Psychology 102: Social processes, society, and culture Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra...
Reading Gerrig et al.  (Chapter 17): Social processes, society, and culture
NOTE:  A related previous Psy101 chapter reading (not covered here) Gerrig et al. (Chapter 16): Social cognition & relatio...
Social cognition
Attitudes
Persuasion / Social influence
Prejudice & Stereotypes
Relationships & Attraction </li></ul>
Overview <ul><li>About social psychology
Power of the situation    (social influence) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity
Obedience
Group influence
Group polarisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggression
Prosocial behaviour & altruism
Conflict & peace </li></ul>
What is social psychology? Influence of  social processes  on the way people: <ul><li>Think  (cognition)
Feel  (emotions)
Behave   (actions) </li></ul>
Person to Person
Group to Person Person to Group
Group to Group
Why is Social Psychology Important? Why does social psychology matter? …  we need to get along – or we'll conflict
Topic matching activity Prejudice Aggression Group dynamics Crowd behaviour Social exclusion Allocate one of these topics ...
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Power of the situation (Social influence)
Social influence questions <ul><li>How do we influence each other?
How are we affected by pressures to conform and obey?
How are we affected by group interaction?
How do groups affect our behaviour? </li></ul>
Social influence The most significant contribution of social psychology is its study of how our attitudes, beliefs, decisi...
Video: The Power of the Situation Annenberg (1989).  The Power of the Situation (Program 19) . [27 min video] Annenberg: S...
The power of the situation <ul><li>Social role </li><ul><li>Social-defined pattern  of behaviour </li></ul><li>Rules </li>...
Can be explicit or implicit </li></ul><li>Social norms </li><ul><li>Expectation a group has for its members </li></ul></ul>
Conformity When a person adopts a  social role , follows a  rule , or bends to a  social norm , then s/he is, to some exte...
Conformity <ul><li>Tendency for people to adopt behaviours, attitudes, and values of other members of a group.
Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. </li></ul>
Conformity:  Informational influence <ul><li>Wanting to be “correct” and to behave in the “right way” in a given situation
Why? </li><ul><li>Group may provide valuable information.
When the task is difficult or you are unsure, it makes sense to listen to others. </li></ul><li>e.g., Sherif’s autokinetic...
Conformity:  Normative influence <ul><li>Desire to be liked, accepted, and approved of / not rejected by others
Why?  Price may be severe if not normative behaviour is not followed.
Also known as the “Asch effect” </li></ul>
Asch’s  conformity studies (1950's)
Asch’s conformity studies (1950’s) <ul><li>Subjects asked to judge line lengths while working in a group.
7 subjects; the 6th was real, rest were confederates.
Confederates consistently gave obviously wrong answers.
The subject often conformed and gave the same wrong answer.
On average,  37% of participants conformed .
Some never caved . </li></ul>
Conformity <ul><li>Conformity in everyday life
Minority influence and nonconformity </li><ul><li>Serge Moscovici </li></ul></ul>
Conditions that    conformity <ul><li>Feelings of incompetence, insecurity, low self-esteem.
Group size > 2
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Psychology 102: Social processes, society & culture

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This lecture provides an overview of several social psychology topics, particularly: what is social psychology, social influence (including conformity, obedience, and resistance), group decision-making, aggression, pro-social behaviour, altruism, conflict, and peace psychology

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Psychology 102: Social processes, society & culture

  1. 1. Psychology 102: Social processes, society, and culture Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2009
  2. 2. Reading Gerrig et al. (Chapter 17): Social processes, society, and culture
  3. 3. NOTE: A related previous Psy101 chapter reading (not covered here) Gerrig et al. (Chapter 16): Social cognition & relationships <ul><li>Constructing social reality
  4. 4. Social cognition
  5. 5. Attitudes
  6. 6. Persuasion / Social influence
  7. 7. Prejudice & Stereotypes
  8. 8. Relationships & Attraction </li></ul>
  9. 9. Overview <ul><li>About social psychology
  10. 10. Power of the situation (social influence) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity
  11. 11. Obedience
  12. 12. Group influence
  13. 13. Group polarisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggression
  14. 14. Prosocial behaviour & altruism
  15. 15. Conflict & peace </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is social psychology? Influence of social processes on the way people: <ul><li>Think (cognition)
  17. 17. Feel (emotions)
  18. 18. Behave (actions) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Person to Person
  20. 20. Group to Person Person to Group
  21. 21. Group to Group
  22. 22. Why is Social Psychology Important? Why does social psychology matter? … we need to get along – or we'll conflict
  23. 23. Topic matching activity Prejudice Aggression Group dynamics Crowd behaviour Social exclusion Allocate one of these topics to each of the following sets of slides... Environmental Relationships Prosocial behaviour Conformity Leadership
  24. 24. 1
  25. 25. 2
  26. 26. 3
  27. 27. 4
  28. 28. 5
  29. 29. 6
  30. 30. 7
  31. 31. 8
  32. 32. 9
  33. 33. 10
  34. 34. Power of the situation (Social influence)
  35. 35. Social influence questions <ul><li>How do we influence each other?
  36. 36. How are we affected by pressures to conform and obey?
  37. 37. How are we affected by group interaction?
  38. 38. How do groups affect our behaviour? </li></ul>
  39. 39. Social influence The most significant contribution of social psychology is its study of how our attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and actions are moulded by social influence .
  40. 40. Video: The Power of the Situation Annenberg (1989). The Power of the Situation (Program 19) . [27 min video] Annenberg: Santa Barbara, CA.
  41. 41. The power of the situation <ul><li>Social role </li><ul><li>Social-defined pattern of behaviour </li></ul><li>Rules </li><ul><li>Behavioural guidelines
  42. 42. Can be explicit or implicit </li></ul><li>Social norms </li><ul><li>Expectation a group has for its members </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Conformity When a person adopts a social role , follows a rule , or bends to a social norm , then s/he is, to some extent, conforming to social expectations.
  44. 44. Conformity <ul><li>Tendency for people to adopt behaviours, attitudes, and values of other members of a group.
  45. 45. Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Conformity: Informational influence <ul><li>Wanting to be “correct” and to behave in the “right way” in a given situation
  47. 47. Why? </li><ul><li>Group may provide valuable information.
  48. 48. When the task is difficult or you are unsure, it makes sense to listen to others. </li></ul><li>e.g., Sherif’s autokinetic effect </li></ul>
  49. 49. Conformity: Normative influence <ul><li>Desire to be liked, accepted, and approved of / not rejected by others
  50. 50. Why? Price may be severe if not normative behaviour is not followed.
  51. 51. Also known as the “Asch effect” </li></ul>
  52. 52. Asch’s conformity studies (1950's)
  53. 53. Asch’s conformity studies (1950’s) <ul><li>Subjects asked to judge line lengths while working in a group.
  54. 54. 7 subjects; the 6th was real, rest were confederates.
  55. 55. Confederates consistently gave obviously wrong answers.
  56. 56. The subject often conformed and gave the same wrong answer.
  57. 57. On average, 37% of participants conformed .
  58. 58. Some never caved . </li></ul>
  59. 59. Conformity <ul><li>Conformity in everyday life
  60. 60. Minority influence and nonconformity </li><ul><li>Serge Moscovici </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Conditions that  conformity <ul><li>Feelings of incompetence, insecurity, low self-esteem.
  62. 62. Group size > 2
  63. 63. Group is unanimous (lack of dissension).
  64. 64. Group status desirable & attractiveness. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Conditions that  conformity <ul><li>Group observes one’s behaviour.
  66. 66. No prior commitment to response.
  67. 67. Culture strongly encourages respect for social standard. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Obedience <ul><li>People comply with social pressures. But what about outright command?
  69. 69. Milgram designed a study that investigated the effects of authority on obedience. </li></ul>Stanley Milgram (1933-1984)
  70. 70. Milgram’s obedience studies
  71. 71. Milgram’s Study
  72. 72. Milgram’s obedience studies <ul><li>63% complied with administration of shocks
  73. 73. Depending on subtle changes in conditions, however, compliance varied between 0 & 93%
  74. 74. Degree of obedience influenced by: </li><ul><li>Physical proximity of authority figure
  75. 75. Status of authority figure
  76. 76. Depersonalisation of victim
  77. 77. Lack of defiant role models </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Zimbardo’s prison study (1970’s) <ul><li>Subjects played either prisoners or guards.
  79. 79. Prisoners were arrested, fingerprinted, dressed, and referred to by number.
  80. 80. Guards were dressed and given control over prisoners.
  81. 81. Subjects became their roles in action, thought and feeling. </li></ul>
  82. 82. Resistance <ul><li>~  a third of individuals resisted social coercion (Milgram).
  83. 83. One dissenter can have a disproportionate effect on reducing the compliance of others. (e.g., Asch) </li></ul>
  84. 84. <ul><li>The tendency of groups to make decisions that are more extreme then the decisions that would be make by the members acting alone
  85. 85. Two underlying process </li><ul><ul><li>Information-influence
  86. 86. Social comparison </li></ul></ul></ul>Group decision-making: Group polarisation
  87. 87. Group decision-making: Groupthink (Irving Janis) <ul><li>Tendency of group to filter out the undesirable input so that a consensus may be reached
  88. 88. Factors leading Groupthink </li><ul><li>High level of group cohesiveness
  89. 89. Isolation of group from outside information or influences
  90. 90. Dynamic, influential leader
  91. 91. High stress from external threats </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Aggression, prosocial behaviour, altruism, conflict, and peace <ul><li>Aggression
  93. 93. Prosocial behaviour
  94. 94. Altruism
  95. 95. Conflict & cooperation
  96. 96. Peace </li></ul>
  97. 97. <ul><li>Physical or verbal behaviour that causes (or is intended to cause) harm.
  98. 98. Emerges from the interaction of: </li><ul><li>Biology </li><ul><li>Genetic
  99. 99. Neural
  100. 100. Biochemical </li></ul><li>Experience </li><ul><li>Aversive events e.g., misery, temp, frustrate
  101. 101. Operant conditioning
  102. 102. Social learning
  103. 103. Scripts </li></ul></ul></ul>Aggression
  104. 104. Aggression
  105. 105. Aggression <ul><li>Individual differences </li><ul><li>Impulsive aggression
  106. 106. Instrumental aggression </li></ul><li>Situational influences </li><ul><li>Frustration-aggression hypothesis
  107. 107. Temperature and aggression
  108. 108. Direct provocation and escalation </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. <ul><li>Cultural constraints </li><ul><li>Construals of the self and aggressive behaviour </li><ul><li>Richard Nisbett </li></ul><li>Norms of aggressive behaviour </li></ul></ul>Aggression
  110. 110. <ul><li>Unselfish, intentional behavior that is intended to benefit welfare of others. </li><ul><li>Behaviours which have no obvious gain for the provider
  111. 111. Behaviours which have obvious costs for the provider (e.g. time, resources) </li></ul></ul>Altruism
  112. 112. <ul><li>Is there really altruism? </li><ul><li>Altruism is often for self-benefit e.g., power, status, reward, psychological gain. </li></ul><li>What matters in judging the act is the actor's intended outcomes. </li></ul>Altruism
  113. 113. <ul><li>Equity / Reciprocity </li><ul><li>Give to relationships in proportion to what we receive (Social Exchange Theory) </li></ul><li>Social responsibility norm
  114. 114. Reciprocal altruism </li><ul><li>Natural selection favors animals that are altruistic if the benefit to each is greater than the cost of altruism </li></ul></ul>Altruism
  115. 115. Bystander intervention <ul><li>Bystander intervention </li><ul><li>Bib Latané and John Darley
  116. 116. Willingness to assist a person in need
  117. 117. 75% help when alone vs. 53% in presence of others </li></ul></ul>
  118. 118. <ul><li>Diminished sense of personal responsibility to act because others are seen as equally responsible.
  119. 119. Bystanders are less likely to help in presence of more people (e.g. part of a large crowd)
  120. 120. &quot;Diffusion of responsibility&quot;: The larger the number of bystanders, the less responsibility any one bystander feels to help </li></ul>Bystander effect
  121. 121. Bystander intervention <ul><li>Bystander must notice the emergency
  122. 122. Bystander must label events as an emergency
  123. 123. Bystander must feel responsibility </li></ul>
  124. 124. <ul><li>Prosocial behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried out with the goal of helping people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Altruism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-social behaviours without consideration for self safety or interests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal altruism </li></ul>Altruism & prosocial behaviour
  125. 125. Motives for prosocial behaviour <ul><li>C. Daniel Batson’s forces that prompt people to act for the public good: </li><ul><li>Altruism
  126. 126. Egoism
  127. 127. Collectivism
  128. 128. Principlism </li></ul></ul>
  129. 129. <ul><li>Superordinate goals
  130. 130. Communication
  131. 131. Graduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction (GRIT) </li></ul>Peacemaking
  132. 132. <ul><li>Genocide: Systematic destruction of other groups - Ervin Straub
  133. 133. Concepts and images of the “enemy”
  134. 134. Peace psychology: Interdisciplinary approach to conflict prevention & peace maintenance </li></ul>Psychology of genocide, war & peace
  135. 135. The 8 stages of genocide (Stanton, 1998) <ul><li>Classification
  136. 136. Symbolisation
  137. 137. Dehumanisation
  138. 138. Organisation
  139. 139. Polarisation
  140. 140. Preparation
  141. 141. Extermination
  142. 142. Denial </li></ul>
  143. 143. Peace psychology <ul><li>Analysing forms of leadership and Government </li><ul><li>Kurt Lewin
  144. 144. Group dynamics
  145. 145. Fostering contact to facilitate conflict resolution
  146. 146. Reconciliation </li><ul><li>Mabo
  147. 147. ‘Sorry’
  148. 148. Herbert Kelman </li></ul></ul></ul>
  149. 149. <ul><li>Perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
  150. 150. Conflicting parties, each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior  “ Social Trap ”: </li><ul><li>Win-Lose
  151. 151. Lose-Win, or
  152. 152. Lose-lose. </li></ul></ul>Game theory
  153. 153. Game theory
  154. 154. <ul><li>Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2008). Psychology and life (Australian edition). Sydney: Pearson Education Australia.
  155. 155. Myers, D. G. (2001). Social Psychology (Ch. 18). In D. G. Myers (2001). Psychology (6th ed.) (pp. 643-688). New York: Worth.
  156. 156. Myers, D. G. (2007). Social Psychology (Ch. 18). In D. G. Myers (2007). Psychology (8th ed.) (pp. 723-771). New York: Worth. </li></ul>References
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