Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
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Unit Outline, Introduction, What is Social Psychology?, History & Research, Culture & Nature

Unit Outline, Introduction, What is Social Psychology?, History & Research, Culture & Nature

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  • Image source: Unknown 21 July, 2008, 11:30-13:30, 2B11 7125-6666 Social Psychology / G Centre for Applied Psyhology Faculty of Health University of Canberra Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia ph: +61 2 6201 2536 [email_address] http://wilderdom.com/7125 http://wilderdom.com/6666 http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125/Unit+Outline

Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1 Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1 Presentation Transcript

  • Social Psychology
      • Lecture 1, Week 1
      • Introduction
      • Semester 2, 2008
      • Lecturer: James Neill
  • Overview
    • Unit outline
    • Introduction
    • What is social psychology?
    • History
    • Research
    • Culture & nature
  • Unit outline
  • Contact info
    • Before/after lectures
    • [email_address]
    • 6201 2536
    • Drop-in tuts : Wed 13.30-14.30 (after lecture) in 3C18 (computer lab).
    • Or by appointment
  • Description
    • Theory
    • Research
    • Applications
  • Learning outcomes
    • Key concepts
    • Apply theories
    • Communicate
  • Lectures (10 x 2 hr)
    • 9 by James Neill (W 1, 2, 3, 4 10, 11, 12, 13, 15)
    • 1 by Melisah Feeney (W 5)
  • Lectures
    • Streamed live
    • Video & audio downloadable
    • Notes ~24 hours prior
    • Readings mostly from textbook
  • Lecture themes
    • Foundations
    • Problems
    • Strategies/Solutions
  • Lecture themes
    • What?
    • What can go wrong?
    • What can go right?
  • Lecture topics
    • 01. Introduction
    • 02. The Social Self
    • 03. Social Thinking
    • 04. Aggression (DVD)
    • 05. Prejudice
    • 06. Relationships
    • 07. Groups
    • 08. Prosocial
    • 09. Environmental
    • 10. Review
  • Tutorials
    • 6 x 2 hr
    • Alternate tuesdays after lecture (check timetable)
    • Tutor:
      • James Neill (all)
  • Tutorial topics
    • 01. Introduction
    • 02. Communication
    • 03. Prejudice and aggression
    • 04. Cross-cultural training
    • 01. Australian zeitgeist
    • 06. Assessment workshop
  • Tutorial themes
    • Experiential exercises
    • Audio / video
    • Discussion
  • Drop-in
    • After lectures
    • 3B32 / 3C18
  • Assessment
    • 35% Essay
    • 35% Exam
    • 25% E-portfolio
    • 05% Research participation
  • Essays
    • 3000 word max:
    • Theory (33.3%)
    • Research (33.3%)
    • Written expression (33.3%)
  • Essay topics
    • Choice of topics – discussed in the first tutorial
    • Each student adopts a unique/topic question
    • By the beginning of W3, all topics will be posted
  • Extensions
    • are
    • unlikely
    • (see Outline)
  • E-portfolio
    • Set up a Wikiversity account
    • Submit name of account to convener
    • Create some initial reflections for W1 and 2
    • Look at and comment on other user-pages
  • Exam
    • During exam-period
    • Open book
    • Multiple-choice
      • Lectures
      • Tutorials
      • Readings
    • ThomsonNOW quizzes
  • Textbook
    • Social Psychology and Human Nature
    • Baumeister & Bushman (2008)
  • Textbook access
    • Bundle (~AU$130)
    • iChapters (~US$60)
    • ThomsonNOW (~AU$40)
    • Library
    • Companion site
  • Textbook foci
    • Self
    • Evolutionary
    • Cultural
  • Textbook themes
    • Food
    • Sex
    • Tradeoffs
    • Bad vs. Good
  • Unit themes
    • Cross-cultural
    • Australia
    • Social technology
    • Experiential
  • e-Reserve
    • Alt. chapters
    • Classic articles
    • Cross-cultural readings
  • Websites
    • ucspace
    • http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125
    • Wikiversity
    • http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/SPP
  • What is Social Psychology?
    • Human behaviour
    • in social context.
    • How the
      • thoughts
      • feelings
      • behaviours
      • of individuals
      • are influenced by the...
      • actual
      • imagined or
      • implied
      • presence of others (based on Allport, 1935)
  •  
      • a joint function of
      • personal and
      • situational
      • influences (based on Baumeister & Bushman, 2008, p. 11)
    • feelings ( A ffect)
      • behaviours ( B ehaviour)
      • thoughts ( C ognition)
      • ABC
  • Person to Person
  • Group to Person Person to Group
  • Group to Group
  •  
  • Sociometrics
    • A family of 4 involves:
    • 6 dyads
    • 3 triads
    • 1 quadad
  • Sociology vs. Social Psychology Sociology (group) Social Psychology Psychology (individual)
  • 3 broad domains
    • Social perception
    • Social influence
    • Social interaction
  • Social perception
    • How we interpret social objects.
  • Social influence
    • Attitudes & behaviour brought about by others.
  • Social interaction
    • How we interact with others in the social world.
  • Person vs. situation Person Situation
  • Applications
    • Business
    • Health
    • Education
    • Law
    • Environment
  • Social Psychology & Some Close Scientific Neighbors Developmental Psycho- pathology Health Organizational
  • History & Research in Social Psychology
  • Origins
    • Origins in Europe & North America in the late 19 th - early 20 th century.
  • Volkerpsychologie (folk psych) mid-late 1800s
  • Crowd Psychology (Group Mind) (Le Bon, 1895)
  • History
    • First social psychological experiment
    • - Triplett (1898)
    • - Social facilitation
  •  
  • History
    • Influences in Early 20th Century
    • – Gordon Allport (Attitudes)
    • Post WW1 - rise of behaviourism & experimentation
  • History
    • Attitude scaling (Thurstone, 1930s)
    • Social psychology splits from behaviorism and psychoanalysis
    • Gestalt theorists - Asch, Sherif, Lewin (1930s-50s)
    • Studied group processes & dynamics
    History
    • Post WW2 - motivated to explain atrocities committed e.g.,
    • Authoritarian personality (Allport),
    • Obedience (Milgram),
    • Roles (Zimbardo).
    History
    • 1960s - rise of attribution theory, cognitive dissonance (Festinger)
    • Developments in European social psychology
      • Tajfel (social identity theory)
      • Moscovici (minority influence)
    History
    • Late 1960s - early 1970s - ‘crisis in social psychology’
    • 1970s to now - rise of social cognition & information processing
    • Alternatives - social constructionism, discourse analysis
    • Australian social psychology? Society of Australasian Social Psychologists (SASP)
    History
  • Theory <-> Research Theory Research
  • Scientific research method
    • State problem
    • Formulate testable hypothesis
    • Design study and collect data
    • Test the hypothesis with data
    • Communicate study results
  • Research method
    • Scientific methods distinguished psychology during the 20 th century.
    • Experimental method flourished within social psychology 1930’s-1970’s.
    • Caused a debate/crisis that over-reliance on experimental research was limiting understanding.
  • Research methods
    • Experimental vs. non-experimental methods
    • Quantitative vs. qualitative methods
  • Experimental method
    • Manipulate one or more variables (IV) & look at effect on other variable(s) (DVs)
    • Laboratory vs. Field Experiments.
  • Laboratory experiments
    • Advantages
    • Controlled environment so that causality can be inferred.
    • Internal validity
    • Potential problems
    • Construct validity
    • External validity / mundane realism
    • Experimental realism
    • Reactivity
    Laboratory experiments
    • Potential problems
    • Subject effects
    • Demand characteristics
    • Experimenter effects
    • Ethics?
    Laboratory experiments
  • Field experiments
    • Naturalistic settings
    • + mundane realism (- reactive)
    • control over potentially confounding variables
    • Measurement difficulties
    • Informed consent?
  • Non-experimental methods
    • Archival research
    • Case study
    • Survey research - usually correlational
    • Observational field studies - observe behaviour in natural setting
    • Advantages
    • more naturalistic
    • may be more ethical
    • potentially large amounts of data
    • better construct validity
    Non-experimental methods
    • Disadvantages
    • lack of control - less internal validity
    • may not show causality
    • researcher bias
    • demand characteristics
    • subject effects.
    Non-experimental methods
    • Developed by Kurt Lewin (1940’s)
    • Systematic, dynamic experiments with real groups
    • Pioneered “action research”
    Action research
    • Advantages
    • Relatively natural
    • Ethical
    • Empowering
    • Research is combined with education
    Action research
    • Disadvantages
    • Lack of scientific control
    • Researcher-dependent?
    Action research
  • Research ethics
    • Informed consent
    • Protect participants from harm & discomfort
    • Avoid excessive use of deception
    • Confidentiality
    • Fully debrief participants
  • The crisis
    • 2 major criticism of social psychology (late 1960s):
    • Overly reductionist
    • Overly positivistic
    • Experimental method criticisms:
    • demand characteristics,
    • experimenter effects,
    • lack of social context.
  • Reductionism
    • Reducing behaviour to the individual, ignoring social context
    • Levels of explanation
      • intrapersonal
      • interpersonal or situational
      • positional
      • ideological
  • Positivism
    • Non-critical acceptance of science and its methods
    • Is the scientific method & especially the experiment suitable for social psychology?
    • Kenneth Gergen (1978, 1997)
    • Are experiments an appropriate research method for social psychology?
    Social constructionism
    • Social events are:
    • Culturally embedded
    • Sequentially embedded
    • Openly competitive
    • Final common pathways
    • Complexly determined
    • Social psychology as history.
    Social constructionism
    • Interpretation of the meaning of events & behaviour change across cultural history.
      • -> no general laws of behaviour.
      • -> all reasonable hypotheses are likely to be valid.
    Social constructionism
    • Social world is product of socially & historically situated practices.
    • Research findings do not have meaning until ‘interpreted’.
    • No knowledge is transhistorical & transcultural.
    Social constructionism
    • Importance of reflexivity - researcher’s awareness of own biases, assumptions etc.
    • Critical social psychology - value-laden & political.
    Social constructionism
    • Research methods - focus on language & use of rhetoric.
    • Observations, interviews, records of naturally occurring events
    • Analysis of discourse
    Social constructionism
  • Conclusions
    • Which research method is best?
    • Is the experiment still useful?
    • Methodological pluralism?
  • Summary
    • A central subject in psychology which evolved as a unique field during the 20 th century.
  • Summary
    • Large, dynamic, diverse field of inquiry, with many:
      • Theoretical & research approaches
      • Topics & applications
      • Debates & dilemmas
  • Summary
    • Social psychology studies the individual within the group (or society)
  • Culture & nature
  • Overview
    • Psyche
    • Evolution
    • Culture
    • Social brain theory
    • Individual vs. culture
  • Psyche
    • Broad term for mind, influenced by:
      • Nature – Genes, hormones, brain structure and other innate processes dictate how you will choose and act
      • Culture – Learned experiences; from parents, society and any experiences
  • Evolution
    • Theory of evolution
    • Natural selectio n
      • Survival
      • Mutation
      • Reproduction
  • Z o o m Once upon a time ....
  • Big Bang 14 billion years ago
  • 30 billion trillion stars 14 billion light years
  • 250 000 trillion stars 250 000 trillion stars 1 billion light years
  • 200 trillion stars 100 million light years
  • 1 billion light years 700 billion stars
  • 500 000 light years 225 billion stars
  • 200 billion stars 500 000 light years
  • 600 million stars 5 000 light years
  • 260 000 stars 250 light years
  • 33 stars 12.5 light years
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • 4.57 billion years ago...
  • Uni of Canberra
  • ~4 million years ago homo sapiens (a bipedal hominid) evolved Human evolution
  •  
  • Social nature Communicate Form groups Social norms (culture) Humans
  • 100 billion ever 6.6 billion now ~10 billion by 2050 Humans on earth
  • 5 born /sec 2 die /sec Humans on earth
  •  
  • Population bottleneck
  • Population density
  • 21 million (.3%)
  • Human evolution survey
  • Culture
    • Info-based system
      • Shared ideas
      • Common ways of doing things
    • Ideas
      • Mental (abstract) representations
      • Can be expressed in language
    • Consider cultural differences and underlying similarities
  • Social animal
    • Seek connections to others
    • Work together
    • Learn from one another
    • Help kin
    • Resolve conflict with aggression
  • Cultural animal
    • Evolution shaped psyche to enable creating and taking part in culture
    • Division of labor
    • Deliberately share knowledge
    • Help strangers
    • Resolve conflict with many alternatives
  • Social brain theory
    • Why is the human brain so evolved?
        • Larger brain is linked to complex social systems (Dunbar, 1993, 1996)
  • Advantages of culture
    • Human brain evolved to capitalise on culture
      • Language
      • Progress - to build on experience of others
      • Division of Labor
      • Exchange of Goods and Services
    • Humans have evolved to participate in culture
  • The duplex mind
    • Automatic system
    • Outside of consciousness
    • Simple operations
    • Conscious system
    • Complex operations
  • Changing role of consciousness
    • Increased focus on role of automatic system
    • Can learn, think, choose and respond
    • Has idea and emotions
    • Knows “self” and other people
    • Consciousness focus on complex thinking and logic
  • Living in a culture
    • Working to gain social acceptance
    • Inner states help humans connect to others
      • Intelligent brain evolved to improve interpersonal relations
  • Nature says go, Culture says no
    • Nature – impulses, wishes, automatic responses
    • Culture – teaches self-control and restraint
    • Exceptions
      • Nature’s disgust reactions (No)
      • Cultural timetable for meals (Go)
  • Selfish impulse vs. social conscience
    • Nature makes us selfish
    • Preservation of self
    • Culture helps us resist selfish impulses
    • Consideration of what is best for society
      • Moral Code
      • Laws
  • Putting people first
    • People get most of what they need from other people
    • Culture as a “general store” of information
    • People look to each other first
  • What makes us human?
    • Behavior results from mix of nature and culture
    • Human life is enmeshed in culture
    • Humans think with language and meaning
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