needs include the ability to generate assessed valuations and the abilityto perform trend analysis.2.1.5 Financial Services2.1.5.1 Data SurveyThis department makes extensive use of the HTE database. In addition, a propertymanagement database exists in this department consisting of approximately 60 items suchas: deed, square footage, topography, sidewalks, curbing, fence and others.2.1.5.2 Needs AnalysisThis department needs basic GIS mapping functionality in order to display parametersfrom HTE, Sierra „PERMITS‟, and the property management database maintained by DonAnderson. Other applications may include the linking of data on business licenses to otherdatabases for display in ArcView or ARC/INFO in order to identify businesses withoutproper licenses.2.1.6 Fire Department2.1.6.1 Data SurveyFire Safety has a very complete tabular digital database of fire hydrants and shut off valveswhich are identified on approximately three hundred hydrant location maps of the City.Additional data sets include the Fire Station Consolidated Monthly Report, an HAZMATdatabase, and maps of Fire Station response zones. In addition, two computer systems willsoon be implemented for this Department which include a Computer Aided Dispatchingsystem from Integraph and a Fire Records System based on HTE.2.1.6.2 Needs AnalysisThe Computer Aided Dispatching System will necessitate the incorporation of an up todate street centerline coverage (see Section 4.1). Additionally, with the use of HTEsoftware Fire will also need access to their data on from ArcView Desktop GIS. Otherneeds of this department include having the hydrant databases available in a digital formatand the ability to access HAZMAT data sets. Another need included upgrading the TIGERline files used in HAZMAT‟s MapInfo‟s Map X program to the City‟s street center line file City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 7
  • 12. and the creation of HAZMAT Hazard Maps of the City. Complex GIS projects includeemergency response travel time minimization (a routing application) on a citywide basisfor new fire station locations and by updating present EMS Zones.Routing applications can be accomplished with a street centerline alone, however, to moreaccurately model the COBGIS transportation system turn impedances at streetintersections and a digital elevation model (see Section 2.2.2) should be used. Turnimpedances are used to assign an impedance value to a turn, usually expressed in seconds,or to prevent certain turns. The turn impedance may be any positive numeric value or anegative value can be used to signify that a turn is prohibited and are stored in a list calleda turntable. Figure 2 gives an example of a turntable for one intersection with oneno-right-turn requisite. (a) (b) (c)Figure 2: Turn table entries for a commonly encountered network situation.2.1.7 Police Department2.1.7.1 Data SurveyThe data survey found that Police has extensive tabular data sets on criminal activity andcrime events, however, because of the nature of this data it is not appropriate forimplementation in the COBGIS. However, these same data sets could be made available toPolice via ArcView the Desktop GIS which we will be implementing. One tabular data setused in dispatching partitions a street or block face into sections based on building type.Data sets on two dimensional media which could be converted in the COBGIS include alllevels of data compilation areas, including: dispatch areas, police districts, multiplereporting districts, special reporting districts and crime cluster areas.2.1.7.2 Needs Analysis City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 8
  • 13. It is likely that the greatest benefit to this department from GIS is in the area of crimeanalysis. At present, the only graphic method for the graphic display and crime analysis isthe “pin-map” other than this all analysis is conducted from data printouts. Therefore, theaddition of even basic GIS functionality will significantly improve their capability in crimeanalysis. One benefit of a properly addressed street centerline file (See Section 4.1) will bethe ability to automate the assignment of geographic locations to recorded criminalactivity. This street centerline file and the processing power of ArcView will make“pin-maps” a thing of the past.A possible application may include the creation of a custom interface for crime analysis asexemplified by the City of Salinas.ii The police department of this City in cooperation withESRI created an intuitive interface developed in Visual Basic to integrate ArcViewfunctionality with the City‟s police records management system. This Visual Basic frontend is being made available to other Law Enforcement agencies for free and could be thestart of Bakersfield own crime analysis interface.Other areas of possible improvement include the maintenance of the database used fordispatching. As already stated, this database partitions streets or block faces into segmentsbased on the parcel ownership. Take for example a street or block with an address rangefrom 500 to 599 with a public park on the even side of the street from 540 to 560. Usually,this street would be represented by two records, one for the even and one for the odd side ofthe street. Dispatching on the other hand needs four records: one for the odd side of thestreet 501 - 599, and three for the even side of the street 500 - 538, 540 -560, 562 - 598. Atpresent, this database is maintained with some difficulty since it requires researching mapsand other records. Once the COBGIS is implemented a methodology could be developed tomaintain and update this database more effectively.2.1.8 Public Works Department - Engineering2.1.8.1 Data SurveyThis department is the single largest resource of data sets on two dimensional media in theCity. The maps in Engineering include sewer, parcel, curb, monuments, bench marks,openings and closings, annexations, vesting maps, storm drain, project location maps andothers. Three other data sets include: road improvement and recorded map microfiche aswell as aerial photography. Tabular data sets include: traffic volume, speed limits, trafficaccidents, a complaints database, signal inventory, signage and markings, index of allimprovement plans and a parcel map waver log.2.1.8.2 Needs AnalysisThe analysis for this department revealed the need for simple and complex GISfunctionality. Simple functionality being the ability to query on the Sierra Permits or HTEdatabase and have the results displayed graphically on the GIS. Complex functionalitybeing defined as the ability to conduct network analysis including dynamic segmentation.A dynamically segmented and accurate street center line coverage will be needed formodeling traffic volume, speed limits and pavement conditions for the Traffic OperationsCenter (TOC) and the Pavement management System (PMS).Other needs include the ability to link the software which will be used in the TOC and PMSto the COBGIS. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 9
  • 14. 2.1.9 Public Works Department - Operations and Streets2.1.9.1 Data SurveyUnder Operations, General Services had a digital database of traffic signs and street lightson the Prime. Since the transition to HTE this department has been using a card databasefor recording this data. Streets possesses copies of Engineering maps which depict thesewer network and storm drain network. At present there is a program to identifying thequality of both networks through the use of mobile camera units. Two attributes which areof special interest to this department are: the material type of network elements and the ageof the network elements. Although material type is known for about 90% of the Citymaterial age is not well determined. Another database includes a PMS in Streets which waslasted updated in 1995. Lastly, Graffiti has a database of graffiti locations with associatedpictures.2.1.9.2 Needs AnalysisGeneral Services is in need of reestablishing the functionality which was available on theold Prime with the additional benefits of GIS. In addition to accessing the HTE databasethere is also a need for spatial access to street lights, street signals and street signs. Streetswill need to have access to some part of the PMS being developed at Engineering.Applications here include street sweeper routing applications, street sweeper and solidwaste routing optimization, and sewer/storm water network management.2.1.10 Public Works Department - Solid Waste2.1.10.1 Data SurveyThe data sets found in this department include Residential Operations Pickup Maps. Thenames of other databases include Senior Citizens, Hi-Low Residential Pickup Routes,Front Loader Pickup Routes, Commercial Cart, Commercial Bins, Cart Listing by Street,and a New Solid Waste Service Database.2.1.10.2 Needs AnalysisAs with many of the other departments, Solid Waste needs both simple and complex GISfunctionality. One of the more complex needs involves the determination of which areasshould be serviced by the City‟s Solid Waste Department and Solid Waste Contractors.The division of service between the City and contractors for an area of land was based onthe ratio of land developed to undeveloped at the time of annexation. At the time ofannexation those lands which are developed are serviced by contractors while all newdevelopment is serviced by the city. The solution to this question involves theidentification of those parcels which did or did not exist at the time of annexation.Although it may be feasible to identify some of these parcels using Structured QueryLanguage (SQL) it is unlikely that all parcels would be identified due to the lack of ahistorical coverage of the parcel database. Another solution is to identify these parcelsfrom recorded information, unfortunately, this would take a considerable amount of time.A more effective method for this identification would be the classification of a satelliteimage into two classes such as developed and undeveloped. A satellite image taken in thewinter rainy season would display developed areas in shades of grey while undeveloped orvegetated areas would be visible in shades of red. A computer algorithm could be used to City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 10
  • 15. classify this image and the resulting polygon could be used to select out all parcels which where on developed land at the time of the annexation. All solid waste pickup routes have been created using manual methods. The work to be performed by Thomas Brothers on our street centerline file will enable us to calculate new and improved routes. Existing documentation on fuel consumption, distances traveled, and time taken to complete each route could be used to measure these improvements. Finally, there is also a need to manage the many databases in this department from a single database interface. 2.1.11 Public Works - Wastewater 2.1.11.1 Data Survey The primary map data sets in this department included water purveyor area maps, water and sewer pipes maps, as well as maps of the different sewage farm facilities. 2.1.11.2 Needs Analysis A possible applications in this department may include using existing data to create a rehabilitation strategy for non-critical sewers. GIS could be used to analyze existing sewer system performance data in order to achieve a priority ranking based on factors such as structural, hydraulic, and serviceability criteria and taking into account the consequences of failure of the sewer section in question. 2.1.12 Water Resources Department 2.1.12.1 Data Survey The primary map data sets in this department included the different water purveyor in the area, the canal network, and water pipes. Additional mapped data sets included canal engineering diagrams, water quality sampling wells, and Kern River Surface Profiles. The most important tabular data sets included Kern River Dispatch Records, and Water Quality Well Data 2.1.12.2 Needs Analysis The primary need in this department is for the map to vector conversion of the water pipes and canal network data sets.2.2 Summary of Results The data survey revealed all departments have tabular data, most have custom maps, and few have vector data sets. The data survey also revealed that the only data set actively maintained by multiple departments is sumps found in Engineering, Community Services, and Water Resource Department. Many of the common maps (such as city boundaries and council wards) displayed redundant data and they varied in currency and accuracy from department to department. The needs analysis revealed that all departments could benefit from basic GIS functionality to manipulate and map data. The most common needs were the ability to access the street center lines, parcel, city limits and annexations, the 2010 boundary and council ward boundaries. Another common manipulation includes geocoding the assignment of City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 11
  • 16. geographic location to a point, line or polygon. The display of parcel data as it relates toHTE and Sierra „PERMITS‟ is also of primary importance. The most common high-levelGIS functions are dynamic segmentation, location and allocation modeling. Other highlevel GIS functions include development of an algorithm to update parcel APN numbersand creation of an updated street centerline file for address geocoding.There are four levels of GIS users in the City as follows:1) Professional -These users administer, create, maintain, and use complicated topologicalspatial data sets. These users create applications for ARC/INFO and ArcView in ArcMacro Language (AML), Avenue, and Visual Basic programming languages. These userscan be found in Geographic Information Services.2) High Desktop - These users create, maintain, and use complicated topological spatialdata sets. These users create applications for ArcView in Avenue and/or Visual Basicprogramming languages for their departments. At least one user in each department shouldbe trained at this level.3) Intermediate Desktop - These users use ArcView to join spatial data sets such as theCOBGIS parcel data set with a Property Management data set. These users use ArcView toquery and map attributes from HTE, „PERMITS‟ and other data sets. These users are foundin all departments4) Low Desktop - These users use ArcExplorer and ArcView to query and map attributes inthe COBGIS. These users are found in all departments.2.2.1 Digital ImageryThe analysis revealed the need for the acquisition of a digital image map of the City ofBakersfield. Digital imagery can be either scanned and rectified aerial photographs orrectified satellite imagery. Imagery data complements vector data by allowing theidentification of objects within polygons in a vector coverage and by providing a moreintuitive manner by which persons may orient themselves when examining a vectorcoverage.The USGS is in the process of updating their 1:24,000 scale Topographic Maps through theuse of Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quads (DOQQ). The DOQQs were created by therectification of photography acquired from the USDA‟s National Aerial PhotographyProgram. Unfortunately, coverage for the Bakersfield area to the 2010 boundary is notcomplete. Of the 15 quadrangles covering the city only the eastern six have correspondingdigital orthophoto quads. At present, the Kern Council of Governments (KernCOG) isworking on creating a partnership with CALTRANs and other interested parties tocomplete the County.The USGS through its EROS Data Center makes available archived (1972 - 1992)Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery from its LANDSAT Program for around $200 perscene (170 km by 185 km). Another imagery source includes SPOT Image Corporationwhich produces a number of imagery products including panchromatic, multispectral, andmerged imagery. Panchromatic imagery has a spatial resolution of 10 meters andcomprises a single black and white band. Multispectral imagery has a spatial resolution of20 meters and is composed of three color bands. Merged imagery is a combination of thetwo image types producing 10 meter color imagery. Satellite imagery has many usesincluding: commercial and retail site selection, site engineering, urban/regional planning. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 12
  • 17. 2.2.2 USGS Digital Elevation ModelsA digital elevation model (DEM) is any digital representation of the continuous variationor relief over space. The most common DEM is known as an altitude matrix which is aregular rectangular grid of elevation data. The primary reason for incorporating DEM datainto the COBGIS is to effectively model the surface length of a road network. The surfacelength will always be greater than or equal to the planimetric length of a road or arc. This isbecause the surface length takes into account the variation in elevation as the line travelsalong the surface. These variations increase the measured length of all lines that are notflat. Although most of the city lies in relatively flat terrain, there are pockets of significantrelief especially in the northeast part of Bakersfield. The departments which would benefitfrom the integration of this data set include Engineering, Fire, Solid Waste, TrafficEngineering, and Water.2.2.3 Core DataTable 2.2.3 lists core data sets which are being or would be used by three or moredepartments, in order of implementation priority. Table 2.2.3: Core Data Data Set Data Type Street Centerlines Vector Control Monuments Vector Parcels Vector THE Tabular Sierra Permits Tabular City Limits Vector Township/Range and Sections Vector 2010 Boundary Vector Ward Boundaries Vector Railroad Centerlines Vector Rivers Centerlines Vector Canal Centerlines Vector USGS Topographic Quadrangles Raster USGS Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangles Raster USGS Digital Elevation Models LatticeAlthough, control monuments, township/range and sections were not specifically City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 13
  • 18. mentioned these data sets form the control for the COBGIS and so by default they areconsidered core data sets. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 14
  • 19. 3 System Design3.1 Software Platform 3.1.1 Geographic Information System Software The software vendor chosen to supply the City with GIS software is Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). Table 3.1.1 presents a distribution of GIS products and their primary users. Professional users would work primarily with ARC/INFO professional GIS, high to intermediate desktop users would use ArcView products and low desktop users would have access to ArcView and ArcExplorer. Appendix B contains a list of the different modules and their uses. In general, at least one of each of the software products in Table 3.1.1 should be purchased. The only exception to this is COGO for which three licenses are needed. Table 3.1.1 Sample GIS Software Software Price Price Primary User (Primary) (Secondary) ARC/INFO $20,000 $10,000 Professional (ARC,ARCEDIT,ARCPLOT,DBI) ArcStorm $3,000 $1,400 Professional COGO $2,550 $1,400 Professional GRID $2,550 $1,400 Professional TIN $2,550 $1,400 Professional NETWORK $2,550 $1,400 Professional ArcScan $2,550 $1,400 Professional ArcView $1,195 $1,195 High - Low Desktop Network Analyst $1,495 $1,495 High - Intermediate Desktop Spatial Analyst $2,495 $2,495 High - Intermediate Desktop ArcExplorer Free Free Low Desktop 3.1.2 GIS Database Management with ArcStorm ArcStorm is a software module designed to facilitate the storage and management of geographic data which is accessed by multiple users. This software provides a method by which data can be centrally located and made easily accessible to users. The principal advantages of using ArcStorm are: 1) that it manages and coordinates the multiuser access to geographic data based on features, 2) that it manages and coordinates edits on data residing in separate DBMS, City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 15
  • 20. 3) and that it has the capability of presenting the database as it existed at any pointin time since its creation.ArcStorm features includes the followingiii: 1) Feature-level transactions - Since ArcStorm manages geographic data at the feature level it does not prevent other users from editing features in the same area. 2) Unified transactions - ArcStorm coordinates geographic or spatial transactions and tabular or aspatial transactions. In this way a consistent view of the database is always maintained. 3) Persistent locks on related records in external DBMSs - Once a user begins a “transaction” process such as updating the spatial attributes of a feature its related aspatial attributes are protected from other edits until the transaction is complete. This also applies in reverse so aspatial edits prevent edits on spatial data. 4) Recovery Mechanism - In the event that a failure of some sort occurs (e.g., system failure, DBMS failure, power failure), ArcStorm has a recovery mechanism that returns the database to its last consistent state. 5) Schema integrity - Limits use by unauthorized personnel to alter the ArcStorm database. 6) Client/Server Architecture - Allows the general system-wide access to data. Data may be accessed from anywhere on a system or network without having to know the physical location of the database. 7) Schema flexibility - This feature refers to the ability of ArcStorm to modify existing libraries, layers, and tables to be modified later as need or parameters change. 8) Data distribution - Allows ArcStorm to handle large data sets distributed throughout a system. 9) Direct browse access for clients - Allows ArcView, and ARC/INFO users to browse the data without using ArcStorm servers. 10) An ArcStorm database consists of libraries containing spatial data and optional DBMS tables.3.1.3 Relational Database Management System Software (RDMS)In a 1970 paper, E.F. Coddiv described the elements of a relational database to be:relations, attributes, domains, and the relational operators. This paper alsodescribed a RDMS as having the following characteristics: 1) Logical data independence: This desirable characteristic means that changes made to an attribute - for example, an increase or decrease in size - have no perceivable effect on other attributes for the same relation. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 16
  • 21. 2) Referential and data integrity: Unlike other database systems, a relational database would relieve the application software of the burden of enforcing integrity constraints. 3) Ad hoc query: This would provide the user the capability to indicate what data should be retrieved by the database without indicating how it should be accomplished. 3.1.3.1 INFO INFO is ARC‟s primary database management system. It is also a programming language that helps store, maintain, manipulate and report information. However, INFO is not a relational database management system and therefore lacks referential and data integrity. 3.1.3.2 DB2 DB2 is IBM‟s relational database management system which is used in the City for management of its HTE database. DB2 is not supported by ESRI under ARC/INFO or ArcStorm and therefore access to data in DB2 would have to be done through an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) driver. Since ODBC is simply a data extraction protocol for databases it provides no methods for referential and data integrity. The RDMS supported by ESRI‟s ARC/INFO and ArcStorm include INFORMIX, INGRES, ORACLE, and SYBASE. 3.1.3.3 ORACLE ORACLE is already being used as the RDMS for the existing GIS. Since all of the attribute tables for this GIS are already in the database all of which will be used in one form or another in ARC/INFO it makes sense to use this platform as the RDMS for ARC/INFO.3.2 Hardware Platform The platform chosen for the COBGIS should be able to handle CPU intensive and extensive tasks. Two common measure of CPU performance are SPECfp and SPECint. GIS processes are generally SPECfp intensive because the objects they model exist in floating point space. That is, points, lines and polygons can seldom be defined simply in terms of exact x and y integer coordinates, and curves can never be defined in integer space. Thus, the platform of choice should have a high SPECfp measure compared with SPECint. It is not uncommon to execute GIS manipulations which can take 4 to 5 hours to complete on machines with poor SPECfp. ESRI bundles their software with popular GIS hardware platforms including Data General, Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett Packard, Silicon Graphics and Sun Microsystems. A bundle consists of a workstation and the following ESRI modules: ARC, ARCEDIT, ARCPLOT and DBI. These bundled offerings can produce software savings of $18,000 off the first ARC/INFO seat and $10,000 for each additional seat. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 17
  • 22. 3.3 GIS Standards The implementation of a GIS in such a way that it is not just a mapping system or a tool for solving complicated spatial queries but an intelligent system of related layers which can be used for comprehensive master and environmental planning; architecture, engineering, and construction, and installation facilities management requires a design. This design exists and was created by The Tri-Services Computer Aided Design (CAD)/GIS Technology Center which is developing geographic information system, and CADD and drafting data standards in cooperation with the federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). The TSSDS were developed as a single comprehensive master and environmental planning data model for Air Force, Army, and Navy installations, as well as Corps of Engineers‟ civil works projects. The Spatial Data Standards were designed to complement FGDC data standards that address small scale mapping (map scales greater than 1:24,000) with graphic and attribute data standards for entities depicted in large scale mapping (1 inch = 400 feet (1:4800) to 1 inch = 50 feet (1:600)). The organization of the GIS Spatial Data Standards is hierarchical and includes Entity Sets, Entity Classes, Entity Types, Entities, Attribute Tables, and Domains. Where Entity Set is defined as a thematic group such as transportation. Where Entity Class is defined as a theme such as transportation_vehicle. Where Entity Type is defined as one or more features such as road centerline. Where Entity is defined as a feature such as trveh_primary_road_centerline_a. Where Attribute Table is defined as a table containing data pertaining to a particular Entity Type. Where Domain is defined as a table containing all possible values for a particular attribute.3.4 Metadata Standards One of the most important but often overlooked parts of a GIS implementation is that of creating a data dictionary composed of metadata. Spatial metadata describes the content, quality, condition, use limitations, and other characteristics of a spatial data set. It also documents bibliographic information about a geo-data set, such as who collected the data, when it was collected, how it was collected, preprocessed, and converted, its resolution, who holds the data now, and so on. Metadata is also referred to as additional information that is needed for a spatial data set to be useful. Such information facilitates understanding of the data and its content between the provider and the user. It helps users to ensure that a data set meets their needs and that they use the data set appropriately. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 18
  • 23. The metadata standards to be used for creating the COBGIS Data Dictionary arethose developed by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) in support ofthe National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). These standards can be found inAppendix C. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 19
  • 24. 4 GIS Implementation Plan 1997-1998 The following section documents the proposed projects to be implemented during the 1997-1998 fiscal year. The description and scheduling for projects to be implemented are outlined in Table 4. Table 4: Implementation Projects Project Name Description Street Centerlines Creation of an addressed street centerline coverage by Thomas Brothers Base Map Porting Including the importing of street centerlines, control monuments, sections, parcels, city limits, 2010 boundary, ward boundaries, railroad centerlines, river centerlines and canal centerlines. COGO Parcels Continued COGO work. APN Update The updating of APN for the Parcel coverage. Linking HTE to Linking the data managed by HTE to the COBGIS. ARC/INFO and ArcView Linking „PERMITS‟ to Linking the data managed by „PERMITS‟ to the COBGIS. ARC/INFO and ArcView ArcStorm Implementation of ArcStorm to manage the COBGIS. Image Classification Includes creation of historical city limit coverage, classification of a satellite image and analysis. Road Center Lines Verification and incorporation of Thomas Brother‟s Road Center Line Coverage with the COBGIS.4.1 Road Center Lines Thomas Brothers will be assigning left and right addresses, beginning and ending address, street name, street suffix, prefix and suffix directions to the COBGIS.4.2 Base Map Porting 4.2.1 Road Center Lines The road Center Line coverage will consist of a line coverage with section and route subclasses. Additional work includes associating left and right beginning and ending addresses to arc segments. 4.2.2 Control Monuments At present, monuments are identified by their location, type, and accuracy in one AutoCAD layer. The structure of the existing monument data set is as followsv: The location and type have exclusive fields for these attributes but are also tied to the main identification number (ID#). We adopted and expanded on City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 20
  • 25. a system from the County surveyors office. The ID# is broken down into four sections identifying location and type (separated by dashes) and a unique three digit identifier (separated by a decimal). A typical ID# looks like this 30-27-35-01.001. The 30-27-35 refers to the township, range, and section of the monument the 01 refers to the monument type (in this case a section corner) and the 001 is the unique identifier for the section the monument falls within. Using this methodology up to 999 monuments can be contained within any one section with a given monument type. The most monuments found in any one section has been about 500 monuments. Monuments which fall on section lines are tied to the northeast corner of the section. Therefore, a section corner monument is always the northeast corner of the section described in the ID#, a north/south 1/4 corner is always the north 1/4 corner monument and an east/west 1/4 corner is always the east 1/4 corner.4.2.2.1 Master Tic CoverageThis coverage consists of registration points that represent the location of points onthe Earth‟s surface based on known coordinates. The importance of a master ticcoverage stems from the difficulty of trying to retrofit tics to existing coverages,this can be time consuming and introduces errors into the data. The master ticcoverage for the COBGIS will consist of established horizontal controlmonuments that are first or second order stations (e.g., section corners) adjusted toNAD83. The control points found in this coverage will also reside in a primarycontrol COGO point coverage.4.2.2.2 Primary Control This coverage consists of primary control points, secondary control points such as3rd order or higher control points (e.g., quarter-section corners and field ties) in aCOGO point cover, and field ties.4.2.3 ParcelThe data model for the parcel database will consist of three types of land records:control, boundary, parcel. A number of other land polygons may be created suchas: right-of-way, flood zone, and school district.4.2.3.1 Master Tic or Primary ControlThis coverage has already been discussed above.4.2.3.2 Control Ties or Secondary ControlThis coverage has already been discussed above.4.2.3.3 Boundaries.This coverage consists of all land record objects which are delineated byboundaries. The boundaries may be digitized lines or COGO entered data. In thelatter case it is desirable to keep the original measurements used to enter the data asattributes with the line. Using this method it is possible to systematically updatethe accuracy of the cadastre with new survey information.4.2.3.4 Parcels and Land Properties City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 21
  • 26. This coverage consists of polygon themes including parcel, easements, right-of-way, administrative districts, and land-use are represented with the region subclass. All region subclasses belong to the same coverage as the boundary theme. They are sometimes referred to as vertically integrated data sets, meaning that different region subclasses share common boundaries. Regions are used to solve three issues in parcel management: overlapping areas, disjoint areas, and aggregated areas. A overlapping area could be a condo complex, where you have several owners on a single piece of land, or drainage and utility easements, which overlap parcel ownership. Since region editing allows you to define multiple regions on top of the same feature, you can have multiple records in a database referring to the same parcel of land. A disjoint area could be a piece of land divided by a road or a stream. A disjoint area needs to be treated as a single feature even though it‟s composed of multiple features. Region editing allows you to combine disjoint areas into a single feature, with a single record and area feature in the database. A aggregated area could be a parcel made up of several lots. For instance, a person may come into a new subdivision and purchase two lots to make up their one parcel. Regions allow you to maintain both the lots and parcels in a single coverage or layer. Through region editing, the parcel would become an aggregate of the two original lots. 4.2.4 Township/Range and Sections This data set will be stored as 16 Township/Range Regions each of these in turn are composed of 36 section regions. The section regions will in turn be composed of four 1/4 section polygons. 4.2.5 2010 Boundary The 2010 Boundary will consist of a polygon coverage. 4.2.6 Ward Boundaries The Ward Boundaries will consist of a polygon coverage. 4.2.7 Railroad Centerlines The railroad centerline will consist of a line coverage. 4.2.8 River Centerline The river centerline will consist of a line coverage. 4.2.9 Canal Centerline The canal centerline will consist of a line coverage.4.3 COGO Parcels This project involves the continued COGOing of parcels using AutoCAD followed by the transition to COGOing with ARC/INFO.4.4 APN Update A process has not been established for the timely update of Assessor Parcel Numbers (APN). At present, Kern County Engineering and Surveying (ESS) provides Planning/GIS with recorded maps, these are then used to COGO parcel City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 22
  • 27. information into the database and assign APNs. APN‟s can only be assigned to existing parcels that were created over one year ago. Newer parcels do not have APN‟s assigned to them for approximately one year after creation. In addition, parcels that are changed by either direct transfer, cuts, or combines cannot easily be traced and corrected. In order to resolve this problem the city will use County Fire‟s Parcel Centroid Coverage which is updated annually. The goal is to update APNs in the COBGIS by using data extracts from the County maintained Kern Integrated Property System (KIPS). These extracts can be used to trace parcel history through time. Of the 5 events mentioned direct transfers are the simplest to correct since this involves a one to one relation. Combines are also simple to correct since these are many to one relations which simply involves identifying the two polygons, deleting their common arcs, and assigning the new APN. Cuts and creates present a much more difficult problem because there is no way of identifying the new polygon topology from the tabular data. However, an interim solution would be to create a “Altered Parcels Table” and record an APN, an event code identify cuts, CT, or creates, CR, and associated new polygon APNs. Parcel assigned a deletion code, DL, could also be output to this file for interactive processing.4.5 Linking HTE to ARC/INFO and ArcView Since DB2 is not compatible with ARC/INFO the most efficient method for relating these two databases is through an ODBC driver. IBM provides such a solution with their Distributed Database Connection Services (DDCS) for Windows NT which sells for approximately $3000 for five user licenses.4.6 ArcStorm This includes making a determination as to which layers will be managed by ArcStorm, creating a tiling schema, loading the data into ArcStorm, and becoming familiar with COGOing in this environment.4.7 Linking ‘PERMITS’ to ARC/INFO and ArcView Permits provides a computer based solution to track geo-based land management and permit tracking information. The „PERMITS‟ system stores data from the permit and activity tracking function in a relational database environment utilizing standalone or networked PC‟s and/or UNIX machines. Sierra‟s approach to linking GIS and their „PERMITS‟ database does not rely on synchronizing data files and is more accurately described as a conduit approach to pass necessary parameters between systems. Sierra has defined this interface as the „PERMITS‟ TrueGIS link. In essence this product links the relational database formats that are common to the permitting and activity tracking functions of planning, building, public safety and community development agencies with the spatial data formats that are found in ARC/INFO and ArcView. This product sells for approximately $5,000. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 23
  • 28. 4.8 Image Classification and Analysis This project will be performed for Solid Waste and involves the determination of which areas should be serviced by the City‟s Solid Waste Department and Solid Waste Contractors. 4.8.1 City Limits The city limits will be stored as several City Limit regions composed of earlier annexation polygons. 4.8.2 Classification and AnalysisThis project will involve the classification and analysis of a satellite image.4.9 Street Centerlines Verification and incorporation of Thomas Brothers Data into the COBGIS.4.10 Implementation Time Lines The following time line is an estimate of the approximate time it will take to complete each of the above projects, as such, it is likely that some tasks will run over and others will run short. Revised time lines will be issued when more data is available. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 24
  • 29. 5 Conclusion At the very beginning of this implementation plan the data survey identified a number of spatial data sets which were classified as core or departmental. The core data sets were then ranked in order of implementation into the COBGIS and include: street centerlines, control monuments, parcels, city limits, township/range, 2010 boundary, ward boundaries, railroad centerlines, river centerlines, and canal centerlines. The needs analysis provided an understanding of each departments functionality and possible GIS projects including Thomas Brother‟s addition of address data to our street centerline file, linking HTE and “PERMITS‟, and the classification of a satellite image for Solid Waste. The use of standards for the COBGIS model and metadata will result in a faster development of these base layers. The use of the TSSDS standards assure that the COBGIS will be an intelligent, expandable and flexible system. City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 25
  • 30. Notes i.David Dow, “GIS Implementation” (Planning Departmental Report, City of Bakersfield, 1997), p. 3-4. 2.ESRI, “City of Salinas Tracks Youth Handguns and Crime with GIS,” ArcNews, Vol. 18 No. 4 1997: 19. iii.ESRI, “ArcStorm and Map Libraries” (1995), p. 1-5. iv.E.F. Codd, “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks” (Communications of the ACM, 1970). v.David Dow, “Status and Background for GIS Project” (Planning Department Memorandum, City of Bakersfield, January 1997). City of Bakersfield GIS Implementation Plan 26

×