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Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1
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Social Psychology: Introduction: Lecture1

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Unit Outline, Introduction, What is Social Psychology?, History & Research, Culture & Nature

Unit Outline, Introduction, What is Social Psychology?, History & Research, Culture & Nature

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  • Image source: Unknown 21 July, 2008, 11:30-13:30, 2B11 7125-6666 Social Psychology / G Centre for Applied Psyhology Faculty of Health University of Canberra Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia ph: +61 2 6201 2536 [email_address] http://wilderdom.com/7125 http://wilderdom.com/6666 http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125/Unit+Outline
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    • 1. Social Psychology <ul><ul><li>Lecture 1, Week 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semester 2, 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecturer: James Neill </li></ul></ul>
    • 2. Overview <ul><li>Unit outline </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What is social psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Culture & nature </li></ul>
    • 3. Unit outline
    • 4. Contact info <ul><li>Before/after lectures </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>6201 2536 </li></ul><ul><li>Drop-in tuts : Wed 13.30-14.30 (after lecture) in 3C18 (computer lab). </li></ul><ul><li>Or by appointment </li></ul>
    • 5. Description <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
    • 6. Learning outcomes <ul><li>Key concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Apply theories </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul>
    • 7. Lectures (10 x 2 hr) <ul><li>9 by James Neill (W 1, 2, 3, 4 10, 11, 12, 13, 15) </li></ul><ul><li>1 by Melisah Feeney (W 5) </li></ul>
    • 8. Lectures <ul><li>Streamed live </li></ul><ul><li>Video & audio downloadable </li></ul><ul><li>Notes ~24 hours prior </li></ul><ul><li>Readings mostly from textbook </li></ul>
    • 9. Lecture themes <ul><li>Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies/Solutions </li></ul>
    • 10. Lecture themes <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>What can go wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>What can go right? </li></ul>
    • 11. Lecture topics <ul><li>01. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>02. The Social Self </li></ul><ul><li>03. Social Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>04. Aggression (DVD) </li></ul><ul><li>05. Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>06. Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>07. Groups </li></ul><ul><li>08. Prosocial </li></ul><ul><li>09. Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>10. Review </li></ul>
    • 12. Tutorials <ul><li>6 x 2 hr </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate tuesdays after lecture (check timetable) </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Neill (all) </li></ul></ul>
    • 13. Tutorial topics <ul><li>01. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>02. Communication </li></ul><ul><li>03. Prejudice and aggression </li></ul><ul><li>04. Cross-cultural training </li></ul><ul><li>01. Australian zeitgeist </li></ul><ul><li>06. Assessment workshop </li></ul>
    • 14. Tutorial themes <ul><li>Experiential exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Audio / video </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
    • 15. Drop-in <ul><li>After lectures </li></ul><ul><li>3B32 / 3C18 </li></ul>
    • 16. Assessment <ul><li>35% Essay </li></ul><ul><li>35% Exam </li></ul><ul><li>25% E-portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>05% Research participation </li></ul>
    • 17. Essays <ul><li>3000 word max: </li></ul><ul><li>Theory (33.3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Research (33.3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Written expression (33.3%) </li></ul>
    • 18. Essay topics <ul><li>Choice of topics – discussed in the first tutorial </li></ul><ul><li>Each student adopts a unique/topic question </li></ul><ul><li>By the beginning of W3, all topics will be posted </li></ul>
    • 19. Extensions <ul><li>are </li></ul><ul><li>unlikely </li></ul><ul><li>(see Outline) </li></ul>
    • 20. E-portfolio <ul><li>Set up a Wikiversity account </li></ul><ul><li>Submit name of account to convener </li></ul><ul><li>Create some initial reflections for W1 and 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Look at and comment on other user-pages </li></ul>
    • 21. Exam <ul><li>During exam-period </li></ul><ul><li>Open book </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutorials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ThomsonNOW quizzes </li></ul>
    • 22. Textbook <ul><li>Social Psychology and Human Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Baumeister & Bushman (2008) </li></ul>
    • 23. Textbook access <ul><li>Bundle (~AU$130) </li></ul><ul><li>iChapters (~US$60) </li></ul><ul><li>ThomsonNOW (~AU$40) </li></ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul><ul><li>Companion site </li></ul>
    • 24. Textbook foci <ul><li>Self </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul>
    • 25. Textbook themes <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Tradeoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Bad vs. Good </li></ul>
    • 26. Unit themes <ul><li>Cross-cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Social technology </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential </li></ul>
    • 27. e-Reserve <ul><li>Alt. chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Classic articles </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural readings </li></ul>
    • 28. Websites <ul><li>ucspace </li></ul><ul><li>http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125 </li></ul><ul><li>Wikiversity </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/SPP </li></ul>
    • 29. What is Social Psychology?
    • 30. <ul><li>Human behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>in social context. </li></ul>
    • 31. <ul><li>How the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are influenced by the... </li></ul></ul>
    • 32. <ul><ul><li>actual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imagined or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presence of others (based on Allport, 1935) </li></ul></ul>
    • 33.  
    • 34. <ul><ul><li>a joint function of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>situational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>influences (based on Baumeister & Bushman, 2008, p. 11) </li></ul></ul>
    • 35. <ul><li>feelings ( A ffect) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviours ( B ehaviour) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thoughts ( C ognition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABC </li></ul></ul>
    • 36. Person to Person
    • 37. Group to Person Person to Group
    • 38. Group to Group
    • 39.  
    • 40. Sociometrics <ul><li>A family of 4 involves: </li></ul><ul><li>6 dyads </li></ul><ul><li>3 triads </li></ul><ul><li>1 quadad </li></ul>
    • 41. Sociology vs. Social Psychology Sociology (group) Social Psychology Psychology (individual)
    • 42. 3 broad domains <ul><li>Social perception </li></ul><ul><li>Social influence </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul>
    • 43. Social perception <ul><li>How we interpret social objects. </li></ul>
    • 44. Social influence <ul><li>Attitudes & behaviour brought about by others. </li></ul>
    • 45. Social interaction <ul><li>How we interact with others in the social world. </li></ul>
    • 46. Person vs. situation Person Situation
    • 47. Applications <ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul>
    • 48. Social Psychology & Some Close Scientific Neighbors Developmental Psycho- pathology Health Organizational
    • 49. History & Research in Social Psychology
    • 50. Origins <ul><li>Origins in Europe & North America in the late 19 th - early 20 th century. </li></ul>
    • 51. Volkerpsychologie (folk psych) mid-late 1800s
    • 52. Crowd Psychology (Group Mind) (Le Bon, 1895)
    • 53. History <ul><li>First social psychological experiment </li></ul><ul><li>- Triplett (1898) </li></ul><ul><li>- Social facilitation </li></ul>
    • 54.  
    • 55. History <ul><li>Influences in Early 20th Century </li></ul><ul><li>– Gordon Allport (Attitudes) </li></ul><ul><li>Post WW1 - rise of behaviourism & experimentation </li></ul>
    • 56. History <ul><li>Attitude scaling (Thurstone, 1930s) </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychology splits from behaviorism and psychoanalysis </li></ul>
    • 57. <ul><li>Gestalt theorists - Asch, Sherif, Lewin (1930s-50s) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied group processes & dynamics </li></ul>History
    • 58. <ul><li>Post WW2 - motivated to explain atrocities committed e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian personality (Allport), </li></ul><ul><li>Obedience (Milgram), </li></ul><ul><li>Roles (Zimbardo). </li></ul>History
    • 59. <ul><li>1960s - rise of attribution theory, cognitive dissonance (Festinger) </li></ul><ul><li>Developments in European social psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tajfel (social identity theory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moscovici (minority influence) </li></ul></ul>History
    • 60. <ul><li>Late 1960s - early 1970s - ‘crisis in social psychology’ </li></ul><ul><li>1970s to now - rise of social cognition & information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives - social constructionism, discourse analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Australian social psychology? Society of Australasian Social Psychologists (SASP) </li></ul>History
    • 61. Theory <-> Research Theory Research
    • 62. Scientific research method <ul><li>State problem </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate testable hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Design study and collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Test the hypothesis with data </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate study results </li></ul>
    • 63. Research method <ul><li>Scientific methods distinguished psychology during the 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental method flourished within social psychology 1930’s-1970’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused a debate/crisis that over-reliance on experimental research was limiting understanding. </li></ul>
    • 64. Research methods <ul><li>Experimental vs. non-experimental methods </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative vs. qualitative methods </li></ul>
    • 65. Experimental method <ul><li>Manipulate one or more variables (IV) & look at effect on other variable(s) (DVs) </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory vs. Field Experiments. </li></ul>
    • 66. Laboratory experiments <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled environment so that causality can be inferred. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal validity </li></ul>
    • 67. <ul><li>Potential problems </li></ul><ul><li>Construct validity </li></ul><ul><li>External validity / mundane realism </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental realism </li></ul><ul><li>Reactivity </li></ul>Laboratory experiments
    • 68. <ul><li>Potential problems </li></ul><ul><li>Subject effects </li></ul><ul><li>Demand characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Experimenter effects </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics? </li></ul>Laboratory experiments
    • 69. Field experiments <ul><li>Naturalistic settings </li></ul><ul><li>+ mundane realism (- reactive) </li></ul><ul><li>control over potentially confounding variables </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Informed consent? </li></ul>
    • 70. Non-experimental methods <ul><li>Archival research </li></ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul><ul><li>Survey research - usually correlational </li></ul><ul><li>Observational field studies - observe behaviour in natural setting </li></ul>
    • 71. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>more naturalistic </li></ul><ul><li>may be more ethical </li></ul><ul><li>potentially large amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>better construct validity </li></ul>Non-experimental methods
    • 72. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>lack of control - less internal validity </li></ul><ul><li>may not show causality </li></ul><ul><li>researcher bias </li></ul><ul><li>demand characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>subject effects. </li></ul>Non-experimental methods
    • 73. <ul><li>Developed by Kurt Lewin (1940’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic, dynamic experiments with real groups </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneered “action research” </li></ul>Action research
    • 74. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively natural </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering </li></ul><ul><li>Research is combined with education </li></ul>Action research
    • 75. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of scientific control </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher-dependent? </li></ul>Action research
    • 76. Research ethics <ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Protect participants from harm & discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid excessive use of deception </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Fully debrief participants </li></ul>
    • 77. The crisis <ul><li>2 major criticism of social psychology (late 1960s): </li></ul><ul><li>Overly reductionist </li></ul><ul><li>Overly positivistic </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental method criticisms: </li></ul><ul><li>demand characteristics, </li></ul><ul><li>experimenter effects, </li></ul><ul><li>lack of social context. </li></ul>
    • 78. Reductionism <ul><li>Reducing behaviour to the individual, ignoring social context </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of explanation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intrapersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interpersonal or situational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ideological </li></ul></ul>
    • 79. Positivism <ul><li>Non-critical acceptance of science and its methods </li></ul><ul><li>Is the scientific method & especially the experiment suitable for social psychology? </li></ul>
    • 80. <ul><li>Kenneth Gergen (1978, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Are experiments an appropriate research method for social psychology? </li></ul>Social constructionism
    • 81. <ul><li>Social events are: </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally embedded </li></ul><ul><li>Sequentially embedded </li></ul><ul><li>Openly competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Final common pathways </li></ul><ul><li>Complexly determined </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychology as history. </li></ul>Social constructionism
    • 82. <ul><li>Interpretation of the meaning of events & behaviour change across cultural history. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-> no general laws of behaviour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-> all reasonable hypotheses are likely to be valid. </li></ul></ul>Social constructionism
    • 83. <ul><li>Social world is product of socially & historically situated practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Research findings do not have meaning until ‘interpreted’. </li></ul><ul><li>No knowledge is transhistorical & transcultural. </li></ul>Social constructionism
    • 84. <ul><li>Importance of reflexivity - researcher’s awareness of own biases, assumptions etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical social psychology - value-laden & political. </li></ul>Social constructionism
    • 85. <ul><li>Research methods - focus on language & use of rhetoric. </li></ul><ul><li>Observations, interviews, records of naturally occurring events </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of discourse </li></ul>Social constructionism
    • 86. Conclusions <ul><li>Which research method is best? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the experiment still useful? </li></ul><ul><li>Methodological pluralism? </li></ul>
    • 87. Summary <ul><li>A central subject in psychology which evolved as a unique field during the 20 th century. </li></ul>
    • 88. Summary <ul><li>Large, dynamic, diverse field of inquiry, with many: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical & research approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topics & applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debates & dilemmas </li></ul></ul>
    • 89. Summary <ul><li>Social psychology studies the individual within the group (or society) </li></ul>
    • 90. Culture & nature
    • 91. Overview <ul><li>Psyche </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Social brain theory </li></ul><ul><li>Individual vs. culture </li></ul>
    • 92. Psyche <ul><li>Broad term for mind, influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature – Genes, hormones, brain structure and other innate processes dictate how you will choose and act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture – Learned experiences; from parents, society and any experiences </li></ul></ul>
    • 93. Evolution <ul><li>Theory of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selectio n </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul>
    • 94. Z o o m Once upon a time ....
    • 95. Big Bang 14 billion years ago
    • 96. 30 billion trillion stars 14 billion light years
    • 97. 250 000 trillion stars 250 000 trillion stars 1 billion light years
    • 98. 200 trillion stars 100 million light years
    • 99. 1 billion light years 700 billion stars
    • 100. 500 000 light years 225 billion stars
    • 101. 200 billion stars 500 000 light years
    • 102. 600 million stars 5 000 light years
    • 103. 260 000 stars 250 light years
    • 104. 33 stars 12.5 light years
    • 105.  
    • 106.  
    • 107.  
    • 108.  
    • 109.  
    • 110. 4.57 billion years ago...
    • 111. Uni of Canberra
    • 112. ~4 million years ago homo sapiens (a bipedal hominid) evolved Human evolution
    • 113.  
    • 114. Social nature Communicate Form groups Social norms (culture) Humans
    • 115. 100 billion ever 6.6 billion now ~10 billion by 2050 Humans on earth
    • 116. 5 born /sec 2 die /sec Humans on earth
    • 117.  
    • 118. Population bottleneck
    • 119. Population density
    • 120. 21 million (.3%)
    • 121. Human evolution survey
    • 122. Culture <ul><li>Info-based system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common ways of doing things </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental (abstract) representations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be expressed in language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider cultural differences and underlying similarities </li></ul>
    • 123. Social animal <ul><li>Seek connections to others </li></ul><ul><li>Work together </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from one another </li></ul><ul><li>Help kin </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve conflict with aggression </li></ul>
    • 124. Cultural animal <ul><li>Evolution shaped psyche to enable creating and taking part in culture </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberately share knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Help strangers </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve conflict with many alternatives </li></ul>
    • 125. Social brain theory <ul><li>Why is the human brain so evolved? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger brain is linked to complex social systems (Dunbar, 1993, 1996) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 126. Advantages of culture <ul><li>Human brain evolved to capitalise on culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress - to build on experience of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of Labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of Goods and Services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humans have evolved to participate in culture </li></ul>
    • 127. The duplex mind <ul><li>Automatic system </li></ul><ul><li>Outside of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Simple operations </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious system </li></ul><ul><li>Complex operations </li></ul>
    • 128. Changing role of consciousness <ul><li>Increased focus on role of automatic system </li></ul><ul><li>Can learn, think, choose and respond </li></ul><ul><li>Has idea and emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Knows “self” and other people </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness focus on complex thinking and logic </li></ul>
    • 129. Living in a culture <ul><li>Working to gain social acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Inner states help humans connect to others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent brain evolved to improve interpersonal relations </li></ul></ul>
    • 130. Nature says go, Culture says no <ul><li>Nature – impulses, wishes, automatic responses </li></ul><ul><li>Culture – teaches self-control and restraint </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature’s disgust reactions (No) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural timetable for meals (Go) </li></ul></ul>
    • 131. Selfish impulse vs. social conscience <ul><li>Nature makes us selfish </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of self </li></ul><ul><li>Culture helps us resist selfish impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of what is best for society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws </li></ul></ul>
    • 132. Putting people first <ul><li>People get most of what they need from other people </li></ul><ul><li>Culture as a “general store” of information </li></ul><ul><li>People look to each other first </li></ul>
    • 133. What makes us human? <ul><li>Behavior results from mix of nature and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Human life is enmeshed in culture </li></ul><ul><li>Humans think with language and meaning </li></ul>
    • 134. Open Office Impress <ul><li>This presentation was made using Open Office Impress. </li></ul><ul><li>Free and open source software. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html </li></ul>

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