Miami-Dade Police Department     Geographic Information System Applications Review and            Recommendations for Impl...
1. IntroductionThe Miami-Dade Police Department GIS Application Review andRecommendations for Implementation have been com...
2. Accurate and Timely Intelligence and Current ProceduresThe current data entry methods do not adequately support the col...
All records from the past 13 months are pulled out of ORACLE and are      used to generate an ArcView shape file that cont...
Records are inserted from Arrests-IDMS into the ORACLE-ICDW.There are currently no geocoding procedures in place for this ...
This type of question is often examined statistically with a binomial distributionfunction a simplified form of which can ...
Doral                          606                       Northside                      286These statistics are sobering a...
geocode 60 to 70 rejects then they will spend 60 minutes in geocoding activities. 4This should not be considered excessive...
aspects of this solution include the costs associated with acquiring the systemand training personnel.2.1.3 Pre-requisite ...
hours and unless there is live insertion of these records from CAD Dispatchdirectly into ORACLE this 24-hour delay will re...
2.2.2 MDPD SDE Server at ITDAnother option is for MDPD to purchase its own SDE server and SDE softwareand migrate the data...
ArcSDE 8.0.2, Patch 1” 6It is important to note that if these recommendations are implemented insequence at this stage rec...
The current MDPD GIS mapping and analysis system consists of the GISMapping Application and this application does not adeq...
One of the primary reasons for COMPSTAT maps is the identification of hot-spotlocations. Currently hot-spot information is...
The procedure for enabling the Citrix client is as follows:   1. Click on the WTS Demos link.   2. Go down the page and cl...
different naming conventions making it incumbent upon the user to beknowledgeable in five different storage schemas. In pa...
applications on desktop computers and networks. The "Browser" applicationprovides viewing and printing capability. The "Ge...
County naming conventions and in some instances to simply memorize the nameand content of different spatial data sets.One ...
FIGURE 3: Hierarchical Directory Structure Viewed through Windows ExplorerFIGURE 4: Hierarchical Directory Structure Viewe...
be named pubgrd_p.shp and pubgrd_l.shp Again, users do not need to know thisdetailed nomenclature because of the verbose h...
Once these issues have been resolved the new hierarchical directory structuremust be mapped to the same drive letter for a...
(Table 3). Although we have already recommended that the crime data sets bestored in SDE the data sets are presented here ...
2. Go down the page and click on the Citrix Icon (red & white) to download         and install a small plug-in. You only n...
advantage of this solution is that the technology and expertise already exists inhouse. One possible disadvantage involves...
trained in the use of ArcView not all of them will be successful users of thesoftware, however, it is likely that in most ...
users should have as their primary roles: 1) to serve as MDPS’s spatial      data repository experts and 2) serve as GIS l...
Data Manipulation         None                    Data Analysis             None                    Data Management       ...
http://www.microps.com/website/CVIMS_HTML/default.htmThe following is presented to give the reader an example of the hardw...
analysis and how the MDPD’s Crime Analysis System and ITD’s GIS MappingApplication in conjunction support these functions....
Table 5: GIS Users, Needs and Proposed Delivery SystemsUsers          GIS Needs                          Proposed Delivery...
Appendix A: Recommendation Sign-Off SheetPHASE 1 Recommendations: Solutions to Accuracy ProblemRecommendation          Pri...
PHASE 2 Recommendations: Solutions to Timeliness ProblemRecommendation          Priority Resources Time Sign-off4: MDPD sh...
Recommendation                Priority   Resources           Sign-off5: Maintain the GIS                      ½ SGAPMappin...
mapping implementArcView Spatial Analystthrough Citrix’s             LWinFrame technology.                                ...
Appendix B: Interview QuestionnaireAs part of the Phase I – Needs Assessment an interview questionnaire(Appendix A) was co...
performed tasks in your job that involve maps or analyzing spatial relationships inorder of importance and state the frequ...
No was the answer of 33% of the users. PCAS responding in the negative did sobecause of infrastructure limitations and/or ...
that map as a single point; map extents often zoom out to a system       predefined scale when printing and the inability ...
regard to reports with year-to-year comparisons this percentage ranges from40% - 90%.Question 3.9. What percentage of your...
Yes was the answer of 25% of the users and included additional maps such as:specific area maps, those showing parcels, lak...
Question 4.2b. Are you satisfied with this support?Yes, was the answer of most users.Question 4.3a. Where do you go for su...
Question 5.2b. If no, why?The most common response was that the manual was never made available.Question 5.3a. Do you use ...
Appendix C: Isopleth Maps                            43
Appendix D:Timeline                      44
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MDPD GIS Application Review and Recommendations for Implementation

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In this document is presented a review of the need for GIS at MDPD followed by an analysis on how well current software support the accurate and timely collection of intelligence and the follow-up and assessment of crime prevention and suppression methods.

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MDPD GIS Application Review and Recommendations for Implementation

  1. 1. Miami-Dade Police Department Geographic Information System Applications Review and Recommendations for Implementation Prepared for: Miami-Dade Police Department Systems Development Bureau Ira S. Feuer, Bureau Commander Prepared by: Miami-Dade Information Technology Department Application Consulting Services Division Orlando Suarez, Director 29 August 2012Juan TobarSenior Systems Analyst/Programmer
  2. 2. 1. IntroductionThe Miami-Dade Police Department GIS Application Review andRecommendations for Implementation have been completed. In this document ispresented a review of the need for GIS at MDPD followed by an analysis on howwell current software support the accurate and timely collection of intelligenceand the follow-up and assessment of crime prevention and suppression methods.Throughout this document a series of 14 recommendations are provided toimprove the current system. Appendix A contains a recommendation sign-offsheet, Appendix B contains the results of an interview questionnaire that wasessential in crafting this document, Appendix C has three sample isopleth mapsand Appendix D has a possible implementation timeline.The MDPD’s need for GIS Mapping is driven by the three tasks that Police CrimeAnalyst Specialists (PCAS) perform: maps in support of COMPSTAT, specialmap projects and map analysis. Of these tasks the one that is best supported bythe current GIS Mapping Application is COMPSTAT and this is because theapplication simplifies the creation of standardized maps for these weekly events.Special map projects and to a greater degree map analysis are not supportedbecause they require more functionality than the application currently offers. In allthree cases the need for maps is driven by two principles, which have proven tobe essential ingredients of an effective crime-fighting strategy1: Accurate and Timely Intelligence - Effective operational and deployment strategies require accurate and timely intelligence. Officers at all levels of the police department must understand when (time of day, day of week, week of year) various targeted types of crimes have been committed as well as how, where, and by whom they have been committed. Relentless Follow-up and Assessment - All action must be relentlessly followed-up and assessed to ensure that the desired results have been achieved. This is the only way of ensuring that recurring or similar problems are dealt with effectively in the future.1 NYPD Web Site at http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/nypd/html/chfdept/reduction.html 2
  3. 3. 2. Accurate and Timely Intelligence and Current ProceduresThe current data entry methods do not adequately support the collection ofaccurate and timely intelligence for use with MDPD’s GIS System.The lack of accurate intelligence is due to un-geocoded records. This accuracyproblem manifests itself as missing records that lead to the production ofinaccurate reports and maps when using the GIS System. The timely intelligenceproblem affects only the display of crime incidents on the GIS system and notgeneral reporting functions of other applications such as CAS. The problem isdue to two geocoding procedures: initial batch geocoding which can require up to24 hours before incident points are available for mapping and subsequent rejectgeocoding which can require up to 48 hours before incident points are availablefor mapping.2.1 CAS – ORACLE Accuracy and Timeliness ProblemsThese problems result in CAS – ORACLE from the following procedures:Complaint Desk Data Entry Process Incidents are recorded in CAD Event Files Incidents are displayed on Positron’s Complaint Desk Software Incidents are transferred to Police CAD dispatchersBureau or District Data Entry Process Records are added or updated into ORACLE from CAS at bureau or district offices.Initial 24-Hour Processes (This is a timeliness problem.) Records are inserted into ORACLE from CAD event files. All records from the past 13 months with a geocoding flag set to A for added or Y for updated are pulled out of ORACLE for geocoding. o First, zip codes are assigned using Finalist. o Second, the records are geocoded against the property layer with zip codes. o Third, the rejects of this process are geocoded against the property layer without zip codes. o Fourth, the rejects of this process are geocoded against the road centerline file with zip codes. o Fifth, the rejects of this process are geocoded against the road centerline file without zip codes. o The rejects of this process remain un-geocoded and their geocoding flag will be set to the value of “R” for reject. Records are updated in ORACLE with X and Y coordinate information and a geocoding flag for each record set to either: G for good or R for rejected. 3
  4. 4. All records from the past 13 months are pulled out of ORACLE and are used to generate an ArcView shape file that contains the subset of correctly geocoded records from ORACLE’s complete set. On average about 2000 records are entered each day of which 95% - 100% come from CAD and anywhere from 0% - 5% come from records added at district or bureau offices. Of these 2000 records on average 20% - 30% are rejects. This is an accuracy problem. Subsequent 48-Hour Processes (This is a timeliness problem.) o The reject results from the above batch process can now be modified and then must wait to be reprocessed through same procedure described above.2.2 UCR – IDMS Accuracy and Timeliness ProblemsThese problems result in UCR – IDMS from the following procedures:Data Entry Process Incidents are recorded through UCR into IDMSInitial 24-Hour Processes (This is a timeliness problem.) Records are inserted from UCR-IDMS into ICDW-ORCALE. All records from that day are pulled out of UCR-IDMS for geocoding. o First, zip codes are assigned using Finalist. o Second, the records are geocoded against the property layer with zip codes. o Third, the rejects of this process are geocoded against the property layer without zip codes. o Fourth, the rejects of this process are geocoded against the road centerline file with zip codes. o Fifth, the rejects of this process are geocoded against the road centerline file without zip codes. o The rejects of this process remain un-geocoded and will be assigned a GEO field value of “R” for reject. On average between 1000 and 1500 records are entered each day and of these on average 10% - 15% are rejects. This is an accuracy problem. Records are updated in the ICDW with X and Y coordinate information and a geocoding flag for each record set to either: G for good or R for rejected.2.3 UCR – Arrests Accuracy and Timeliness ProblemsData Entry Process Incidents are recorded through Arrests into IDMS.Initial 24-Hour Processes (This is a timeliness problem.) 4
  5. 5. Records are inserted from Arrests-IDMS into the ORACLE-ICDW.There are currently no geocoding procedures in place for this database. (This isan accuracy problem.) 1 VAX 1 1 CAD CAS Event UCR Arrests ORACLE Files IDMS IDMS 2 3 ARC/INFO 2 2 ARC/INFO ARC/INFO REJECT BATCH BATCH BATCH CAS 3 REJECT 3 REJECT REJECT 3 PRESENT CI PROPOSED Data Warehouse2.4. The Accuracy Problem and Possible SolutionsIt is imperative to understand that the success of MDPD’s GIS system is directlyrelated to the resolution of the accuracy problem. GIS as a tool for AccurateIntelligence and the Relentless Follow-up and Assessment of Tactics will notwork effectively until the GIS System has at its disposal all of the previous daysrecords.This being said lets examine the results of three hypothetical and improvedgeocoding processes in which 95%, 99%, 99.9% of all records are matched. Thequestion we then wish to answer is: What is the probability that a map that needs to display 600 points will have at least one error of omission because of rejects? 5
  6. 6. This type of question is often examined statistically with a binomial distributionfunction a simplified form of which can be expressed as: n P 1 pwhere P = the probability of an error on a map p = the probability of any single point being correct in our case .95, .99 and .999 n = the number of points that need to be displayed on our map (1,2,3,…n)Table 1 below presents the probability of errors using our current reject rate of.30 and that of the hypothetical and improved geocoding processes at .05, .01and .001. Table 1: Probability of an Errors on a Map P P P P where p =0.70 where p = 0.95 where p =0.99 where p = .999 n current hypothetical hypothetical hypothetical 1 30% 5% 1% 0% 10 97% 40% 10% 1% 50 100% 92% 39% 5% 100 100% 99% 63% 10% 200 100% 100% 87% 18% 300 100% 100% 95% 26% 400 100% 100% 98% 33% 500 100% 100% 99% 39% 600 100% 100% 100% 45%One of the most common types of map produced by PCAS is that of a crime typespecific map displaying all incidents for a single month. A summary of theburglaries for October of 1998 by district shows that the total number of pointsper district involves anywhere from 300 to 600 points2 (Table 2) in which case allthe improved hypothetical maps at 95%, 99% or 99.9% will likely contain an errorof omission. Table 2: Burglaries by District for October of 1998 District Burglaries Cutler Ridge 326 Hammocks 420 Kendall 3702 This does not include rejects. 6
  7. 7. Doral 606 Northside 286These statistics are sobering and indicate that anything short of correcting allrejects will result in GIS reports and maps that more likely than not contain errorsof omission. This document is written under the assumption that the effort will bemade to correct this accuracy problem by attempting to geocode all records.Should this not be the case and system development continues it will lead to GISapplications that are perceived as “inaccurate”, “erroneous” and “incorrect”because of the errors of omission found in the data used by the GIS.2.1.1 Visual Basic/MapObjects GeocoderOne attempt to solve this accuracy problem involved the incorporation of a VisualBasic (VB)/MapObjects (MO) geocoding application within CAS. This applicationgeocodes rejects or newly entered records against the road centerline file for thepurpose of confirming the validity of a given address. These records would thenbe subjected to batch geocoding in order to create the updated shape files. Thispre-geocoding would have resolved many record discrepancies but itsimplementation would have been flawed because it did not take intoconsideration bureau and district policy on geocoding. This varies from office tooffice in some locations there is a consistent attempt to correct as many recordsas possible, unfortunately, what is more common is a total disregard for rejectprocessing. Thus, incorporation of this geocoder into CAS should involve trainingsessions in which the importance of reject processing can be conveyed to PCAS.ITD has created a number of these geocoders including the one for MDPD andone for OEM. Since most of this geocoding will be for reject processing thegeocoder should maximize the ability of users to geocode incidents by simplypointing and clicking. In this way incidents that occur in isolated areas or in thoseareas where the road network infrastructure does not exist can be geocoded.Needless to say it is imperative that this geocoder perform as quickly as possibleand that a certain objective acceptance criteria be set to judge its success. Thereare a number of sources that indicate that the maximum time a user will patientlywait for a web page to load in a browser is between 4 and 30 seconds 3. We candefine Geocoding in two manners: first, it may be defined as data entry,generation of a candidate list, selection of a candidate and the assignment ofcoordinates. Second it could be defined simply as pointing and clicking on a mapwith a mouse and the assignment of coordinates. In either case if we assumethat each reject will require one minute to geocode then should PCAS need to3 http://www.photosinc.net/labs/bamartposted.htm, http://www.dur.ac.uk/integra/intro.htm 7
  8. 8. geocode 60 to 70 rejects then they will spend 60 minutes in geocoding activities. 4This should not be considered excessive considering the importance of theprocedure for the future of GIS at MDPD.Programming modifications to this Geocoder will also involve its incorporationinto CAS and eventually a reprogramming or replacement to work with SDE.Recommendation 1: Provide PCAS with an Enhanced VB/MO GeocodingEngine.2.1.2 Year-to-Date ReportsOne common report at MDPD is that of the Year-to-Date Report which comparescrimes between the last two years to display the percent of change from one yearto the next. These reports require at least 24 months worth of data instead of the13 months currently being provided to the GIS Mapping Application. MDPD maytake two course on this issue:First, establish an aggressive program to geocode rejects over this 24-monthperiod. An estimate of the number of hours it would take to geocode 24 monthsof data is about 10,000 hours.5Second, take no active role in these historic records and wait two years after a100% geocoding solution is implemented when all 24 months of data will begeocoded.Recommendation 2: Develop an aggressive program to geocode all rejectsas far back as 24 months.2.1.3 Live Complaint Desk GeocodingIn this solution geocoding occurs at the Call Center. When a call comes into theComplaint Desk System its address is extracted through Automatic NumberIdentification (ANI) and in the future cellular calls will have an attached X and Ycoordinate. Either the address or x and y coordinates are immediately geocodedand inserted into the CAD Event Files. The advantage of this solution is that theinformation is geocoded at the source through ANI addresses. The negative4 The average number of records entered into ORACLE per day is 2000 and this number ismultiplied by the percentage of records that remain un-geocoded after batch 30% this gives 600rejects. These 600 rejects are divided by the number of districts nine and results in 67 records perstation. These 67 records are multiplied by 1 minute to total 67 minutes of geocoding.5 This number was derived by assuming that on average 2000 records are entered per day, overthe last 24 months this would produce 1,460,000 records of which 30% or 438,000 are rejected.Then if it is assumed that each record will necessitate 1 minute to geocode then this results in438,000 minutes or 7300 hours which was increased to 10,000 hours in case of unforeseenevents. 8
  9. 9. aspects of this solution include the costs associated with acquiring the systemand training personnel.2.1.3 Pre-requisite Reject Geocoding in CASAnother option is to require a pre-requisite GEO field value of G for good, A foradded and Y for update of all the previous day’s records before PCAS are able touse CAS for daily reporting or data entry. PCAS users would use a geocodingapplication to correct rejects to one of the three codes mentioned. The benefits ofthis solution include that it would guarantee that rejects would be geocoded. Thenegative aspect includes that geocoding would be come a bottleneck preventingPCAS from using CAS.2.1.4 Pre-requisite Reject Geocoding in GISAnother method would involve the same GEO field values as above but the lockout would occur at the GIS application or GIS function level. That is the GISapplications could be coded to verify that there are no rejects before becomingavailable. Similarly the GIS applications could become available but reportingand mapping functions would be unavailable until the rejects are processed. Inthis later case the GIS application would essentially only be functioning inbrowser mode. The benefits of this implementation include that the user will haveaccess to CAS reporting functions and limited GIS functions. The negativeaspects include that because CAS will be available an office may elect to forgoreject processing and GIS use. An additional complication is that eachapplication deployed will have to be coded to examine the previous days data toverify that all records have been geocoded before becoming available or makingavailable reporting and mapping functions.Recommendation 3: Purchase Positron’s PowerMap application train staffto process rejects and implement any of other solutions as necessary toensure that rejects are reduced to a minimum.2.2 The Timeliness ProblemsIt is also important to understand that the success of MDPD’s GIS system is alsocontingent on the resolution of the timeliness problems. GIS as a tool for TimelyIntelligence and the Relentless Follow-up and Assessment of Tactics will notfunction efficiently until the turn around time for accessing rejected records isreduced from today’s 48 hour waiting period.Although we have documented two timeliness problems occurring in the initialand subsequent geocoding processes we can expect only efficiencyimprovements in the initial process related to the elimination of shape files. The24-hour timeliness problem cannot be easily improved due to the loading of CADEvent Files into ORACLE. As it stands now this event occurs once every 24 9
  10. 10. hours and unless there is live insertion of these records from CAD Dispatchdirectly into ORACLE this 24-hour delay will remain. This section is primarilyconcerned with the simplification data generation and the reduction of the timeneeded to update rejected records.In the section entitled 4. The Accuracy Problem and Possible Solutions themethods described do not solve the timeliness problem because they all continueto rely on shape files for the update of coordinate information in ORACLE andGIS mapping functions. A more elegant solution to these two issues would takean event address, conduct live reject geocoding, immediately store the featureand it’s X and Y coordinates directly in a database and also allow for the directdatabase access and display of these features through a GIS system. Thissolution is available for all major databases through vendor specific spatialenabling extensions or through ESRI’s Spatial Database Engine (SDE).These extension solutions store and organize the spatial components of adatabase by adding a spatial data type to relational databases. These extensionsdo not change an existing database or affect current applications they simply adda shape column to existing tables and provide software to manage and accessthe shape data referenced by that column. These extensions store geometricdata and spatial indexes in separate tables, using a key in the shape column toperform a joins.In regard to MDPD crime data held within the data warehouse some possiblesolutions are as follows:2.2.1 ITD SDE ServerFirst, MDPD could use the SDE server currently operating at ITD. The benefitshere include: cost savings in hardware, software, training and maintenance; andthe leveraging of ORACLE and SDE knowledge at ITD for a fasterimplementation. One of ESRI’s recommendations for the County’s SDE server isthat this server be centrally managed as apposed to having MDPD retain theirown system. The negative aspect of this configuration is that MDPD will notmaintain security and this in and of itself may bring into question theconfidentiality of these records.It should be noted that the current SDE system is accessed by a number ofapplications including the Property Appraiser’s Property Search Applications andTeam Metro’s Case Management System (VOCARTA). This server is also theLIBRARIAN server that is used to maintain the County’s property layer. Oneother note on this configuration is that since attribute information will be held atMDPD and feature information will be held at ITD the maximum throughput todistrict offices will be based on ITD to district connections rather than MDPD todistrict connections. 10
  11. 11. 2.2.2 MDPD SDE Server at ITDAnother option is for MDPD to purchase its own SDE server and SDE softwareand migrate the data from the above implementation to this server. The benefitsinclude a leveraging of the ORACLE and SDE knowledge at ITD, possibly higherreliability and possibly faster performance. The negative aspects includesoftware, hardware, maintenance and training costs and the security concernsexpressed above.2.2.3 MDPD SDE Server at MDPDThird, MDPD could transfer the SDE server to MDPD and assume responsibilityfor maintenance and update. The benefits to this configuration may possiblyinclude higher reliability and speed. The negative aspects include the samesoftware and hardware costs mentioned above plus training costs and the timeneeded for staff to become proficient and productive in system design andmaintenance.2.2.4 Data Warehouse SDE ServerFourth, MDPD could purchase its own SDE software and install it on the DataWarehouse Server. Pertinent ORACLE tables could then be SDE enabled orseparate SDE layers could be created to reference the records in these tables.The benefits to this configuration include that there would be no additional costfor an SDE server and District stations would communicate to MDPDHeadquarters rather than using the slower connections to ITD. The negativeaspects of this implementation include software, training costs and the timeneeded for staff to become proficient and productive in system design andmaintenance, and higher performance requirements of the Data WarehouseServer.The following is presented to give the reader an example of the hardware andsoftware used in an ArcSDE Server System implementation and is not to beconstrued as a system architecture recommendation for MDPD. “Data General AViiON 3 Dual 700 MHz Pentium III Xeon processors (1 MB L2 cache) 1 GB RAM Dual 18 GB 10K RPM SCSI drives (RAID 1) Windows 2000 Advanced Server, SP1 CLARiiON 4500 fiber channel disk array with ten 18 GB 10K RPM SCSI drives Five disk RAID-5 LUN for database Two, dual-disk RAID-1 LUNs for logs, etc. Single disk "hot spare" SQL Server 7.0, Enterprise Edition, SP2 11
  12. 12. ArcSDE 8.0.2, Patch 1” 6It is important to note that if these recommendations are implemented insequence at this stage records would begin to be inserted directly into SDE andthat this procedure would be running in parallel with the batch processescurrently supporting the GIS Mapping Application.Recommendation 4: MDPD should begin by using the SDE at ITD.3. Relentless Follow-up and Assessment6 ESRI’s Technology Demo Portal at http://eslims.esri.com/default.htm 12
  13. 13. The current MDPD GIS mapping and analysis system consists of the GISMapping Application and this application does not adequately support RelentlessFollow-up and Assessment. This is because by its very nature it is a simplifiedGIS mapping tool and not the robust mapping and analytical system needed forspecial map projects or map analysis functions. It should be noted the applicationcould support COMPSTAT mapping functions adequately if the accuracy andtimeliness issues where resolved.There are a number of problems inherent in continued support of this applicationincluding that Avenue, the programming language in which the application iswritten will not be supported in the next version of ArcView v8.0.Additionally, the needs analysis revealed a number of enhancements that PCASwished for the GIS Mapping Application. These additions and enhancementsincluded: more cartographic manipulation options including more control of mapextents, icons, colors and layouts and the ability to add more data layers; moredata editing options including the ability to move point, lines, and polygons; andmore database manipulation options including the ability of executing tabular andspatial joins. If all these enhancements where introduced into the application ineffect it would require the enabling of most of the underlying ArcView GISfunctionality.Lastly, at some point the application will have to be re-written in Visual Basic theprogramming language of ArcView v8.0+. This being said it is imperative that theapplication be maintained until suitable replacement software is implemented andfound to be successful.Recommendation 5: Maintain the GIS Mapping application until suitablereplacement software is implemented and found to be successful.3.1 ArcView GISAs has already been noted there are approximately 100 PCAS at MDPD and acomparable number of ArcView GIS Systems each valued at about $800 withassociated annual upgrades of about $150 each. Yet, most of the functionalityfound within ArcView remains unused and hidden underneath the GIS MappingApplication. It is imperative that in order to secure a successful GIS program atMDPD that ArcView software use be maximized. Although ArcView GIS is apowerful Desktop GIS System it is not a crime analysis system, however,ArcView can expanded through third party extensions such as CrimeView toprovide a richer set of crime analysis functions. It is the opinion of the author thatthis software combination should be the basis for the replacement of the GISMapping Application3.2 ArcView Spatial Analyst 13
  14. 14. One of the primary reasons for COMPSTAT maps is the identification of hot-spotlocations. Currently hot-spot information is analyzed and compared via dotdensity but not chloropleth (grid) maps or isopleth (continuous surface) maps.Grid maps and continuous surface maps allow a depiction of crime per unit areathat in many cases is the best visual representation of these discrete events.These maps also allow for the subtraction of one map from another in order toproduce maps depicting the net increase or decrease of crime per unit area.(Appendix D). These maps can be created using ESRI’s Spatial Analystextension for ArcView that costs approximately $2,000. Another solution is theimplementation of a server processing technology. (See section 4.1.3.1 ServerBased Processing Solution)3.3 CrimeViewArcView is a powerful Desktop GIS however it lacks specific business toolsrelevant to crime mapping. Much like other ArcView extensions fulfill nitchmarkets: Network Analyst for Traffic Engineers, Spatial Analyst for EnvironmentalScientist, AVSewer for Infrastructure Managers/Engineers, CrimeView providesthe tools for the most commonly requested Crime Analysis functions including: Visualize incident patterns Map repeat calls Create density maps Identify trouble spots Prepare officer and citizen patrols Improve officer safety Maximize limited resources Adjust beat boundaries Locate parolees and other registrants (Megans Law) Map drug arrests by proximity to schools Identify accident prone intersections Analyze crime trends over time Predict the expected range of crime activity Compare crime data to demographic data Analyze the probability and location of future crimesThis extension could be implemented using a server processing technology orinstalled individually on PCAS PCs. A primary license for this software is $5,000with additional copies priced at $1,295. It should be noted that this softwarerequires that ArcView Spatial Analyst also be installed.ESR and the Omega Group have created a demonstration site where CrimeViewmay be evaluated as it runs from a Windows Terminal Server at the followingURL: http://eslims.esri.com 14
  15. 15. The procedure for enabling the Citrix client is as follows: 1. Click on the WTS Demos link. 2. Go down the page and click on the Citrix Icon (red & white) to download and install a small plug-in. You only need to do this the first time - once per machine. 3. Once that is done click on the WTS Login link. 4. Then use the following user name and password: Username: psafety Password: esri_wts3.4 Pros and Cons on the ArcView/CrimeView SolutionThere are a number of benefits to this solution and they include: The solution maximizes the use of software already purchased and being maintained by MDPD. It provides PCAS users with a robust mapping and analytical system. It will require of PCAS users to be knowledgeable in the GIS functions they perform by requiring them: o be trained in basic GIS concepts and in the use of ArcView GIS. o be given a basic understanding of the current and future processes that are used to create the crime data they use. In particular they will be informed on why all records may not be available for mapping and the importance of reject processing. The solution greatly reduces application development costs that are better spent on user support. The solution reaps the benefits of vendor developed enhancements both in general GIS functions and in specific crime analysis functions. The solution requires the standardization of the County’s GIS data to facilitate its use by PCAS.The negative aspects of this solution include: A steeper learning curve than would be the case with a simple Mapping Application. Costs associated with hardware upgrades. Costs associated with training. Costs associated with user support. This should be mitigated to some extent by the reduced need for application development.3.1 The Need for Data StandardsAt present, the County has data stored as shape files, covers, Librarian layers,SDE layers and geodatabase layers. Each of these GIS data types follow 15
  16. 16. different naming conventions making it incumbent upon the user to beknowledgeable in five different storage schemas. In particular for MDPD, one ofthe most commonly used data types that of ArcView Shape Files has a storageschema that is not intuitive and requires a large bandwidth connection to be usedeffectively. In order to simplify and thus promote the use of GIS at MDPD PCASshould only need to be trained in the use of one storage schema regardless ofthe GIS data type (Shape Files or SDE Layers) and this schema should beintuitive, perform well in a network environment and be expandable. The reasonwhy PCAS need access to all of the County GIS data is because one of the mainanalytical functions of these users is the identification of spatial, temporalspatial/temporal patterns. Since these patterns can occur just about anywhere onsea, air or land and be potentially related to any geographic feature actual orvirtual a pattern could possibly exist between crime and any one of the County’s150 GIS layers. In addition, users need access to the County’s demographic datafor the analysis of crimes through the use of demographic profiling.3.1.1 Spatial Data StandardsThe most advanced GIS standard and the one most supported by Federal, State,and Local Governments is the Spatial Data Standards (SDS) from the CAD/GISTechnology Center. The SDS have focused on the development of graphic andnon-graphic standards for GIS implementations at Air Force, Army, Navy, andMarine Corps installations, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Worksactivities.“The SDS provide a standardized grouping of geographically referenced (i.e.,geospatial) features (i.e., real-world features or objects depicted graphically on amap at their real-world location (i.e., coordinates). Each geospatial feature hasan "attached" attribute table containing pertinent data about the geospatialfeature.The SDS is the only "non-proprietary" GIS standard designed for use with thepredominant commercially available off-the-shelf GIS and CADD (e.g., ESRIArcInfo and ArcView; Intergraph MGE and GeoMedia; AutoDesk AutoCAD, Mapand World; and Bentley MicroStation and GeoGraphics), and relational databasesoftware (e.g., Oracle and Microsoft Access). This nonproprietary design, inconjunction with its universal coverage, has propelled the SDS into the standardfor GIS implementations throughout the Department of Defense (DoD), as well asthe de facto standard for GIS implementations in other Federal, State, and localgovernment organizations; public utilities; and private industry throughout theUnited States and the World.The SDS (along with the Facility Management Standards for facilities,infrastructure, and environment (FMS) is distributed via CD-ROM and theInternet (http://tsc.wes.army.mil). A user-friendly interactive Microsoft Windows-based software application installs the SDS/FMS "Browser" and "Generator" 16
  17. 17. applications on desktop computers and networks. The "Browser" applicationprovides viewing and printing capability. The "Generator" application generatesStructured Query Language (SQL) code for construction of the GIS database.” 73.1.2 A Hierarchical Directory Structure based on the SDS for the Storage ofShape FilesWe previously stated that the maximum time a user will patiently wait for a webpage to load in a browser is between 4 and 30 seconds.8 If we apply the samereasoning to the County’s listing of spatial data in shape file format we find that atpresent it is not possible for PCAS to have timely access to GIS data held onCounty servers. There are a number of contributing factors to this including: thenumber of files to be browsed, the method by which ArcView browses directoriesand files, the size of the files, and network connectivity. The simplest of these forthe County to manipulate is the number of files that need to be browsed.Currently many of the County’s GIS layers are stored in a single directory (Figure1).Figure 1: A Small Portion of the Files in S0140158PubshpThe directory S0140158Pubshp contains some 413 files at last count that whenaccessed with ArcView GIS from a local machine running at 700 MHz takes 12seconds to load. This same directory accessed from a remote district such as theCarol City District Station loads in 1 minute 35 seconds. In the course of anArcView GIS mapping session this directory will be accessed multiple times eachtime requiring this delay and thus rendering ArcView GIS practically unusable. Inaddition, it is currently incumbent upon the GIS user to be knowledgeable of7 CAD GIS Technology Center Web Site at http://tsc.wes.army.mil/8 Photosync Web Site at http://www.photosinc.net/labs/bamartposted.htmUniversity of Durham Center for Applied Social Studies Web Site athttp://www.dur.ac.uk/integra/intro.htm 17
  18. 18. County naming conventions and in some instances to simply memorize the nameand content of different spatial data sets.One solution to both of these issues is the creation of a verbose hierarchicaldirectory structure based on the SDS that can be drilled into to find the desiredinformation. Verbose directory names convey the greatest meaning possiblewhile the hierarchical form transfers the minimum amount of informationnecessary to navigate and access data.In the current system PMDPDGRD is the police grid area shape file and is storedin the S0140158Pubshp directory among about 150 other shape files (Figure2). In a hierarchical directory structure this same file would be stored in adirectory labeled Police_Grid_Area (Figure 3 and 4) as is recommended by theSDS already discussed.The creation of this directory structure is not difficult and a reasonable estimatefor creating it and the supporting programs is no more than 240 hours. Most ofthe spatial data found within S0140158Pubshp would not necessitate dailygeneration as most of this data does not change a more appropriatemaintenance schedule could be once per week for most of the data. Althoughcreated for MDPD other departments could use this directory structure as a user-friendlier library of spatial data.Figure 2: PMDPDGRD or the Police Grid Area Shape File 18
  19. 19. FIGURE 3: Hierarchical Directory Structure Viewed through Windows ExplorerFIGURE 4: Hierarchical Directory Structure Viewed through ArcView GIS3.1.3 Shape File Nomenclature using SDSThe SDS nomenclature for a coverage designates that the first two characters ofa cover’s name represent an Entity Set which is a broad grouping of similargeographic features in the example above “boundary” would be abbreviated “bd”.The following three characters represent an Entity Class a more confinedgrouping of similar geographic features in the example above“boundary_public_safety” is abbreviated “pub”. Lastly, the remaining threecharacters represent the actual Entity or the object which will appear on the mapin the example above “police_grid_area” is abbreviated “grd”. Thus the name ofthis cover using the SDS standard is “bdpubgrd”.This has to be modified slightly in order to accommodate shape files by droppingthe first two characters “bd” and appending an underscore “_” followed by an “l”for line, “p” for polygon and “x” for point. Thus, the police grid area shape files will 19
  20. 20. be named pubgrd_p.shp and pubgrd_l.shp Again, users do not need to know thisdetailed nomenclature because of the verbose hierarchical directory structureexpands each of these abbreviations.3.1.4 SDS Implementation Using SDEThis same nomenclature and hierarchical directory structure can be and shouldbe implemented with SDE in this way conforming the data PCAS see to acommon data standard.Recommendation 6: Implement Spatial Data Standards in a productionhierarchical data directory structure for the storage of shape files, on theshape files stored in this directory and the data layers within SDE.3.1.5 Hierarchical User DirectoriesIn order to simplify the use of MDPD’s GIS system it will also be necessary tocreate a centralized user directory for saving user created projects and data.Although MDPD maintains user workspaces these personal folders are notspecifically for the storage of GIS projects and data. The creation of a centralizeduser directory will permit: projects to be saved on the server for efficient backups,the sharing of project files, and simple and fast navigation of user directories.Security can be easily managed through Windows NT/UNIX operating systems.Again this should be a verbose directory structure that facilitates the location ofuser directories (Figure 6). One possible configuration of this directory is asfollows: Bureau and/or District Subdirectories o Department Subdirectories  User Directories Project DirectoriesFIGURE 6: MDPD GIS User Directory 20
  21. 21. Once these issues have been resolved the new hierarchical directory structuremust be mapped to the same drive letter for all users. This is necessary becauseArcView saves links to spatial data in its project files. If a user maps this server toa different path ArcView will be unable to locate the file and begin a series ofqueries in which the user identifies the location of the pertinent data set. Thisredirection is not difficult but very time consuming with the more complicatedprojects requiring several minutes to redirect. It is for this same reason that GISuser directories are needed since this encourages users to store additional datafiles on the server in their own personal GIS directories which is preferable tostorage in a local drive.Recommendation 7: We recommend that MDPD create and maintain ahierarchical user directory structure for future GIS users.3.2 Data Load TimeAlthough this directory structure will increase the efficiency of data navigation itdoes not address the actual loading of the data into ArcView. In most cases, loadtime will not be an issue, however, at remote locations or for PCAS with slowmachines further enhancements will need to implemented. Load time testingresults from the Carol City District Station known to have slow networkconnectivity showed that most data load times at this station are unacceptable 21
  22. 22. (Table 3). Although we have already recommended that the crime data sets bestored in SDE the data sets are presented here to show the relative load timerequired for files of different sizes. Unfortunately, at remote locations most of theCounty’s other shape files will suffer from this same delay.Table 3: Carol City District Load Time Testing Results Using an Average Transfer Rate of 9232,991 bytes/secShape File File Size (Bytes) Load Time (sec) Load Time (min)acrimes.shp 185,531,101 831 14au.shp 12,377,004 55 1aut.shp 12,377,004 55 1auto.shp 11,914,222 53 1burglary.shp 22,774,864 102 2cpt.shp 2,876 <1 <1ntar.shp 135,207,571 605 10robbery.shp 2,485,350 11 <1subject.shp 12,308,504 55 1targeted.shp 39,979,080 179 3vehicle.shp 36,921449 165 3Dade_av.shp 36,390,843 163 3Lot.shp 216,770,638 970 163.2.1 Server Based Processing SolutionOne solution is to use MDPD’s Citrix server processing technology. On theserver, this technology has the unique ability to separate application logic fromthe user interface. On the client users see and work with the applicationsinterface, but 100% of the application executes on the server (see Appendix C forliterature). A demonstration of this technology using Citrix and ArcView can befound at the following URL: http://eslims.esri.comThe procedure for enabling the Citrix client is as follows: 1. Click on the WTS Demos link.9 A transfer rate of 232,991 bytes/sec was derived by timing the download of the Robberiesshape file 2,485,350 bytes which necessitated a 15 seconds to load and the road centerline file36,390,840 bytes and necessitated a 150 seconds to load. These transfer rates of 223,377 and242,605 where averaged to produce the transfer rate used in the table of 232,991 bytes/sec. 22
  23. 23. 2. Go down the page and click on the Citrix Icon (red & white) to download and install a small plug-in. You only need to do this the first time -- once per machine. 3. Once that is done click on the WTS Login link. 4. Then use the following user name and password: Username: demo Password: esri_wtsThe advantages of this technology is that the data would be local to the server sodata load times would be significantly reduced and significant cost savings maybe realized in future distribution of GIS technology. As an example it may bepossible to move those ArcView licenses at the Inter-coastal and Coral CityDistrict Stations to a local server running this technology these licenses wouldthen be available not just to these stations but to all MDPD. Somedisadvantages to this technology include the cost of a server to host thistechnology. Additionally, although 100% of the processing is done on the serverPCAS workstations would still need to be top of the line in processing power inorder for this technology to function as smoothly as possible. Tests using theabove demo site have shown that even on a 750MHZ machine there isconsiderable window “skipping” and “jumping” using this technology. Onepossible disadvantage of this technology is that in order to print out maps theserver would have to transfer print or plot files to the client workstation.The following is presented to give the reader an example of the hardware andsoftware used in a Windows Terminal Server implementation and is not to beconstrued as a system architecture recommendation for MDPD. “Data General AViiON 3800 Quad 700 MHz Pentium III Xeon processors (1 MB L2 cache) 2 GB RAM Dual 18 GB 10K RPM SCSI drives (RAID 1) Windows 2000 Advanced Server, SP1 Citrix MetaFrame 1.8, SP2 Citrix Feature Release 1 Citrix NFuse 1.5 MetaFrame Server Components ArcInfo 8.0.2, Patch 1 ArcView GIS 3.2a” 103.2.2 Advanced Data Storage SolutionA parallel solution is the enabling of technology to serve the data to users in apiecemeal fashion. Currently the County stores its property layer inside of SDEand other large datasets could also be implemented in this format. The10 ESRI’s Technology Demo Portal at http://eslims.esri.com/default.htm 23
  24. 24. advantage of this solution is that the technology and expertise already exists inhouse. One possible disadvantage involves performance hits on the SDE serverif more data sets are incorporated which may affect the performance of SDE inserving data to MDPD staff.3.2.3 Data Subset SolutionOne of the most common requests made by PCAS during the needs analysiswas the creation of subset data sets containing features just for their districts.This solution would involve the creation of subset district data sets for thoseshape files requiring longer load times than one minute. If districts continue toexperience delayed load times these subset district directories could be copiedby district PCAS to their local computer drives at the beginning of each businessday. The disadvantages of this option include that it would require several batchprocessing jobs and the inevitable problems related to their execution. In theworst-case scenario not all data sets may be available for PCAS the followingday because of patch processing issues.Recommendation 8a: Use server processing technology to provide GIScapabilities to district stations with slow bandwidth connectionsRecommendation 8b: Enable access from ArcView to the property layercurrently stored in SDE.4.0 ImplementationIn order to measure the success of a full ArcView GIS and CrimeView Extensionimplementation a pilot study in one district should be conducted. The selecteddistrict should be the district in which most of the problem should beencountered. The optimal district should have outdated equipment, slowbandwidth connections, possess no general GIS or specific ArcView GIS training.Recommendation 9: Conduct a pilot study using one district on thefeasibility of making ArcView GIS and CrimeVIew the default GISMapping/Analysis application for PCAS.4.1 Train ArcView UsersEither ITD or MDPD should develop an ArcView training program for PCASusers. Assuming a class size of about 15 and one class per week 100 crimeanalysts could be trained in about 2 months. One of the benefits of the currentPCAS structure is that most bureaus and district stations have on the order offive PCAS which should result in more successful ArcView training do toknowledge pooling at these locations. It is certainly true that should all PCAS be 24
  25. 25. trained in the use of ArcView not all of them will be successful users of thesoftware, however, it is likely that in most bureau/district offices one or two userswill become highly proficient in its use and it is these users which will make thisendeavor successful. However, in order to ensure successful training theinfrastructure changes mentioned above should be implemented in order tofacilitate access to the County’s spatial data. In addition, users should beprovided with either an ArcView skeleton project or supplied with map templatesfor creating COMPSTAT maps.Recommendation 9: Provide ArcView users with a crime analyst extensionin the form of CrimeView.Recommendation 10: Train PCAS users in basic GIS principles, theimportance of reject processing, ArcView GIS and CrimeView.3.2 GIS Users at MDPDGIS Users at MDPD can be grouped into: Public – These users would appreciate the ability to browse and produce maps of crimes. Currently there is no delivery system to provide these users with spatial information. General Staff – These users include regular police officers, secretaries and others not included below. These users could benefit from the ability to browse and produce maps of crimes. Currently there is no delivery system to provide these users with spatial information. Command – These users include captains, chiefs, lieutenants, sergeants and others involved in the distribution of resources. These users would benefit from the ability to browse and produce maps of crimes. Currently there is no system for these users to browse spatial data and mapping needs are satisfied through requests to PCAS. PCAS – These users include about 100 Crime Analyst distributed throughout the County at Bureaus and District Offices. On average there are about five PCAS assigned to each Bureau and District Office. Currently these users are unable to browse GIS data and use the GIS Mapping Application for the creation of COMPSTAT maps. These users have a need for more robust data creation, manipulation and analysis tools than are provided through the GIS Mapping Application. Professional GIS – Currently there are no professional GIS users at MDPD, however, in developing a GIS System for MDPD these users will need to exist. The role of these users should be to advance and promote the use of GIS within MDPD. In order to advance the use of GIS these 25
  26. 26. users should have as their primary roles: 1) to serve as MDPS’s spatial data repository experts and 2) serve as GIS liaisons to bureaus or district lacking their own expertise. In order to promote the use of GIS these users should advance the position of a GIS on every desktop and at least one highly trained PCAS at each bureau and district.The current needs and delivery systems are provided in Table 4 below. Table 4: GIS Users, Needs and Current Delivery Systems Users GIS Needs Current Delivery System Public Data Browsing None Mapping None General Staff Data Browsing None Mapping None Command Data Browsing None Mapping PCAS PCAS Data Browsing None Mapping GIS Mapping Application Data Creation None Data Manipulation None Data Analysis GIS Mapping Application Professional GIS Data Browsing None Mapping None Data Creation None 26
  27. 27. Data Manipulation None Data Analysis None Data Management None3.2.1 ArcExplorerArcExplorer is ESRI’s free data browser that all users should be able to use tobrowse spatial data and geocode. This software could function as a secondarysystem for fulfilling the needs for the General Staff and Command audiences aswell as providing a secondary method of implementing a “GIS on every desktop”technology policy. MDPD should consider making ArcExplorer software standardon all MDPD computers just as MS Word and Excel software is currentlydistributed.3.2.2 CrimeViewIMSMDPD has requested that an Intranet/Internet GIS Analysis/Mapping platform beevaluated as a delivery system for MDPD audiences. Internet/Intranet based GISmapping is still a new medium with all software existing as early releases (ESRI’sArcIMS 3, AutoDesk MapGuide 5, and MapInfo’s MapExtreme 3). This is evenmore true of Internet/Intranet based GIS Crime Mapping with only The OmegaGroup’s CrimeView IMS software currently at version 2 being available.One of the benefits of this technology is the reduced cost of distribution. Thesesystems are usually priced per server processor, that is, a fixed price is paidregardless of the number of users that hit a licensed processor. This medium isalso ideal for the implementation of a “GIS on every desktop” technology policy.This technology could server as the primary GIS delivery system for the Publicand General Staff, and as a secondary delivery system for Command. Thereexist some problems in the use of this technology to replace ArcView generatedCOMPSTAT maps in that it may be difficult to implement continuous surfacemaps from an Intranet/Internet application. According to the Omega GroupCrimeVIewIMS will have 80% - 85% of the standard CrimeView queryfunctionality. This may be sufficient to move some analysis functions fromArcView to an Intranet platform. An ideal solution may be to implementCrimeView IMS as is and then modify portions of its Arc Extensible MarkupLanguage (AXL) which is mostly JavaScript Extensible code to enhance itsinterface for COMPSTAT mapping. Implementation of this technology for sitesalready possessing ARC/IMS is around $10,000 while full installations requiringArcIMS, CrimeView IMS and onsite customer support runs from $18,000 to$20,000. The ESRI Demo ArcIMS server system description is as follows:The Omega Group has established a demonstration site for CrimeViewIMSwhere the software maybe evaluated a the following URL: 27
  28. 28. http://www.microps.com/website/CVIMS_HTML/default.htmThe following is presented to give the reader an example of the hardware andsoftware used in an ArcIMS Server implementation and is not to be construed asa system architecture recommendation for MDPD. “Data General AViiON 3800 Dual 700 MHz Pentium III Xeon processors (1 MB L2 cache) 1 GB RAM Dual 18 GB 10K RPM SCSI drives (RAID 1) Windows 2000 Advanced Server, SP1 ArcIMS 3.0 (Application Server and Spatial Server)” 11Recommendation 8: Implement CrimeView IMS and install ArcExplorer onall MDPD computers.Recommendation 9: Modify CrimeView IMS to better support MDPDCOMPSTAT Mapping.3.2.7 ARC/INFOARC/INFO is ESRI’s Professional GIS platform and serves the professional GISgroup by performing higher end GIS tasks involved in the creation, manipulation,modeling and storage of spatial data. Appropriation options here are to purchasea primary license for ARC/INFO at a cost of $20,000 that entitles MDPD toreceive Tech Support and also send one representative to the yearly ESRIConference. Alternatively, it may be possible to purchased a secondary licensethrough ITD at a cost of $10,000 without support or conference attendancerights.Recommendation 14: MDPD should purchase a primary ARC/INFO license.3.2.8 SDEPlease view section 3.2 Spatial Database Engine Solution to the TimelinessProblem for more information.4. ConclusionThis document began by examining the three primary functions of PCAS users,namely, Computer Statistics (COMPSTAT), special map projects and map11 ESRI’s Technology Demo Portal at http://eslims.esri.com/default.htm 28
  29. 29. analysis and how the MDPD’s Crime Analysis System and ITD’s GIS MappingApplication in conjunction support these functions. Our needs analysis revealedthat these functions are not well supported by the applications because ofaccuracy and timeliness problems. Our needs analysis also revealed that inaddition to these problems there is a far greater need for GIS functionality thanthe GIS Mapping Application can support.Our most important recommendations include the implementation of LiveComplaint Desk Geocoding and our recommendation on implementing SDE inorder to simplify data generation and halt the reliance on our 48-HourSubsequent Reject Process.Our recommendations to solve the unmet needs of MDPD staff included theadoption of the technology policy of “a GIS on every desktop”. It was alsorecommended that this policy be implemented through ArcExplorer,CrimeViewIMS and server processing technologies. It was also recommendedthat MDPD commit to making ARCView GIS the primary GIS Analysis/Mappingtool and to provide PCAS users with additional functionality through ArcViewSpatial Analyst, CrimeView and CrimeViewIMS. We also recommended that asimpler and more intuitive data directory structure be develop to facilitate accessto GIS data by PCAS users.The implementation of these recommendations will solve the accuracy andtimeliness problems, maximize the use of MDPD’s current GIS components,introduce new components, provide coverage for every need of every audienceat MDPD (Table 5), and promote the accurate and timely reporting of intelligenceand the relentless follow-up and assessment of crime. 29
  30. 30. Table 5: GIS Users, Needs and Proposed Delivery SystemsUsers GIS Needs Proposed Delivery Systems Primary Secondary, Tertiary and QuaternaryPublic Data Browsing CrimeView IMS Mapping CrimeView IMSGeneral Data Browsing CrimeView IMS ArcExplorerStaff Mapping CrimeView IMS ArcExplorerCommand Data Browsing CrimeView IMS ArcExplorer Mapping PCAS CrimeView IMS, ArcExplorerPCAS Data Browsing ArcView GIS CrimeView, CrimeView IMS Mapping ArcView GIS CrimeView, CrimeView IMS Isopleth Citrix/Spatial Analyst CrimeView Data Creation ArcView GIS CrimeView Data Manipulation ArcView GIS CrimeView, CrimeView IMS Data Analysis ArcView GIS CrimeViewProfessional Data Browsing ARC/INFO ArcView, CrimeView,GIS CrimeViewIMS Mapping ARC/INFO ArcView, CrimeVIew, CrimeViewIMS Data Creation ARC/INFO Data Manipulation ARC/INFO Data Analysis ARC/INFO ArcView, CrimeVIew, CrimeViewIMS Data Management ORACLE-SDE 30
  31. 31. Appendix A: Recommendation Sign-Off SheetPHASE 1 Recommendations: Solutions to Accuracy ProblemRecommendation Priority Resources Time Sign-off1: Provide PCAS with an ½ SGAPEnhanced VB/MO 1 OSPGeocoding Engine. MDPD H Ira S. Feuer MDPD Bureau Commander2: Develop an aggressive MDPDprogram to geocode allrejects as far back as 24months. H Ira S. Feuer MDPD Bureau Commander3: Purchase Positron’s ½ SGAPPowerMap applicationtrain staff to processrejects and implementany of other solutions as H Ira S. Feuernecessary to ensure that MDPD Bureau Commanderrejects are reduced to aminimum. 31
  32. 32. PHASE 2 Recommendations: Solutions to Timeliness ProblemRecommendation Priority Resources Time Sign-off4: MDPD should begin by ½SGAPusing the SDE at ITD. H Ira S. Feuer MDPD Bureau CommanderPHASE 3 Recommendations: Solutions to Improve Mapping and Reporting 32
  33. 33. Recommendation Priority Resources Sign-off5: Maintain the GIS ½ SGAPMapping application untilsuitable replacementsoftware is implemented Hand found to be Ira S. Feuersuccessful. MDPD Bureau Commander6: Implement Spatial Data ½ SGAPStandards in a production 1 OSP 240 hhierarchical data directorystructure for the storage Hof shape files, on the Ira S. Feuershape files stored in this MDPD Bureau Commanderdirectory and the datalayers within SDE.7: We recommend that ½SGAPITD or MDPD create andmaintain a hierarchicaluser directory structure Hfor future GIS users. Ira S. Feuer MDPD Bureau Commander8: Implement CrimeView ½ SGAPIMS and installArcExplorer on all MDPDcomputers. M Ira S. Feuer MDPD Bureau Commander11: Establish ArcView ½ SGAPGIS as the default GISinterface for PCAS usersand by train PCAS in its Muse. Ira S. Feuer MDPD Bureau Commander8a: Use server ½ SGAPprocessing technology toprovide GIS capabilitiesto district stations withslow bandwidth Ira S. Feuerconnections. M MDPD Bureau Commander8b: Enable access fromArcView to the propertylayer currently stored in MSDE. Ira S. Feuer MDPD Bureau CommanderPHASE 3 Recommendations: Solutions to Improve Mapping and ReportingRecommendation Priority Resources Sign-off12: In support of isopleth ½ SGAP 33
  34. 34. mapping implementArcView Spatial Analystthrough Citrix’s LWinFrame technology. Ira S. Feuer MDPD Bureau Commander13: Provide ArcView ½ SGAPusers with a crime analystextension in the form ofCrimeView. L Ira S. Feuer MDPD Bureau Commander9: Modify CrimeView IMS ½ SGAPto better support MDPDCOMPSTAT Mapping. L Ira S. Feuer MDPD Bureau Commander14: MDPD should ½ SGAPpurchase a primaryARC/INFO license. H Ira S. Feuer MDPD Bureau Commander 34
  35. 35. Appendix B: Interview QuestionnaireAs part of the Phase I – Needs Assessment an interview questionnaire(Appendix A) was conducted from 19 October 2000 to 9 November 2000. Thisquestionnaire was targeted at the Police Crime Analyst Specialists (PCAS) atboth MDPD headquarters and district offices and inquired into the present GISMapping System in order to identify those limiting factors that should becorrected in the new GIS Mapping Intranet Application.A total of 18 staff members where interviewed as follows: Table 1: Users Interviewed Name Position Station 1 Tami Bush PCAS Headquarters 2 Mike Ronezkowski Lieutenant Robbery Bureau 3 Halli Gomez Intelligence Analyst Sex Crimes 4 Vanesa Perez Intelligence Analyst Sex Crimes 5 Dante Fonseca Intelligence Analyst Airport District Station 6 Murean Shank PCAS Carol City District Station 7 Michael Gordon PCAS Cutler Ridge District Station 8 Sherry Smyly PCAS Cutler Ridge District Station 9 Danial Franquiz PCAS Doral District Station 10 Jorge Mackenzie PCAS Doral District Station 11 Lora Diaz Sergeant Hammock District Station 12 Anelis Gutierez PCAS Hammock District Station 13 Karen Gonzalez PCAS Hammock District Station 14 Yoli Rivera PCAS Intercoastal District Station 15 McCord Sergeant Northside District Station 16 Claire Leonard PCAS Northside District Station 17 Maceo Pickett PCAS Kendall District Station 18 Maria I. Trelles PCAS Kendall District StationMost analyst sited are new and most, if not all, have very little or no experiencewith native ArcView and definitely no formal training. The reason for this is thatmost coordinating staff members have passed their responsibilities dealing withthe GIS Mapping Application to junior staff. In general, analysts are unaware oftheir data and often fail to realize that “dots” are not analysis and that all casesare not visually depicted.Following are the summarized results of the questionnaire by section.Section 2In this section users where asked to: Briefly describe the most frequently 35
  36. 36. performed tasks in your job that involve maps or analyzing spatial relationships inorder of importance and state the frequency with which they are performed.PCAS reported that the three most common tasks that involve maps or analyzingspatial relationships are: Computer Statistics (COMSTAT), special map projectsand map analysis. The essence of the COMPSTAT process can be summarizedbriefly as follows: collect, analyze and map or tabulate crime data and otheressential police performance measures on a regular basis and hold policemanagers accountable for their performance as measured by these data.Special map projects represent the collection, analysis and mapping ofinformation that is usually area and/or case specific. The frequency by whicheach of these tasks resulted in a map product was reported as high as 5/week 12for COMPSTAT functions and 15/week13 for special map projects.Map Analysis involves the collection, analysis and mapping of information for thepurpose of finding patterns, identifying hot spots, and general spatial data miningactivities. These map products are usually for PCAS, investigators and staff useonly and usually do not become part of the general distribution of COMPSTAT orspecial map projects although in many cases they are essential to the productionof these other products.These map products are predominantly dot density and/or grid maps that depicttargeted crimes 94% of the time and non-targeted crimes 6% of the time.Section 3Question 3.1. Do you require the Tabular Reporting features of the GIS Mappingapplication to perform your work?No was the answer of 100% of the users. This response is attributable to: theGIS Mapping to CAS System record discrepancy and that most if not all userswhere unaware that the function even existed.Question 3.2. Do you require the Mapping features of the GIS Mappingapplication to perform your work?Yes was the answer of 67% of the users. PCAS use the system to print either dotdensity. Dot density maps are then compared to tabular data from CAS and arecorrected through manual cartographic methods or through the geocodingfunctions built into the GIS Mapping Application12 Reported by PCAS Michael Gordon at the Cutler Ridge District Station.13 Reported by PCAS Maceo Pickett at the Kendall District Station. 36
  37. 37. No was the answer of 33% of the users. PCAS responding in the negative did sobecause of infrastructure limitations and/or a functional knowledge of ArcView.Infrastructure limitations included: Slow bandwidth connections and antiquated computer equipment manifest themselves as slow system performance. This is especially the case at the more remote locations such as the Inter-coastal and Carol City District Stations. In some instances, PCAS have stated that record discrepancy alone is sufficient to warrant the application useless. Non-functional output devices inhibit the use of the application and exist in the Sex Crimes Division, Inter-coastal and Northside District Stations. Lastly, although a base map for the Airport exists considerable manipulation of this data set is needed before it can be used to perform geocoding and mapping functions.PCAS who have a functional knowledge of ArcView stated that they do not usethe GIS Mapping Application because they find that ArcView “is a better productthan GIS Mapping”14 and they find ArcView to be a less restrictive environmentfrom which to create maps.Question 3.3. Please define those functions of the GIS Mapping application thatyou find to be user friendly.55% of the users found some function of the GIS Mapping application to be user-friendly. The most frequent comments included that in general all functions areeasy to use.Question 3.4. Please define those functions of the GIS Mapping application thatare inflexible or limiting in nature and explain why.45% of the users found some function of the GIS Mapping application to beinflexible or limiting and did so for the following reasons: First, the record discrepancy problem results in “inaccurate” maps that require the employment of tedious manual cartographic methods in order to depict the accurate number of cases. Second, PCAS who receive special map projects and try to create non- standard maps are unable to create these maps with ease. Some of the more typical problems include: incorrect placement of crimes at intersections; incidents at the same location result in overlapping crimes14 Sergeant McCord at the Northside District Station and Lieutenant Ronezkowski at the RobberyBureau 37
  38. 38. that map as a single point; map extents often zoom out to a system predefined scale when printing and the inability to use different marker symbols. Third, the system performance is so slow that the application can’t be used. System performance is related to network connectivity and the amount of data transmitted. In the case of the districts a common statement is that the system loads too much data.Question 3.5. Please define those functions that are not performed by the GISMapping application that are required for you to be able to do your work?The findings here are the same as for Question 3.4 above.Question 3.6a. Would additional pre-defined menu options facilitate your use ofthe GIS Mapping application?Yes was the answer of 42% of the users.Question 3.6b. If yes please define.The most frequent comment was that if more predefined menu options forspecific queries where available it would help by eliminating some of the stepsthat currently have to occur in order to create a map.Question 3.7. What percentage of your queries can be conducted with the 12months worth of data available on the system assuming there was no datadiscrepancy problem?95% - 100% was the response from most users; however, some PCAS reportedthis percentage to be from 10% - 60%15 because of reports requiring year-to-yearcomparisons. Year-to-year comparison reports are common to all divisions anddistrict stations and require 24 months of data. This data is presently extractedfrom CAS because it is not available through the GIS Mapping Application,however, even if it were available the record discrepancy problem would requireextraction from CAS.Question 3.8. What percentage of your queries cannot be conducted with the 12months worth of data available on the system?0% - 5% was the response from most users and this was attributed to specialmap projects that require the use of data beyond this 12-month period. With15 Reported by PCAS Murean Shank at the Carol City District Station, Intelligence Analyst DanteFonseca at the Airport District Station. 38
  39. 39. regard to reports with year-to-year comparisons this percentage ranges from40% - 90%.Question 3.9. What percentage of your work involves targeted signals?94% was the average response of users and predominantly represents dotdensity and/or grid maps.Question 3.10. What percentage of your work involves Non-targeted signals?6% was the average response of users and predominantly represents dot densityand/or grid maps.Question 3.11. What targeted queries do you perform that require subject, victimand vehicle information?100% of users responded with all targeted crimes.Question 3.12. Are there any queries that do not require any subject, victim orvehicle information?100% of users responded with all non-targeted crimes.Question 3.13a. What percentage of your work involves specific map queries?94% was the average percentage reported by the users.Question 3.13b. Which queries are they?The most common answer to this question was queries to targeted crimes.Question 3.14a. Do you utilize maps supplied by the Map Gallery?Yes was the answer of 58% of users.Question 3.14b. Should other maps be supplied? 39
  40. 40. Yes was the answer of 25% of the users and included additional maps such as:specific area maps, those showing parcels, lakes and other features.Question 3.15. Do you find the Charts functionality of the GIS Mappingapplication useful in performing your work?No was the answer of 100% of the users.Question 3.16a. If standard information queries were predefined for selectionwould that assist you in performing your work?Yes was the answer of 67% of the users and is attributed to the wish to reducethe number of selections needed in order to create a map.Question 3.16b. Could you specify these?In general, most PCAS believe there is too much drilling down of the data withinthe Map Designer and that if a predefined query were available this might helpspeed up the mapping process. These predefined queries could facilitate any ofthe steps that currently involve menu selection such as the selection of districts,crimes, dates, times and themes.Section 4Question 4.1a. Does the system performance hinder your use of the GISMapping application?Yes was the answer of 75% of the users.Question 4.1b. Please explain.The most frequent comments included that the system performance was tooslow. This comment is attributable to everything from opening the application,doing queries, to printing maps. Additional comments included those issueshaving to do with the record discrepancy as well as the limited editing capabilitiesof the application.Question 4.2a. Who do you contact to resolve GIS Mapping system problems?Lourdes de la Nuez was the answer given by most users. 40
  41. 41. Question 4.2b. Are you satisfied with this support?Yes, was the answer of most users.Question 4.3a. Where do you go for support in the use of the GIS Mappingapplication?Lourdes de la Nuez was the answer given by most users.Question 4.3b. Have your questions been readily addressed?Yes, was the answer of most users.Question 4.4a. Have you submitted any service requests for modifications to theGIS Mapping application based upon your experience using it?No was the most common answer to this question.Question 4.4b. If yes, have they been completed?Not Applicable.Question 4.5. Do you feel your workstation configuration hinders you fromeffectively using the GIS Mapping application?No was the answer of 77% of the users.Yes answers are attributable to slow operating workstations and/or non-operational output devices.Section 5Question 5.1. How proficient are you in using GIS software?Beginner was the most common answer.Question 5.2a. Do you own and use the GIS ARCVIEW Users Manual?In all except one instance users were unaware of the existence of this manual. 41
  42. 42. Question 5.2b. If no, why?The most common response was that the manual was never made available.Question 5.3a. Do you use the HELP button of the GIS ARCVIEW application?No was the answer of 100% of the users.Question 5.3b. If no, why?The most common response was that the user was never trained in the use ofArcView.Question 5.4a. Have you had any formal training on the GIS ARCVIEWapplication?No. With only one exception users had no formal training in ArcView.Question 5.4b. If yes, where you satisfied with the level of training received?Users where not trained.Question 5.4c. How long ago did you receive this training?Users where not trained. 42
  43. 43. Appendix C: Isopleth Maps 43
  44. 44. Appendix D:Timeline 44

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