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Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
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Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1

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Unit Outline, Introduction, What is Social Psychology?, History & Research, Culture & Nature

Unit Outline, Introduction, What is Social Psychology?, History & Research, Culture & Nature

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  • Image source: Unknown 21 July, 2008, 11:30-13:30, 2B11 7125-6666 Social Psychology / G Centre for Applied Psyhology Faculty of Health University of Canberra Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia ph: +61 2 6201 2536 [email_address] http://wilderdom.com/7125 http://wilderdom.com/6666 http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125/Unit+Outline
  • Transcript

    • 1. Social Psychology
        • Lecture 1, Week 1
        • Introduction
        • Semester 2, 2008
        • Lecturer: James Neill
    • 2. Overview
      • Unit outline
      • Introduction
      • What is social psychology?
      • History
      • Research
      • Culture & nature
    • 3. Unit outline
    • 4. Contact info
      • Before/after lectures
      • [email_address]
      • 6201 2536
      • Drop-in tuts : Wed 13.30-14.30 (after lecture) in 3C18 (computer lab).
      • Or by appointment
    • 5. Description
      • Theory
      • Research
      • Applications
    • 6. Learning outcomes
      • Key concepts
      • Apply theories
      • Communicate
    • 7. Lectures (10 x 2 hr)
      • 9 by James Neill (W 1, 2, 3, 4 10, 11, 12, 13, 15)
      • 1 by Melisah Feeney (W 5)
    • 8. Lectures
      • Streamed live
      • Video & audio downloadable
      • Notes ~24 hours prior
      • Readings mostly from textbook
    • 9. Lecture themes
      • Foundations
      • Problems
      • Strategies/Solutions
    • 10. Lecture themes
      • What?
      • What can go wrong?
      • What can go right?
    • 11. Lecture topics
      • 01. Introduction
      • 02. The Social Self
      • 03. Social Thinking
      • 04. Aggression (DVD)
      • 05. Prejudice
      • 06. Relationships
      • 07. Groups
      • 08. Prosocial
      • 09. Environmental
      • 10. Review
    • 12. Tutorials
      • 6 x 2 hr
      • Alternate tuesdays after lecture (check timetable)
      • Tutor:
        • James Neill (all)
    • 13. Tutorial topics
      • 01. Introduction
      • 02. Communication
      • 03. Prejudice and aggression
      • 04. Cross-cultural training
      • 01. Australian zeitgeist
      • 06. Assessment workshop
    • 14. Tutorial themes
      • Experiential exercises
      • Audio / video
      • Discussion
    • 15. Drop-in
      • After lectures
      • 3B32 / 3C18
    • 16. Assessment
      • 35% Essay
      • 35% Exam
      • 25% E-portfolio
      • 05% Research participation
    • 17. Essays
      • 3000 word max:
      • Theory (33.3%)
      • Research (33.3%)
      • Written expression (33.3%)
    • 18. Essay topics
      • Choice of topics – discussed in the first tutorial
      • Each student adopts a unique/topic question
      • By the beginning of W3, all topics will be posted
    • 19. Extensions
      • are
      • unlikely
      • (see Outline)
    • 20. E-portfolio
      • Set up a Wikiversity account
      • Submit name of account to convener
      • Create some initial reflections for W1 and 2
      • Look at and comment on other user-pages
    • 21. Exam
      • During exam-period
      • Open book
      • Multiple-choice
        • Lectures
        • Tutorials
        • Readings
      • ThomsonNOW quizzes
    • 22. Textbook
      • Social Psychology and Human Nature
      • Baumeister & Bushman (2008)
    • 23. Textbook access
      • Bundle (~AU$130)
      • iChapters (~US$60)
      • ThomsonNOW (~AU$40)
      • Library
      • Companion site
    • 24. Textbook foci
      • Self
      • Evolutionary
      • Cultural
    • 25. Textbook themes
      • Food
      • Sex
      • Tradeoffs
      • Bad vs. Good
    • 26. Unit themes
      • Cross-cultural
      • Australia
      • Social technology
      • Experiential
    • 27. e-Reserve
      • Alt. chapters
      • Classic articles
      • Cross-cultural readings
    • 28. Websites
      • ucspace
      • http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125
      • Wikiversity
      • http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/SPP
    • 29. What is Social Psychology?
    • 30.
      • Human behaviour
      • in social context.
    • 31.
      • How the
        • thoughts
        • feelings
        • behaviours
        • of individuals
        • are influenced by the...
    • 32.
        • actual
        • imagined or
        • implied
        • presence of others (based on Allport, 1935)
    • 33.  
    • 34.
        • a joint function of
        • personal and
        • situational
        • influences (based on Baumeister & Bushman, 2008, p. 11)
    • 35.
      • feelings ( A ffect)
        • behaviours ( B ehaviour)
        • thoughts ( C ognition)
        • ABC
    • 36. Person to Person
    • 37. Group to Person Person to Group
    • 38. Group to Group
    • 39.  
    • 40. Sociometrics
      • A family of 4 involves:
      • 6 dyads
      • 3 triads
      • 1 quadad
    • 41. Sociology vs. Social Psychology Sociology (group) Social Psychology Psychology (individual)
    • 42. 3 broad domains
      • Social perception
      • Social influence
      • Social interaction
    • 43. Social perception
      • How we interpret social objects.
    • 44. Social influence
      • Attitudes & behaviour brought about by others.
    • 45. Social interaction
      • How we interact with others in the social world.
    • 46. Person vs. situation Person Situation
    • 47. Applications
      • Business
      • Health
      • Education
      • Law
      • Environment
    • 48. Social Psychology & Some Close Scientific Neighbors Developmental Psycho- pathology Health Organizational
    • 49. History & Research in Social Psychology
    • 50. Origins
      • Origins in Europe & North America in the late 19 th - early 20 th century.
    • 51. Volkerpsychologie (folk psych) mid-late 1800s
    • 52. Crowd Psychology (Group Mind) (Le Bon, 1895)
    • 53. History
      • First social psychological experiment
      • - Triplett (1898)
      • - Social facilitation
    • 54.  
    • 55. History
      • Influences in Early 20th Century
      • – Gordon Allport (Attitudes)
      • Post WW1 - rise of behaviourism & experimentation
    • 56. History
      • Attitude scaling (Thurstone, 1930s)
      • Social psychology splits from behaviorism and psychoanalysis
    • 57.
      • Gestalt theorists - Asch, Sherif, Lewin (1930s-50s)
      • Studied group processes & dynamics
      History
    • 58.
      • Post WW2 - motivated to explain atrocities committed e.g.,
      • Authoritarian personality (Allport),
      • Obedience (Milgram),
      • Roles (Zimbardo).
      History
    • 59.
      • 1960s - rise of attribution theory, cognitive dissonance (Festinger)
      • Developments in European social psychology
        • Tajfel (social identity theory)
        • Moscovici (minority influence)
      History
    • 60.
      • Late 1960s - early 1970s - ‘crisis in social psychology’
      • 1970s to now - rise of social cognition & information processing
      • Alternatives - social constructionism, discourse analysis
      • Australian social psychology? Society of Australasian Social Psychologists (SASP)
      History
    • 61. Theory <-> Research Theory Research
    • 62. Scientific research method
      • State problem
      • Formulate testable hypothesis
      • Design study and collect data
      • Test the hypothesis with data
      • Communicate study results
    • 63. Research method
      • Scientific methods distinguished psychology during the 20 th century.
      • Experimental method flourished within social psychology 1930’s-1970’s.
      • Caused a debate/crisis that over-reliance on experimental research was limiting understanding.
    • 64. Research methods
      • Experimental vs. non-experimental methods
      • Quantitative vs. qualitative methods
    • 65. Experimental method
      • Manipulate one or more variables (IV) & look at effect on other variable(s) (DVs)
      • Laboratory vs. Field Experiments.
    • 66. Laboratory experiments
      • Advantages
      • Controlled environment so that causality can be inferred.
      • Internal validity
    • 67.
      • Potential problems
      • Construct validity
      • External validity / mundane realism
      • Experimental realism
      • Reactivity
      Laboratory experiments
    • 68.
      • Potential problems
      • Subject effects
      • Demand characteristics
      • Experimenter effects
      • Ethics?
      Laboratory experiments
    • 69. Field experiments
      • Naturalistic settings
      • + mundane realism (- reactive)
      • control over potentially confounding variables
      • Measurement difficulties
      • Informed consent?
    • 70. Non-experimental methods
      • Archival research
      • Case study
      • Survey research - usually correlational
      • Observational field studies - observe behaviour in natural setting
    • 71.
      • Advantages
      • more naturalistic
      • may be more ethical
      • potentially large amounts of data
      • better construct validity
      Non-experimental methods
    • 72.
      • Disadvantages
      • lack of control - less internal validity
      • may not show causality
      • researcher bias
      • demand characteristics
      • subject effects.
      Non-experimental methods
    • 73.
      • Developed by Kurt Lewin (1940’s)
      • Systematic, dynamic experiments with real groups
      • Pioneered “action research”
      Action research
    • 74.
      • Advantages
      • Relatively natural
      • Ethical
      • Empowering
      • Research is combined with education
      Action research
    • 75.
      • Disadvantages
      • Lack of scientific control
      • Researcher-dependent?
      Action research
    • 76. Research ethics
      • Informed consent
      • Protect participants from harm & discomfort
      • Avoid excessive use of deception
      • Confidentiality
      • Fully debrief participants
    • 77. The crisis
      • 2 major criticism of social psychology (late 1960s):
      • Overly reductionist
      • Overly positivistic
      • Experimental method criticisms:
      • demand characteristics,
      • experimenter effects,
      • lack of social context.
    • 78. Reductionism
      • Reducing behaviour to the individual, ignoring social context
      • Levels of explanation
        • intrapersonal
        • interpersonal or situational
        • positional
        • ideological
    • 79. Positivism
      • Non-critical acceptance of science and its methods
      • Is the scientific method & especially the experiment suitable for social psychology?
    • 80.
      • Kenneth Gergen (1978, 1997)
      • Are experiments an appropriate research method for social psychology?
      Social constructionism
    • 81.
      • Social events are:
      • Culturally embedded
      • Sequentially embedded
      • Openly competitive
      • Final common pathways
      • Complexly determined
      • Social psychology as history.
      Social constructionism
    • 82.
      • Interpretation of the meaning of events & behaviour change across cultural history.
        • -> no general laws of behaviour.
        • -> all reasonable hypotheses are likely to be valid.
      Social constructionism
    • 83.
      • Social world is product of socially & historically situated practices.
      • Research findings do not have meaning until ‘interpreted’.
      • No knowledge is transhistorical & transcultural.
      Social constructionism
    • 84.
      • Importance of reflexivity - researcher’s awareness of own biases, assumptions etc.
      • Critical social psychology - value-laden & political.
      Social constructionism
    • 85.
      • Research methods - focus on language & use of rhetoric.
      • Observations, interviews, records of naturally occurring events
      • Analysis of discourse
      Social constructionism
    • 86. Conclusions
      • Which research method is best?
      • Is the experiment still useful?
      • Methodological pluralism?
    • 87. Summary
      • A central subject in psychology which evolved as a unique field during the 20 th century.
    • 88. Summary
      • Large, dynamic, diverse field of inquiry, with many:
        • Theoretical & research approaches
        • Topics & applications
        • Debates & dilemmas
    • 89. Summary
      • Social psychology studies the individual within the group (or society)
    • 90. Culture & nature
    • 91. Overview
      • Psyche
      • Evolution
      • Culture
      • Social brain theory
      • Individual vs. culture
    • 92. Psyche
      • Broad term for mind, influenced by:
        • Nature – Genes, hormones, brain structure and other innate processes dictate how you will choose and act
        • Culture – Learned experiences; from parents, society and any experiences
    • 93. Evolution
      • Theory of evolution
      • Natural selectio n
        • Survival
        • Mutation
        • Reproduction
    • 94. Z o o m Once upon a time ....
    • 95. Big Bang 14 billion years ago
    • 96. 30 billion trillion stars 14 billion light years
    • 97. 250 000 trillion stars 250 000 trillion stars 1 billion light years
    • 98. 200 trillion stars 100 million light years
    • 99. 1 billion light years 700 billion stars
    • 100. 500 000 light years 225 billion stars
    • 101. 200 billion stars 500 000 light years
    • 102. 600 million stars 5 000 light years
    • 103. 260 000 stars 250 light years
    • 104. 33 stars 12.5 light years
    • 105.  
    • 106.  
    • 107.  
    • 108.  
    • 109.  
    • 110. 4.57 billion years ago...
    • 111. Uni of Canberra
    • 112. ~4 million years ago homo sapiens (a bipedal hominid) evolved Human evolution
    • 113.  
    • 114. Social nature Communicate Form groups Social norms (culture) Humans
    • 115. 100 billion ever 6.6 billion now ~10 billion by 2050 Humans on earth
    • 116. 5 born /sec 2 die /sec Humans on earth
    • 117.  
    • 118. Population bottleneck
    • 119. Population density
    • 120. 21 million (.3%)
    • 121. Human evolution survey
    • 122. Culture
      • Info-based system
        • Shared ideas
        • Common ways of doing things
      • Ideas
        • Mental (abstract) representations
        • Can be expressed in language
      • Consider cultural differences and underlying similarities
    • 123. Social animal
      • Seek connections to others
      • Work together
      • Learn from one another
      • Help kin
      • Resolve conflict with aggression
    • 124. Cultural animal
      • Evolution shaped psyche to enable creating and taking part in culture
      • Division of labor
      • Deliberately share knowledge
      • Help strangers
      • Resolve conflict with many alternatives
    • 125. Social brain theory
      • Why is the human brain so evolved?
          • Larger brain is linked to complex social systems (Dunbar, 1993, 1996)
    • 126. Advantages of culture
      • Human brain evolved to capitalise on culture
        • Language
        • Progress - to build on experience of others
        • Division of Labor
        • Exchange of Goods and Services
      • Humans have evolved to participate in culture
    • 127. The duplex mind
      • Automatic system
      • Outside of consciousness
      • Simple operations
      • Conscious system
      • Complex operations
    • 128. Changing role of consciousness
      • Increased focus on role of automatic system
      • Can learn, think, choose and respond
      • Has idea and emotions
      • Knows “self” and other people
      • Consciousness focus on complex thinking and logic
    • 129. Living in a culture
      • Working to gain social acceptance
      • Inner states help humans connect to others
        • Intelligent brain evolved to improve interpersonal relations
    • 130. Nature says go, Culture says no
      • Nature – impulses, wishes, automatic responses
      • Culture – teaches self-control and restraint
      • Exceptions
        • Nature’s disgust reactions (No)
        • Cultural timetable for meals (Go)
    • 131. Selfish impulse vs. social conscience
      • Nature makes us selfish
      • Preservation of self
      • Culture helps us resist selfish impulses
      • Consideration of what is best for society
        • Moral Code
        • Laws
    • 132. Putting people first
      • People get most of what they need from other people
      • Culture as a “general store” of information
      • People look to each other first
    • 133. What makes us human?
      • Behavior results from mix of nature and culture
      • Human life is enmeshed in culture
      • Humans think with language and meaning
    • 134. Open Office Impress
      • This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.
      • Free and open source software.
      • http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html

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