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Technology and outdoor education: Some experiential possibilities

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There is a philosophical tension in outdoor education about the role of technology. On one hand, outdoor educators seek to distance participants from technology in order to provide “a place apart”. On …

There is a philosophical tension in outdoor education about the role of technology. On one hand, outdoor educators seek to distance participants from technology in order to provide “a place apart”. On the other hand, most outdoor education programs rely on a growing plethora of outdoor and safety gear, electronic navigation and communication, and transport technologies. Despite this, outdoor education tends to be somewhat unadventurous in its pedagogical use of technology. Instead, we might experiment with a wider spectrum of technologies (from low tech to high tech). By considering possibilities from across the technological gamut – e.g., from survival programs (low tech) to urban challenges with mobile electronic devices (high tech) – we might enrich our understanding of outdoor learning processes and engage different types of participants.

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  • I am currently involved in a teacher education program (Outdoor Education) and there is a massive push to embrace ICT in teaching within outdoor education. However at this stage of technological advancement, while ICT and Web 2.O tools can be used as a means of reflection, it is simply not practical to take your Iphone or laptop kayaking, sailing, or rock climbing. While a three dimensional fly through map online will clearly help a group of students plan a 5 day exped. the reality is that you would not send students away with a gps and no map and compass. If you had to choose between the two you would always take the map and compass just as any experienced yacht skipper would choose a sextant and chart over a gps.
    ICT and Web2.0 does have its place in education and more so I believe as students move toward tertiary education. But what must be recognized as we interface more and more we loose the development of interpersonal skills.

    While Technology has made us safer in and more comfortable in the outdoors it also has issues. Safety can be compromised by technology. I recall reading a court case where a dive instructor or facility was found negligent as the instructor was taking pictures while supervising a group of novice divers. The Instructors attention to safety was impaired and a diving accident happened.
    Furthermore while the concept of students recording the natural environment with there $100 lap tops is great I would question the level of connectedness this creates. Connectedness with the natural world not the internet.

    An area that I feel must embrace a technological age and ICT is sustainability education. The old ways are not effective and as new technologies develop so with sustainable living and education.

    Outdoor education is at the crossroads! On one hand the aims of outdoor education 1) Leadership, but is following the arrow on your gps leadership? 2) Personal socio development, but is a virtual camping experience a suitable substitute for the challenge of 2 students assembling a tent in the wind and rain? 3) Interpersonal skills, but does ICT really develop Interpersonal Skills
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  • Thought provoking for us luddites in the outdoors!
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  • James T. Neill University of Canberra 16 th National Outdoor Education Conference, 10-13 January, 2010 Copyright for this presentation: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wilderdom/4232592124/ Image author: James Neill Image license: CC-by-SA 2.0: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en
  • Image name: Why are waves cool Image author: Kevin Dooley, http://www.flickr.com/people/pagedooley/ Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2671269820/ Image licence: CC-by-A 2.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lefthand.svg Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Righthand.svg
  • Image name: Why are waves cool Image author: Kevin Dooley, http://www.flickr.com/people/pagedooley/ Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2671269820/ Image licence: CC-by-A 2.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lefthand.svg Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Righthand.svg Thesis: That there is (or can be) a symbiotic rather than antagonistic relationship and that outdoor education can contribute to facilitating experiential and adventurous learning with and about technology.
  • Image name: Why are waves cool Image author: Kevin Dooley, http://www.flickr.com/people/pagedooley/ Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2671269820/ Image licence: CC-by-A 2.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Image name: Why are waves cool Image author: Kevin Dooley, http://www.flickr.com/people/pagedooley/ Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2671269820/ Image licence: CC-by-A 2.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/katmere/92121158/ Image author: katmere, http://www.flickr.com/people/katmere/ Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/katmere/92121158/ Image author: katmere, http://www.flickr.com/people/katmere/ Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/katmere/92121158/ Image author: katmere, http://www.flickr.com/people/katmere/ Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/katmere/92121158/ Image author: katmere, http://www.flickr.com/people/katmere/ Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/katmere/92121158/ Image author: katmere, http://www.flickr.com/people/katmere/ Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/katmere/92121158/ Image author: katmere, http://www.flickr.com/people/katmere/ Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/katmere/92121158/ Image author: katmere, http://www.flickr.com/people/katmere/ Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en Tech is a vital component of OE – directly and indirectly.
  • Image name: * Blackboard * Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/8078381@N03/3279725831/ Image author: pareeerica, http://www.flickr.com/people/8078381@N03/ Image license:CC-by-A 2.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en Image author: Frikinzero
  • Image author: Frikinzero
  • Congo, 2005 Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gorilla_tool_use.png Image license: CC-by-A 2.5 “ This adult female gorilla in Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, northern Congo, uses a branch as a walking stick to gauge the water's depth, proving that gorillas use tools too.” From the magazine: as part of an ongoing study of western gorillas in Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in the Republic of Congo, Thomas Breuer, Mireille Ndoundou-Hockemba, and Vicki Fishlock reveal that gorillas are just as resourceful as the other great apes. From an observation platform at Mbeli Bai, a swampy forest clearing that gorillas frequently visit to forage, Breuer et al. observed an adult female gorilla named Leah (a member of a long-studied gorilla group) at the edge of a pool of water, “looking intently at the water in front of her.” Leah walked upright into the water, but stopped and returned to the edge when the water reached her waist. She then walked back into the water, grabbed a branch in front of her, detached it, and, grasping it firmly, repeatedly jabbed the water in front of her with the end of the branch, “apparently using it to test the water depth or substrate stability.” She continued walking across the pool, branch in hand, “using it as a walking stick for postural support.”
  • Frozen, mummified body discovered in 1991 on the Italy/Australian border. Otzi had the latest technology. Image source: https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/wiki/File:%C3%96tzischuh_2.jpg Image author: Helge Sternke at de.wikipedia Image license: CC-by-SA 2.5
  • Information source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/everest/exposure/gear.html Image source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/everest/exposure/gear.html Image license: Unknown
  • - Humans have been characterised by their association with tools and technology through the ages Tool-making and the use of technology arguably dates from when man first mastered fire, roughly about 500,000 years ago? Humans became able to extract metals from the ground, e.g., Iron Age in Britain ~ 750 BC to early AD 150 years ago, human work in the Western world became characterized by its focus on finer tools, e.g., machines 20 years ago, this tool-making lead to the creation of computers; 10 years ago the internet went into the public domain…. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/prehistory/ironage_intro_01.shtml
  • Image source: Unknown
  • See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_design http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appropriate_technology
  • From Peter Russell’s Global Brain, approx. 29 minutes
  • See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_design Goals and philosophy are identical to free and open source software. Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sustainable_Portable_Classroom_-_The_Learning_Kit.jpg
  • See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_design http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appropriate_technology
  • Kurzweil, 2001, 2005
  • Kurzweil, 2001, 2005
  • Image name: * Blackboard * Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/8078381@N03/3279725831/ Image author: pareeerica, http://www.flickr.com/people/8078381@N03/ Image license:CC-by-A 2.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Source: Priest, S. (1999). National life cycles in outdoor adventure programming .  The Outdoor Network, 10 (1),16-17, 34-35.
  • Low tech: Primitive skills programs
  • Frozen, mummified body discovered in 1991 on the Italy/Australian border. Image source: https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/wiki/File:%C3%96tzischuh_2.jpg Image author: Helge Sternke at de.wikipedia Image license: CC-by-SA 2.5
  • http://flickr.com/photos/trucolorsfly/301701664/
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oscar_Pistorius-2.jpg Original image author: Elvar Pálsson, http://www.flickr.com/people/erlendurkafari/ Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
  • http://willderdom.com/wiki/Barefoot
  • See also: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Learning_activities/Bug_Blitz Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:OLPC-Thailand-Hiking01.jpg Image license: CC-by-A 2.5, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/deed.en Image author: Unknown See also: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Image:Hiking01.jpg
  • See also: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Learning_activities/Bug_Blitz Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:OLPC_pilot_Thailand_-_Ban_Samkha_06.jpg Image license: CC-by-A 2.5, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/deed.en Image author: Unknown See also: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Image:Hiking02.jpg
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diffusionofideas.PNG Image license: Public domain Rogers, E. (1962) Diffusion of innovations . Free Press, London, NY, USA.
  • There could be a pedagogical argument for moving from modern to ancient or ancient to modern.
  • There could be a pedagogical argument for moving from modern to ancient or ancient to modern.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outdoor_education
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outdoor_education
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outdoor_education
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outdoor_education
  • Attribution: Ian Boyle
  • Attribution: Ian Boyle
  • Images: http://wilderdom.com/oe/map.html (from Frappr)
  • Interactive image sources: http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/albumMap?uname=JamesTNeill&aid=5404277789608045121#map http://picasaweb.google.com/JamesTNeill/GibraltarFalls/people
  • 5ooMB MPEG4 from http://www.archive.org/details/GreenwichEmotionMap
  • Image: http://flickr.com/photos/tranquilo/sets/72157600734297162/
  • Tag cloud: http://del.icio.us/jtneill
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Augmented_reality_-_heads_up_display_concept.jpg Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://www.the-gadgeteer.com/assets/heartmath-emwave-2.jpg See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofeedback
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Biofeedback_EN.gif Image license: CC-by-A 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Image author: Marek Jacenko
  • http://cagreetings.com/images/moodring.jpg
  • See also: http://www.oric.org.au/Conference/Conf09/SpeakersPresentations.html
  • http://flickr.com/photos/trucolorsfly/301701664/
  • Image name: crags! green ones! Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/70285332@N00/3677756252 Image license: CC-by-SA 2.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en Image author: Torley, http://www.flickr.com/photos/torley/
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/torley/4254726035/
  • http://www.informatics.sussex.ac.uk/research/groups/interact/publications/chi02.pdf “ Pitching a tent and spending the night under canvass, with friends, a rucksack, a flashlight, surrounded by strange shadows and sounds, is an exciting experience for most children. It is also often the closest that many come to the wilderness, a primitive unfamiliar place that is far removed from their everyday world. What better environment is there for experiencing stories? Previous research reported at CHI has discussed using a tent as a projection interface for ambient and informal experiences [5]. This paper explores the use of a tent interface to give young children an engaging and shared experience of a virtual world, targeted at public spaces such as museums, theme parks and classrooms. Figure 1: The structure of the tent POINTING WITH FLASHLIGHTS Our first interaction technique employs flashlights, essential items of camping equipment, as pointing devices (figure 2). Video cameras placed alongside the projectors track the positions of beams of light thrown onto the surface of the tent from inside and outside.”
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Augmented_reality_-_heads_up_display_concept.jpg Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Milgram_Continuum.png Image license: Public domain Milgram, P., & Kishino, A. F. (1994). Taxonomy of mixed reality visual displays. IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems , E77-D(12), 1321-1329.
  • Image source: http://s3.amazonaws.com/ppt-download/augmentedrealitypatrickcollings-090307154220-phpapp02.pdf?Signature=4ZpGJRwnW8k1GaltrGnRysJyseg%3D&Expires=1263086591&AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJLJT267DEGKZDHEQ
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Japanese_poster_with_QR_codes.jpg Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en Image author: Alexis Rondeau from L.E.S., USA
  • “ Wikitude World Browser is an augmented reality (AR) browser for the Android platform based on location-based Wikipedia and Qype content. It is a handy application for planning a trip or to find out about landmarks in your surroundings; 350,000 world-wide points of interest may be searched by GPS or by address and displayed in a list view, map view and “Augmented Reality” cam view. The latest version of WIKITUDE World Browser includes an Augmented Reality Photo Feature, which allows you to capture and share the AR camera view you experience through your mobile.” http://www.mobilizy.com/en/wikitude-ein-reisefuhrer
  • Image source: http://www.slideshare.net/trendmatcher/augmented-reality-arno-coenders/30
  • Image name: * Blackboard * Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/8078381@N03/3279725831/ Image author: pareeerica, http://www.flickr.com/people/8078381@N03/ Image license:CC-by-A 2.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Transcript

    • 1. Technology & outdoor education Some experiential possibilities Dr. James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra National Outdoor Education Conference, Jan. 10-13, 2010
    • 2. Copyright: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
    • 3. Presentation url: http://bit.ly/5P3HwQ (wilderdom.com) Email: [email_address] Twitter: http://twitter.com/jtneill Contacts & resources
    • 4. Abstract Philsophical tension between outdoor education & technology On one hand, outdoor educators seek to distance participants from technology in order to provide “a place apart”. On the other hand, OE programs rely on a growing plethora of technology e.g., outdoor activity, safety, navigation, communication, transport and multimedia gear.
    • 5. Proposal That there is (or can be) a symbiotic rather than antagonistic relationship (between tech & OE) and that outdoor education can contribute to facilitating experiential and adventurous learning with and about technology.
    • 6. Session aim to explore the creative tension and experiential possibilities of different kinds of technology in outdoor educational settings
    • 7. Philosophy History Possibilities (Applications & Trends) Discussion Overview
    • 8. OE & Technology: Philosophical dilemma Is outdoor education a ‘ victim ’ of technology? e.g., invaded, colonised, overtaken by technology ?
    • 9. OE & Technology: Philosophical dilemma Or will we work with technology? e.g. use technology to enhance outdoor education skills and understanding ?
    • 10. OE & Technology: Philosophical dilemma Is modern technology a problem or an opportunity for outdoor education?
    • 11. OE & Technology: Philosophical dilemma ...but this is an intimate & necessary tension Tech & OE are uneasy bedfellows
    • 12. OE & Technology: Philosophical dilemma Outdoor education relies on technology because OE exists as a cultural reaction to industralisation.
    • 13. OE & Technology: Philosophical dilemma Conventional outdoor education practices rely significantly on modern technology (e.g., transport, outdoor gear, mobile communication).
    • 14. OE & Technology: Philosophical dilemma … Technology is NOT the antithesis of the outdoors (indoors is)  Tech is a vital component of OE
    • 15. A brief history of technology in the outdoors Have things changed that much?
    • 16. What is technology?
      • Artificial aid e.g., tool
      • (Useful) cultural artifact
      • Capacity not inherited
        • Hard (gear)
        • 17. Soft (know-how)
    • 18. Wild gorillas are handy with a stick In the Republic of Congo, researchers observed an adult female gorilla was observed at the edge of a pool of water, “looking intently at the water in front of her.” She walked into the water, but stopped and returned to the edge when the water reached her waist. She then walked back into the water, grabbed a branch, detached it, and, grasping it firmly, repeatedly jabbed the water in front of her with the end of the branch, “apparently using it to test the water depth or substrate stability.” She continued walking across the pool, branch in hand, “using it as a walking stick for postural support.”
    • 19. Homo sapiens are not the only hominids to use tools e.g., Neanderthals did too
    • 20. Otzi - Iceman - 5300 years ago
    • 28. Mt Everest Expedition, 1953 Gear (Hillary and Tenzing)
      • Cotton tents 2-3 x heavier than today
      • 29. Wool, leather and canvas clothing
      • 30. Primitive ice-climbing equipment e.g., wooden-handled ice-axes
      • 31. Value of oxygen weight debatable
    • 32. History of tool usage Stone/Wood: 500,000? years Computers: 20 years Copper/Iron: 3,000 years Industrial machines: 150 years
    • 33. Modern electronic technologies are leap-frogging industrial development
    • 34. Disruptive technology
      • Innovations that improve a product or service in ways that the market does not expect, typically by being lower priced or designed for a different set of consumers.
      • 35. Disruptive technologies threaten to virally leap-frog and make redundant expensive mainstream technologies.
      • 36. e.g., digital cameras vs. film cameras
      • 37. e.g., wireless vs. landline
    • 38. 4 waves of technological change (Peter Russell, 1983, Global Brain) 21 st century – age of biotech/cybertech?
    • 42. Open design Development of physical products, machines and systems through use of publicly shared design information . Consistent with philosophy of free & open source software & information.
    • 43. Appropriate technology Effective, ethical technologies for addressing the social and environmental needs in developing societies. e.g., Whirlwind Pedal-powered wheelchair washing machine
    • 44. Web 1.0: Read Web User Static Passive
    • 45. Web 2.0: Read & Write Web User Dyna- mic Exper- iential
    • 46. Singularity (Kurzweil)
      • Hypothetical point of massive interconnection
      • 47. Paradigm shifts & technological innovations occur unprecedently rapidly.
      • 48. Whenever technology approaches a barrier, new technologies will cross it.
    • 49. Singularity (Kurzweil)
      • … leading to “technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history”
      • 50. Singularity will occur before the end of the 21st century, ~2045.
    • 51. Some technological applications & trends for outdoor education
    • 52. International Life Cycle (Priest, 1999) Source: Priest, S. (1999). National life cycles in outdoor adventure programming .  The Outdoor Network, 10 (1),16-17, 34-35.
    • 53. Minimalist Normal Experimental Historical Typical Electronic Hand-made Common Web 2.0 Levels of technology & outdoor education Low tech High tech Intimate Tension Mid tech
    • 54. Low tech Navigation High tech GPS Map Compass Sextant Google Earth Memory Songlines
    • 55. Ö tzi's shoes
      • Waterproof and wide (seemingly designed for walking across the snow)
      • 56. Bearskin soles, deer hide for the top panels, netting made of tree bark.
      • 57. Soft grass went around the foot and in the shoe and functioned like modern socks.
      • 58. Plans for commercial production
    • 59. Minimalist footwear High tech or low tech?
    • 60. Oscar Pistorius “ Blade-runner” - the fastest man on no legs
    • 61. Barefoot living?
    • 62.
    • 68. OLPC-XO computer used for taking photos on a hike (Thailand)
    • 69. OLPC-XO computer used for taking photos on a hike (Thailand)
    • 70. Technology trends
    • 75. Diffusion of innovations (Rogers, 1962) Rogers, E. (1962) Diffusion of innovations . Free Press, NY.
    • 76. Outdoor education: Across the technology spectrum Outdoor education could aim to educate across the technology spectrum
    • 77. Outdoor education: Across the technology spectrum New & old technology could be synthesised towards our goals e.g., recreation, education, development, therapy, sustainability
    • 78. Web 2.0 = Collaboration -> Collective Intelligence (via recording, sharing, reflection, discussing etc.)
    • 79. Outdoor education - Wikipedia
    • 80. Outdoor education - Wikiversity
    • 81. Outdoor education - Wikibooks
    • 82. Jessica Watson: Youngest Solo Circumnavigation Attempt http://www.jessicawatson.com.au/ http://youngestround.blogspot.com/
    • 83. Jessica Watson: Most Watched Blog in Australia
    • 84. Outdoor education groups e.g., on facebook
    • 85. Apple Tree Flat Hike Route Start Cliff line safety River crossings Our Hike Route Off track hiking Unmarked Cliff lines
    • 86. Glengarry Looking West Apple Tree Flat Camp Site 24km West of Glengarry
    • 87. Collaborative mapping Community-generated Google Map of Ropes Course locations
    • 88. Collaborative mapping: Google Picasa + Google Maps
    • 89. Greenwich Emotion Map
    • 90. Photo-sharing
    • 91. Tag Cloud
    • 92. Future OE conferences
      • Live streamed presentations
      • 93. Auto-recorded & uploaded
      • 94. Hashtags:
        • #NOEC2010, #NOEC2012
        • 95. #OECurriculum
      • Back-channel conversations
      • 96. Editable, commentable, mashable
    • 97. Bio feed back
    • 98. Biofeedback
    • 99. Mood ring
    • 100. Infield biofeedback tools to enhance stress management training (ORIC, 2008, 2009)
    • 101. Virtual Worlds Virtual worlds computer-based simulated environments
    • 102. What “outdoor education” can we do in virtual worlds?
    • 103. Botanical Landscaping, Garden and Environmental Design Center (Second Life)
    • 104. Camping in the digital wilderness
    • 105. Augmented reality Live view of a real-world environment whose elements are merged with (or augmented by) virtual computer-generated imagery - creating a mixed reality .
    • 106. Milgram's Reality-Virtuality Continuum Milgram, P., & Kishino, A. F. (1994). Taxonomy of mixed reality visual displays. IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems , E77-D(12), 1321-1329.
    • 107. QR codes
    • 108. QR codes
    • 109. Wikitude World Browser http://www.wikitude.org/
    • 110. Augmented reality: Social applications
    • 111. Discussion
      • Practices? (What are we doing?)
      • 112. Issues? (Problems encountered?)
      • 113. Ideas? (What could we do?)
      • 114. Opportunities? (Collaborations?)
    • 115. References
      • Boyle, I. (2008). Technology and outdoor education. http://www.slideshare.net/digger_boyle/technology-and-outdoor-ed-presentation
      • 116. Green, J., Schnädelbach, H., Koleva, B., Benford, S., Pridmore, T., & Medina, K. (2002). Camping in the digital wilderness: tents and flashlights as interfaces to virtual worlds. In Proceedings of CHI '02 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems , Minneapolis, MI, 780-781. Retrieved January 10, 2010, from http://www.informatics.sussex.ac.uk/research/groups/interact/publications/chi02.pdf
      • 117. Milgram, P., & Kishino, A. F. (1994). Taxonomy of mixed reality visual displays. IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems , E77-D(12), 1321-1329.
      • 118. Priest, S. (1999). National life cycles in outdoor adventure programming .  The Outdoor Network, 10 (1),16-17, 34-35.
      • 119. Rogers, E. (1962). Diffusion of innovations . Free Press, NY.
      • 120. South, D. (2009). The use of infield bio-feedback tools to enhance stress management training . Presentation to the Outdoor Recreation Industry Council Conference, Novotel Hotel, Sydney.