Social Psychology <ul><ul><li>Lecture 1, Week 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semeste...
Overview <ul><li>Unit outline </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What is social psychology? </li></ul><ul><l...
Unit outline
Contact info <ul><li>Before/after lectures </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>6201 2536 </li></ul><ul><li...
Description <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
Learning outcomes <ul><li>Key concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Apply theories </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul>
Lectures (10 x 2 hr) <ul><li>9 by James Neill (W 1, 2, 3, 4 10, 11,  12, 13, 15) </li></ul><ul><li>1 by Melisah Feeney (W ...
Lectures <ul><li>Streamed live </li></ul><ul><li>Video & audio downloadable </li></ul><ul><li>Notes ~24 hours prior </li><...
Lecture themes <ul><li>Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies/Solutions </li></ul>
Lecture themes <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>What can go wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>What can go right? </li></ul>
Lecture topics <ul><li>01.   Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>02.   The Social Self </li></ul><ul><li>03.   Social Thinking ...
Tutorials <ul><li>6 x 2 hr </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate tuesdays after lecture (check timetable) </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor: <...
Tutorial topics <ul><li>01.  Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>02.  Communication </li></ul><ul><li>03.  Prejudice and aggres...
Tutorial themes <ul><li>Experiential exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Audio / video </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
Drop-in <ul><li>After lectures </li></ul><ul><li>3B32 / 3C18 </li></ul>
Assessment <ul><li>35% Essay </li></ul><ul><li>35% Exam </li></ul><ul><li>25% E-portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>05% Research p...
Essays <ul><li>3000 word max: </li></ul><ul><li>Theory  (33.3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Research  (33.3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Writ...
Essay topics <ul><li>Choice of topics – discussed in the first tutorial </li></ul><ul><li>Each student adopts a unique/top...
Extensions <ul><li>are </li></ul><ul><li>unlikely </li></ul><ul><li>(see Outline) </li></ul>
E-portfolio <ul><li>Set up a Wikiversity account </li></ul><ul><li>Submit name of account to convener </li></ul><ul><li>Cr...
Exam <ul><li>During exam-period </li></ul><ul><li>Open book </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectur...
Textbook <ul><li>Social Psychology and Human Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Baumeister & Bushman (2008) </li></ul>
Textbook access <ul><li>Bundle (~AU$130) </li></ul><ul><li>iChapters (~US$60) </li></ul><ul><li>ThomsonNOW (~AU$40) </li><...
Textbook foci <ul><li>Self </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul>
Textbook themes <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Tradeoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Bad vs. Good </li></ul>
Unit themes <ul><li>Cross-cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Social technology </li></ul><ul><li>Exper...
e-Reserve <ul><li>Alt. chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Classic articles </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural readings </li></ul>
Websites <ul><li>ucspace </li></ul><ul><li>http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125 </li></ul><ul><li>Wikiversity </li>...
What is Social Psychology?
<ul><li>Human behaviour  </li></ul><ul><li>in social context. </li></ul>
<ul><li>How the  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviours ...
<ul><ul><li>actual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imagined   or  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implied  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
 
<ul><ul><li>a joint function of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal   and  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>situational  </li></...
<ul><li>feelings ( A ffect) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviours  ( B ehaviour) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thoughts ( C ogniti...
Person to Person
Group to Person Person to Group
Group to Group
 
Sociometrics <ul><li>A family of 4 involves: </li></ul><ul><li>6 dyads </li></ul><ul><li>3 triads </li></ul><ul><li>1 quad...
Sociology vs.  Social Psychology Sociology (group) Social Psychology Psychology (individual)
3 broad domains <ul><li>Social perception </li></ul><ul><li>Social influence </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul>
Social perception <ul><li>How we interpret social objects. </li></ul>
Social influence <ul><li>Attitudes & behaviour brought about by others. </li></ul>
Social interaction <ul><li>How we interact with others in the social world. </li></ul>
Person vs. situation Person Situation
Applications <ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><li...
Social Psychology & Some Close Scientific Neighbors Developmental Psycho- pathology Health Organizational
History & Research in Social Psychology
Origins <ul><li>Origins in Europe & North America in the  late 19 th  -  early 20 th   century. </li></ul>
Volkerpsychologie   (folk psych) mid-late 1800s
Crowd Psychology  (Group Mind) (Le Bon, 1895)
History <ul><li>First social psychological experiment </li></ul><ul><li>- Triplett (1898) </li></ul><ul><li>- Social facil...
 
History <ul><li>Influences in Early 20th Century </li></ul><ul><li>– Gordon Allport (Attitudes) </li></ul><ul><li>Post WW1...
History <ul><li>Attitude scaling (Thurstone, 1930s) </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychology splits from behaviorism and psycho...
<ul><li>Gestalt theorists -  Asch, Sherif, Lewin (1930s-50s) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied group processes & dynamics </li></u...
<ul><li>Post WW2 - motivated to explain atrocities committed e.g.,  </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian personality (Allport),...
<ul><li>1960s - rise of attribution theory, cognitive dissonance (Festinger) </li></ul><ul><li>Developments in European so...
<ul><li>Late 1960s - early 1970s - ‘crisis in social psychology’ </li></ul><ul><li>1970s to now - rise of social cognition...
Theory <-> Research Theory Research
Scientific research method <ul><li>State problem </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate testable hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Design ...
Research method <ul><li>Scientific methods distinguished psychology during the 20 th  century. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimen...
Research methods <ul><li>Experimental vs. non-experimental methods </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative vs. qualitative methods ...
Experimental method <ul><li>Manipulate one or more variables (IV) & look at effect on other variable(s) (DVs) </li></ul><u...
Laboratory experiments <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled environment so that causality can be inferred. </li...
<ul><li>Potential problems </li></ul><ul><li>Construct validity </li></ul><ul><li>External validity / mundane realism </li...
<ul><li>Potential problems </li></ul><ul><li>Subject effects </li></ul><ul><li>Demand characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Ex...
Field experiments <ul><li>Naturalistic settings </li></ul><ul><li>+ mundane realism (- reactive) </li></ul><ul><li>control...
Non-experimental methods <ul><li>Archival research </li></ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul><ul><li>Survey research - usuall...
<ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>more naturalistic </li></ul><ul><li>may be more ethical </li></ul><ul><li>potentially...
<ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>lack of control - less internal validity </li></ul><ul><li>may not show causality ...
<ul><li>Developed by Kurt Lewin (1940’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic, dynamic experiments with real groups </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively natural </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of scientific control </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher-dependent? </li></ul>Actio...
Research ethics <ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Protect participants from harm & discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>A...
The crisis <ul><li>2 major criticism of social psychology (late 1960s): </li></ul><ul><li>Overly reductionist </li></ul><u...
Reductionism <ul><li>Reducing behaviour to the individual, ignoring social context </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of explanation...
Positivism <ul><li>Non-critical acceptance of science and its methods </li></ul><ul><li>Is the scientific method & especia...
<ul><li>Kenneth Gergen (1978, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Are experiments an appropriate research method for social psychology...
<ul><li>Social events are: </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally embedded </li></ul><ul><li>Sequentially embedded </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Interpretation of the meaning of events & behaviour change across cultural history. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-> no ge...
<ul><li>Social world is product of socially & historically situated practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Research findings do not ...
<ul><li>Importance of reflexivity - researcher’s awareness of own biases, assumptions etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical soci...
<ul><li>Research methods - focus on language & use of rhetoric. </li></ul><ul><li>Observations, interviews, records of nat...
Conclusions <ul><li>Which research method is best? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the experiment still useful? </li></ul><ul><li>Met...
Summary <ul><li>A central subject in psychology which evolved as a unique field during the 20 th  century. </li></ul>
Summary <ul><li>Large, dynamic, diverse field of inquiry, with many: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical & research approach...
Summary <ul><li>Social psychology studies the individual within the group (or society) </li></ul>
Culture & nature
Overview <ul><li>Psyche </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Social brain theory </li><...
Psyche <ul><li>Broad term for mind, influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature  – Genes, hormones, brain structure and ot...
Evolution <ul><li>Theory of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selectio n </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul></ul><...
Z   o   o   m Once upon a time ....
Big Bang 14 billion years ago
30 billion trillion  stars 14 billion light years
250 000 trillion stars 250 000 trillion stars 1 billion light years
200 trillion stars 100 million light years
1 billion light years 700 billion stars
500 000 light years 225 billion stars
200 billion stars 500 000 light years
600 million stars 5 000 light years
260 000 stars 250 light years
33 stars 12.5 light years
 
 
 
 
 
4.57 billion years ago...
Uni of Canberra
~4 million years ago homo sapiens (a bipedal hominid) evolved Human evolution
 
Social nature  Communicate Form groups Social norms (culture) Humans
100 billion ever 6.6 billion now ~10 billion by 2050 Humans on earth
5 born /sec  2 die /sec Humans on earth
 
Population bottleneck
Population density
21 million (.3%)
Human evolution survey
Culture <ul><li>Info-based system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common ways of doing thing...
Social animal <ul><li>Seek connections to others </li></ul><ul><li>Work together </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from one another ...
Cultural animal <ul><li>Evolution shaped psyche to enable  creating and taking part in culture </li></ul><ul><li>Division ...
Social brain theory <ul><li>Why is the human brain so evolved? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger brain is linked to complex...
Advantages of culture <ul><li>Human brain evolved to capitalise on culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><...
The duplex mind <ul><li>Automatic system </li></ul><ul><li>Outside of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Simple operations </...
Changing role of consciousness <ul><li>Increased focus on role of automatic system </li></ul><ul><li>Can learn, think, cho...
Living in a culture <ul><li>Working to gain social acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Inner states help humans connect to others...
Nature says go, Culture says no <ul><li>Nature  – impulses, wishes, automatic responses </li></ul><ul><li>Culture  – teach...
Selfish impulse vs. social conscience <ul><li>Nature makes us selfish </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of self </li></ul><ul...
Putting people first <ul><li>People get most of what they need from other people </li></ul><ul><li>Culture as a “general s...
What makes us human? <ul><li>Behavior results from mix of nature and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Human life is enmeshed in c...
Open Office Impress <ul><li>This presentation was made using Open Office Impress. </li></ul><ul><li>Free and open source s...
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Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1

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Unit Outline, Introduction, What is Social Psychology?, History & Research, Culture & Nature

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  • Image source: Unknown 21 July, 2008, 11:30-13:30, 2B11 7125-6666 Social Psychology / G Centre for Applied Psyhology Faculty of Health University of Canberra Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia ph: +61 2 6201 2536 [email_address] http://wilderdom.com/7125 http://wilderdom.com/6666 http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125/Unit+Outline
  • Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1

    1. 1. Social Psychology <ul><ul><li>Lecture 1, Week 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semester 2, 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecturer: James Neill </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Unit outline </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What is social psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Culture & nature </li></ul>
    3. 3. Unit outline
    4. 4. Contact info <ul><li>Before/after lectures </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>6201 2536 </li></ul><ul><li>Drop-in tuts : Wed 13.30-14.30 (after lecture) in 3C18 (computer lab). </li></ul><ul><li>Or by appointment </li></ul>
    5. 5. Description <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
    6. 6. Learning outcomes <ul><li>Key concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Apply theories </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul>
    7. 7. Lectures (10 x 2 hr) <ul><li>9 by James Neill (W 1, 2, 3, 4 10, 11, 12, 13, 15) </li></ul><ul><li>1 by Melisah Feeney (W 5) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Lectures <ul><li>Streamed live </li></ul><ul><li>Video & audio downloadable </li></ul><ul><li>Notes ~24 hours prior </li></ul><ul><li>Readings mostly from textbook </li></ul>
    9. 9. Lecture themes <ul><li>Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies/Solutions </li></ul>
    10. 10. Lecture themes <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>What can go wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>What can go right? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Lecture topics <ul><li>01. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>02. The Social Self </li></ul><ul><li>03. Social Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>04. Aggression (DVD) </li></ul><ul><li>05. Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>06. Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>07. Groups </li></ul><ul><li>08. Prosocial </li></ul><ul><li>09. Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>10. Review </li></ul>
    12. 12. Tutorials <ul><li>6 x 2 hr </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate tuesdays after lecture (check timetable) </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Neill (all) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Tutorial topics <ul><li>01. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>02. Communication </li></ul><ul><li>03. Prejudice and aggression </li></ul><ul><li>04. Cross-cultural training </li></ul><ul><li>01. Australian zeitgeist </li></ul><ul><li>06. Assessment workshop </li></ul>
    14. 14. Tutorial themes <ul><li>Experiential exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Audio / video </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
    15. 15. Drop-in <ul><li>After lectures </li></ul><ul><li>3B32 / 3C18 </li></ul>
    16. 16. Assessment <ul><li>35% Essay </li></ul><ul><li>35% Exam </li></ul><ul><li>25% E-portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>05% Research participation </li></ul>
    17. 17. Essays <ul><li>3000 word max: </li></ul><ul><li>Theory (33.3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Research (33.3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Written expression (33.3%) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Essay topics <ul><li>Choice of topics – discussed in the first tutorial </li></ul><ul><li>Each student adopts a unique/topic question </li></ul><ul><li>By the beginning of W3, all topics will be posted </li></ul>
    19. 19. Extensions <ul><li>are </li></ul><ul><li>unlikely </li></ul><ul><li>(see Outline) </li></ul>
    20. 20. E-portfolio <ul><li>Set up a Wikiversity account </li></ul><ul><li>Submit name of account to convener </li></ul><ul><li>Create some initial reflections for W1 and 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Look at and comment on other user-pages </li></ul>
    21. 21. Exam <ul><li>During exam-period </li></ul><ul><li>Open book </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutorials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ThomsonNOW quizzes </li></ul>
    22. 22. Textbook <ul><li>Social Psychology and Human Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Baumeister & Bushman (2008) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Textbook access <ul><li>Bundle (~AU$130) </li></ul><ul><li>iChapters (~US$60) </li></ul><ul><li>ThomsonNOW (~AU$40) </li></ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul><ul><li>Companion site </li></ul>
    24. 24. Textbook foci <ul><li>Self </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul>
    25. 25. Textbook themes <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Tradeoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Bad vs. Good </li></ul>
    26. 26. Unit themes <ul><li>Cross-cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Social technology </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential </li></ul>
    27. 27. e-Reserve <ul><li>Alt. chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Classic articles </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural readings </li></ul>
    28. 28. Websites <ul><li>ucspace </li></ul><ul><li>http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125 </li></ul><ul><li>Wikiversity </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/SPP </li></ul>
    29. 29. What is Social Psychology?
    30. 30. <ul><li>Human behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>in social context. </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>How the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are influenced by the... </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><ul><li>actual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imagined or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presence of others (based on Allport, 1935) </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. <ul><ul><li>a joint function of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>situational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>influences (based on Baumeister & Bushman, 2008, p. 11) </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. <ul><li>feelings ( A ffect) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviours ( B ehaviour) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thoughts ( C ognition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABC </li></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Person to Person
    36. 37. Group to Person Person to Group
    37. 38. Group to Group
    38. 40. Sociometrics <ul><li>A family of 4 involves: </li></ul><ul><li>6 dyads </li></ul><ul><li>3 triads </li></ul><ul><li>1 quadad </li></ul>
    39. 41. Sociology vs. Social Psychology Sociology (group) Social Psychology Psychology (individual)
    40. 42. 3 broad domains <ul><li>Social perception </li></ul><ul><li>Social influence </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul>
    41. 43. Social perception <ul><li>How we interpret social objects. </li></ul>
    42. 44. Social influence <ul><li>Attitudes & behaviour brought about by others. </li></ul>
    43. 45. Social interaction <ul><li>How we interact with others in the social world. </li></ul>
    44. 46. Person vs. situation Person Situation
    45. 47. Applications <ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul>
    46. 48. Social Psychology & Some Close Scientific Neighbors Developmental Psycho- pathology Health Organizational
    47. 49. History & Research in Social Psychology
    48. 50. Origins <ul><li>Origins in Europe & North America in the late 19 th - early 20 th century. </li></ul>
    49. 51. Volkerpsychologie (folk psych) mid-late 1800s
    50. 52. Crowd Psychology (Group Mind) (Le Bon, 1895)
    51. 53. History <ul><li>First social psychological experiment </li></ul><ul><li>- Triplett (1898) </li></ul><ul><li>- Social facilitation </li></ul>
    52. 55. History <ul><li>Influences in Early 20th Century </li></ul><ul><li>– Gordon Allport (Attitudes) </li></ul><ul><li>Post WW1 - rise of behaviourism & experimentation </li></ul>
    53. 56. History <ul><li>Attitude scaling (Thurstone, 1930s) </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychology splits from behaviorism and psychoanalysis </li></ul>
    54. 57. <ul><li>Gestalt theorists - Asch, Sherif, Lewin (1930s-50s) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied group processes & dynamics </li></ul>History
    55. 58. <ul><li>Post WW2 - motivated to explain atrocities committed e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian personality (Allport), </li></ul><ul><li>Obedience (Milgram), </li></ul><ul><li>Roles (Zimbardo). </li></ul>History
    56. 59. <ul><li>1960s - rise of attribution theory, cognitive dissonance (Festinger) </li></ul><ul><li>Developments in European social psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tajfel (social identity theory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moscovici (minority influence) </li></ul></ul>History
    57. 60. <ul><li>Late 1960s - early 1970s - ‘crisis in social psychology’ </li></ul><ul><li>1970s to now - rise of social cognition & information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives - social constructionism, discourse analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Australian social psychology? Society of Australasian Social Psychologists (SASP) </li></ul>History
    58. 61. Theory <-> Research Theory Research
    59. 62. Scientific research method <ul><li>State problem </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate testable hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Design study and collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Test the hypothesis with data </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate study results </li></ul>
    60. 63. Research method <ul><li>Scientific methods distinguished psychology during the 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental method flourished within social psychology 1930’s-1970’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused a debate/crisis that over-reliance on experimental research was limiting understanding. </li></ul>
    61. 64. Research methods <ul><li>Experimental vs. non-experimental methods </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative vs. qualitative methods </li></ul>
    62. 65. Experimental method <ul><li>Manipulate one or more variables (IV) & look at effect on other variable(s) (DVs) </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory vs. Field Experiments. </li></ul>
    63. 66. Laboratory experiments <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled environment so that causality can be inferred. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal validity </li></ul>
    64. 67. <ul><li>Potential problems </li></ul><ul><li>Construct validity </li></ul><ul><li>External validity / mundane realism </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental realism </li></ul><ul><li>Reactivity </li></ul>Laboratory experiments
    65. 68. <ul><li>Potential problems </li></ul><ul><li>Subject effects </li></ul><ul><li>Demand characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Experimenter effects </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics? </li></ul>Laboratory experiments
    66. 69. Field experiments <ul><li>Naturalistic settings </li></ul><ul><li>+ mundane realism (- reactive) </li></ul><ul><li>control over potentially confounding variables </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Informed consent? </li></ul>
    67. 70. Non-experimental methods <ul><li>Archival research </li></ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul><ul><li>Survey research - usually correlational </li></ul><ul><li>Observational field studies - observe behaviour in natural setting </li></ul>
    68. 71. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>more naturalistic </li></ul><ul><li>may be more ethical </li></ul><ul><li>potentially large amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>better construct validity </li></ul>Non-experimental methods
    69. 72. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>lack of control - less internal validity </li></ul><ul><li>may not show causality </li></ul><ul><li>researcher bias </li></ul><ul><li>demand characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>subject effects. </li></ul>Non-experimental methods
    70. 73. <ul><li>Developed by Kurt Lewin (1940’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic, dynamic experiments with real groups </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneered “action research” </li></ul>Action research
    71. 74. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively natural </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering </li></ul><ul><li>Research is combined with education </li></ul>Action research
    72. 75. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of scientific control </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher-dependent? </li></ul>Action research
    73. 76. Research ethics <ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Protect participants from harm & discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid excessive use of deception </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Fully debrief participants </li></ul>
    74. 77. The crisis <ul><li>2 major criticism of social psychology (late 1960s): </li></ul><ul><li>Overly reductionist </li></ul><ul><li>Overly positivistic </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental method criticisms: </li></ul><ul><li>demand characteristics, </li></ul><ul><li>experimenter effects, </li></ul><ul><li>lack of social context. </li></ul>
    75. 78. Reductionism <ul><li>Reducing behaviour to the individual, ignoring social context </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of explanation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intrapersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interpersonal or situational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ideological </li></ul></ul>
    76. 79. Positivism <ul><li>Non-critical acceptance of science and its methods </li></ul><ul><li>Is the scientific method & especially the experiment suitable for social psychology? </li></ul>
    77. 80. <ul><li>Kenneth Gergen (1978, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Are experiments an appropriate research method for social psychology? </li></ul>Social constructionism
    78. 81. <ul><li>Social events are: </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally embedded </li></ul><ul><li>Sequentially embedded </li></ul><ul><li>Openly competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Final common pathways </li></ul><ul><li>Complexly determined </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychology as history. </li></ul>Social constructionism
    79. 82. <ul><li>Interpretation of the meaning of events & behaviour change across cultural history. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-> no general laws of behaviour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-> all reasonable hypotheses are likely to be valid. </li></ul></ul>Social constructionism
    80. 83. <ul><li>Social world is product of socially & historically situated practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Research findings do not have meaning until ‘interpreted’. </li></ul><ul><li>No knowledge is transhistorical & transcultural. </li></ul>Social constructionism
    81. 84. <ul><li>Importance of reflexivity - researcher’s awareness of own biases, assumptions etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical social psychology - value-laden & political. </li></ul>Social constructionism
    82. 85. <ul><li>Research methods - focus on language & use of rhetoric. </li></ul><ul><li>Observations, interviews, records of naturally occurring events </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of discourse </li></ul>Social constructionism
    83. 86. Conclusions <ul><li>Which research method is best? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the experiment still useful? </li></ul><ul><li>Methodological pluralism? </li></ul>
    84. 87. Summary <ul><li>A central subject in psychology which evolved as a unique field during the 20 th century. </li></ul>
    85. 88. Summary <ul><li>Large, dynamic, diverse field of inquiry, with many: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical & research approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topics & applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debates & dilemmas </li></ul></ul>
    86. 89. Summary <ul><li>Social psychology studies the individual within the group (or society) </li></ul>
    87. 90. Culture & nature
    88. 91. Overview <ul><li>Psyche </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Social brain theory </li></ul><ul><li>Individual vs. culture </li></ul>
    89. 92. Psyche <ul><li>Broad term for mind, influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature – Genes, hormones, brain structure and other innate processes dictate how you will choose and act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture – Learned experiences; from parents, society and any experiences </li></ul></ul>
    90. 93. Evolution <ul><li>Theory of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selectio n </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul>
    91. 94. Z o o m Once upon a time ....
    92. 95. Big Bang 14 billion years ago
    93. 96. 30 billion trillion stars 14 billion light years
    94. 97. 250 000 trillion stars 250 000 trillion stars 1 billion light years
    95. 98. 200 trillion stars 100 million light years
    96. 99. 1 billion light years 700 billion stars
    97. 100. 500 000 light years 225 billion stars
    98. 101. 200 billion stars 500 000 light years
    99. 102. 600 million stars 5 000 light years
    100. 103. 260 000 stars 250 light years
    101. 104. 33 stars 12.5 light years
    102. 110. 4.57 billion years ago...
    103. 111. Uni of Canberra
    104. 112. ~4 million years ago homo sapiens (a bipedal hominid) evolved Human evolution
    105. 114. Social nature Communicate Form groups Social norms (culture) Humans
    106. 115. 100 billion ever 6.6 billion now ~10 billion by 2050 Humans on earth
    107. 116. 5 born /sec 2 die /sec Humans on earth
    108. 118. Population bottleneck
    109. 119. Population density
    110. 120. 21 million (.3%)
    111. 121. Human evolution survey
    112. 122. Culture <ul><li>Info-based system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common ways of doing things </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental (abstract) representations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be expressed in language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider cultural differences and underlying similarities </li></ul>
    113. 123. Social animal <ul><li>Seek connections to others </li></ul><ul><li>Work together </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from one another </li></ul><ul><li>Help kin </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve conflict with aggression </li></ul>
    114. 124. Cultural animal <ul><li>Evolution shaped psyche to enable creating and taking part in culture </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberately share knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Help strangers </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve conflict with many alternatives </li></ul>
    115. 125. Social brain theory <ul><li>Why is the human brain so evolved? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger brain is linked to complex social systems (Dunbar, 1993, 1996) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    116. 126. Advantages of culture <ul><li>Human brain evolved to capitalise on culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress - to build on experience of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of Labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of Goods and Services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humans have evolved to participate in culture </li></ul>
    117. 127. The duplex mind <ul><li>Automatic system </li></ul><ul><li>Outside of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Simple operations </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious system </li></ul><ul><li>Complex operations </li></ul>
    118. 128. Changing role of consciousness <ul><li>Increased focus on role of automatic system </li></ul><ul><li>Can learn, think, choose and respond </li></ul><ul><li>Has idea and emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Knows “self” and other people </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness focus on complex thinking and logic </li></ul>
    119. 129. Living in a culture <ul><li>Working to gain social acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Inner states help humans connect to others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent brain evolved to improve interpersonal relations </li></ul></ul>
    120. 130. Nature says go, Culture says no <ul><li>Nature – impulses, wishes, automatic responses </li></ul><ul><li>Culture – teaches self-control and restraint </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature’s disgust reactions (No) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural timetable for meals (Go) </li></ul></ul>
    121. 131. Selfish impulse vs. social conscience <ul><li>Nature makes us selfish </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of self </li></ul><ul><li>Culture helps us resist selfish impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of what is best for society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws </li></ul></ul>
    122. 132. Putting people first <ul><li>People get most of what they need from other people </li></ul><ul><li>Culture as a “general store” of information </li></ul><ul><li>People look to each other first </li></ul>
    123. 133. What makes us human? <ul><li>Behavior results from mix of nature and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Human life is enmeshed in culture </li></ul><ul><li>Humans think with language and meaning </li></ul>
    124. 134. Open Office Impress <ul><li>This presentation was made using Open Office Impress. </li></ul><ul><li>Free and open source software. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html </li></ul>
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