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Social Psychology: Review

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A review of the previous nine undergraduate social psychology lectures.

A review of the previous nine undergraduate social psychology lectures.

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  • Image source: Unknown 21 July, 2008, 11:30-13:30, 2B11 7125-6666 Social Psychology / G Centre for Applied Psyhology Faculty of Health University of Canberra Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia ph: +61 2 6201 2536 [email_address] http://wilderdom.com/7125 http://wilderdom.com/6666 http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125/Unit+Outline
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    • 1. Social Psychology
        • Lecture 10
        • Review
        • Semester 2, 2008
        • Lecturer: James Neill
    • 2. Lecture topics
      • 01. Introduction
      • 02. The Social Self
      • 03. Social Thinking
      • 04. Aggression
      • 05. Prejudice
      • 06. Relationships
      • 07. Groups
      • 08. Prosocial
      • 09. Environmental
      • 10. Review
      • } What?
      • } What can go wrong?
      • } What can go right?
      • } Where are we going?
    • 3. 01. Introduction
    • 4.
      • Human behaviour...
      • in social context.
      What is social psychology?
    • 5.
      • How the
      • thoughts, feelings, and behaviours
      • of individuals
      • are influenced by the...
      • actual, imagined, or implied
      • presence of others
      • (based on Allport, 1935)
      What is social psychology?
    • 6. Population bottleneck Why does social psychology matter?
    • 7. Sociology vs. Social Psychology
    • 8. Culture
      • Info-based system of common ways of doing things and ideas shared via language
      • Humans are social animals who need to manage tension between self-interest and collective interest.
        • (Nature makes us selfish; Culture helps us to resist selfish impulses)
    • 9. Culture
      • Humans have evolved to participate in culture.
      • Individuals generally need to work to gain social acceptance.
      • Inner emotional and cognitive states help us to connect to others .
      • People get most of what they need from other people.
    • 10. Social brain theory
      • Larger brain is linked to complex social systems (Dunbar, 1993, 1996)
    • 11. Social Relations
    • 12. History
      • Volkerpsychologie and Crowd Mind (mid-late 1800s)
      • Social facilitation (Triplett, 1898)
      • Attitudes (early 20 th C)
      • Split from behaviourism and psychoanalysis.
      • Gestalt theorists (1930s-50s)
      • Post-WW2 studies e.g.,
        • Authoritarian personality (Allport), Obedience (Milgram), Roles (Zimbardo).
    • 13. History
      • Attribution theory, cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1960s)
      • European developments e.g.,
        • Tajfel (social identity theory)
        • Moscovici (minority influence)
      • Crisis (Late 1960s - early 1970s)
      • Rise of social cognitive perspectives (1970s to now)
      • Alternatives
        • e.g., social constructionism
    • 14. 02. Social Self
    • 15. Domains / Units of Analysis
    • 16. Note: Fuzzy boundaries Self Groups Culture Environ-ment
    • 17. What is the “self”?
      • “ The self is an important tool with which the human organism makes its way through human society and thereby manages to satisfy its needs.”
    • 18. What is the “self”?
      • The psychological self includes:
      • Attitudes
      • Cognitions
      • Emotions
      • Group Memberships (Social Identity)
      • Ideal / Imagined Selves
      • Memories
      • Possessions
      • Self-Beliefs, Self-Concepts, Self-Images
      • Social Roles
    • 19. What is the self?
      • Self-knowledge
        • Self-concept – info about self
      • Interpersonal self
        • Public self
      • Agent self
        • Decision-making, active responding
    • 20. What is the “social self”?
      • Humans are gregarious, group-based creatures.
      • A significant portion of our ‘self’ and its ‘behaviour’ is socially directed and influenced.
    • 21. Purpose of the social self
      • Gain social acceptance
      • Play social roles
    • 22. Self-constructs Self-Esteem Self-Concept Self-Efficacy Self-Congruence illustrate how social psychologists study people’s selves, in cognitive, affective, and behavioural terms.
    • 23. Social Self
      • Evolutionary & adaptational functions
      • Self-complexity
      • Social comparison
      • Social feedback
      • Strategic self-presentation
      • Self-monitoring
      • Self-regulation
    • 24. 03. Social Thinking
    • 25. Social thinking
      • Social psychology was initially influenced by behaviourism . (1930’s-1950’s)
      • By the 1970’s, cognitive psychology lead to greater investigation of social thinking and feeling .
    • 26. Overview
      • Social thinking
        • Attribution theory
        • Cognitive dissonance
        • Self-regulation
        • Social comparison
      • Attitudes
      • Influence & persuasion
    • 27. Social perception
      • Refers to how people:
        • form impressions of, &
        • make inferences about
      • other people.
    • 28. Cognitive miser
      • “ There is ample evidence that when people’s capacity for thinking is already preoccupied, they take even more shortcuts to reduce further need for thought”
      • Bushman & Baumeister, 2008, p. 148) – Brief Version
    • 29. Knowledge structures
      • “ Automatic thinking requires little effort because it relies on knowledge structures”, e.g.,
        • Schemas
        • Scripts
        • Stereotypes
    • 30. Framing
      • Context influences interpretation.
      • Changing the frame can change and even reverse interpretation.
    • 31. Attribution Theory
      • “… deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events”
    • 32. Fundamental Attribution Error
      • Tendency to attribute others’ behaviour to enduring dispositions because:
      • Underestimation of the influence of situational factors.
      • Overestimation of the influence of dispositional factors.
      • Extent of the FAE varies by culture.
    • 33. Actor/Observer Bias
      • “ there is a pervasive tendency for actors to attribute their actions to situational requirements, whereas observers tend to attribute the same actions to stable personal dispositions”
    • 34. Self-serving bias
      • Taking credit for success = Self-enhancing bias
      • Denying responsibility for failure = Self-protecting bias
    • 35. Ultimate Attribution Error
      • FAE applied to in- and out- groups, i.e., Bias towards
      • internal attributions for in-group success and external attributions for in-group failures
      • Opposite for out-groups
    • 36. Why Have Attitudes?
      • Help deal with complex world
      • Initial evaluations are immediate and unconscious - helpful in making choices
      • Implicit attitude : Automatic evaluative response
      • Explicit attitude : Conscious evaluative response
    • 37. Mere-exposure effect
      • Tendency for people to come to like things simply because they see or encounter them repeatedly
      • Exception - If you dislike something initially, repeated exposure will not change that attitude
      • Attitudes are further influenced by classical and operant conditioning, social learning, and attitudinal polarisation
    • 38. Cognitive Dissonance
      • Unpleasant state when attitude and behaviour are inconsistent
        •  people desire consistency i.e., try to bring their attitude into line with their actions (or their actions into line with their attitudes)
        • There is an even stronger desire to be viewed as consistent by others
    • 39. Attitudes & Behaviour
      • Predictions of behaviour based on attitudes is best when
      • Attitudes are specific
      • Behaviours are aggregated
      • Attitudes are conscious and come to mind easil y
    • 40. Social Influence
      • Normative vs. informational influence
      • Influence/persuastion techniques
      • Minority influence
      • Resisting persuasion
    • 41. 04. Prejudice
    • 42. Prejudice
      • Categorisation
        • Natural human tendency to group objects
      • Social categorisation
        • Sorting people into groups on common characteristics
    • 43. Why Prejudice Exists
      • Tendency to hold stereotypes and prejudices may be innate
        • Content of stereotypes is learned though socialisation
      • People have to work to override stereotyes and prejudice
        • Extra effort leaves people less able to self regulate
    • 44. Why Prejudice Exists
      • Minimal group effect
      • Ingroup favouritism
      • Rationalisation for oppression
      • Self-esteem (through social comparison)
    • 45. Accuracy of Stereotypes
      • Many stereotypes may be based on genuine difference, but then become overgeneralised
        • Heuristics may be fairly accurate, but stereotypes become exaggerated with little factual basis
          • Used to boost self-esteem, oppression, or rationalise status quo
    • 46. Overcoming Stereotypes, Reducing Prejudices
      • Conscious override
      • Increase available information
      • Positive, equal contact
      • Superordinate goals
    • 47. 05. Aggression
    • 48. Aggression
      • “ The intentional infliction of some form of harm on others”
      • (Baron & Byrne, 2000)
      • Expression of aggression is culturally influenced.
        • (Culture offers nonviolent ways of resolving conflicts and problems)
    • 49. Types of aggression
      • Hostile
      • Instrumental
      • Passive
      • Active
    • 50. Theories & Factors of Aggression
      • Inner causes e.g., excitation-transfer, cognitive theories, testosterone
      • Interpersonal causes e.g., social-learning theory
      • External / situational causes e.g., frustration-aggression, relative deprivation, crowd behaviour, intergroup conflict
    • 51. 06. Relationships
    • 52. Relationships Overview
      • Affiliation (the need to belong)
      • Attraction
      • Rejection / exclusion
      • Types
      • Maintaining & ending
      • Sexuality
      • Jealousy
    • 53. The Need to Belong (Affiliation)
      • Intrinsic need for affiliation
      • Harlow’s experiments
      • Affiliation & stress/health (not belonging is bad for you)
    • 54. Attraction
      • Ingratiation
      • Social rewards
      • Reciprocity
      • Playing hard to get
      • Self-monitoring
      • Similarity
      • Propinquity
      • Matching hypothesis
      • Beauty
      • Evolutionary perspectives
    • 55. Love
      • Types of love
        • Passionate vs companionate
        • Sternberg’s triangle of love Passion, Intimacy, Commitment
      • Types of relationships
        • exchange vs. communal
        • attachment styles
      • Schacter’s 2-factor theory (Arousal-Cognition)
      • Hatfield & Walster's 3-factor theory (Culture-Arousal-Cognition)
    • 56. Ending relationships
      • Levinger’s 4 factors (new life, alternative partners, expectation of failure, lack of comittment)
      • Rusult & Zembrodt – 4 stages to failing relationship (loyalty, neglect, voice behaviour, exit behaviour)
      • Duck’s relationship dissolution (intrapsychic, dyadic, social, grave-dressing)
    • 57. 07. Groups & Leadership
    • 58. Groups Overview
      • What is a group?
      • Social facilitation
      • Social loafing
      • Effects of groups on individuals
      • Intergroup conflict
      • Co-operation between groups
    • 59. Leadership Overview
      • Leader? Follower? Power?
      • Leadership theories
        • Genetic
        • Great man theory
        • Trait theory
        • Situational theory – Leadership styles
        • Task- vs. people-oriented
        • Transformational theory
      • Alternatives to leadership
      • Bad bosses
    • 60. 08. Prosocial Behaviour
    • 61. Pro-social Behaviour Overview
      • Pro-social / anti-social behaviour
      • Altruism
      • Cooperation - Dilemmas
      • Forgiveness
      • Who helps? When? Why?
      • Bystander help
      • Impact of receiving help
      • Increasing helping
    • 62. Pro-social Behaviour Theories
      • Genetic/evolutionary e.g., survival, social exchange, egoism
      • Social norms e.g., altruism, principalism, collectivism
      • Learning theory e.g., social exchange, social learning
    • 63. Bystander intervention
      • Cognitive Model - 5 steps (Latane & Darley)
      • Bystander-Calculus Model - 3 stages (Pilliavin et al.) - weigh up costs of helping & not helping
      • Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis (Batson)
    • 64. Personal determinants of helping
      • Personality
      • Competence
      • Gender
      • Attributions
      • Personal norms
      • Mood
    • 65. Interpersonal determinants of helping
      • Attractiveness
      • Similarity
      • Closeness
      • Deservingness
      • Gender
    • 66. 09. Environmental Psychology
    • 67. Environmental Psychology
      • What is it?
      • Negative environmental influences
      • Environmental design
      • Natural environment
      • Evolutionary psychology
      • Biophilia
      • Changing environmental attitudes and behaviour
    • 68. Conclusion
    • 69. Final thoughts
      • What have we explored and learnt?
      • Is it worth knowing?
      • How have we been limited by theory and method?
      • How worthwhile has it been? Feedback

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