Introduction to motivation and emotion
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Introduction to motivation and emotion

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An introductory psychology lecture about motivation and emotion theories.

An introductory psychology lecture about motivation and emotion theories.

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  • Lecture home page: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Introduction_to_psychology/Lectures/Motivation_and_emotion <br /> Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:XCBikeRacer.jpg <br /> Image by: Daniel Plunkett <br /> Image license: GFDL, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Free_Documentation_License <br /> Acknowledgements: This lecture is based in part on adaptations of: <br /> Psychology 102 2008 lecture notes which were, in part, developed by Dr. Amanda George, University of Canberra <br /> Instructor slides and material provided by Pearson Education for Chapter 11 from Gerrig et al. (2008) Psychology and life (Australian edition). <br /> Instructor slides and material provided by Wiley for Chapter 11 from Burton, Westen, & Kowalski (2013, 3rd ed.) <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Big_Book_blue.svg, <br /> Image author: Melberg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Melberg <br /> Image license: Public domain <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg <br /> License: Public domain <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_gemma_and_mehmet.jpg <br /> Image by: Mehmet Karatay, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Mehmet_Karatay <br /> Image license: GFDL, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Free_Documentation_License <br /> Motivation is a broad term in psychology, a catch-all phrase to indicate all the internal and external drives and forces that guide behaviour. <br />
  • Reference: Burton et al. (2012) p. 374 <br /> Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Running_Samburu_Boy.jpg <br /> Image author: Erik (HASH) Hersman, http://www.flickr.com/people/18288598@N00 <br /> Image license: CC by A 2.0, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic <br />
  • The puzzle of “why is s/he doing that”? - why take one option instead of another option. <br /> The field of motivational psychology seeks to explain why behaviour is initiated, maintained and stopped. <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:12_Minutes_to_Heaven_Teaser.png <br /> Image by: Evan89, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Evan89 <br /> Image license: Public domain <br /> Motivational psychology consists of a set of theories that help to explain behaviour. <br />
  • Motives are the needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel people toward behavior. <br /> Drive theories hold that motivation is based in an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension…organisms seek to maintain homeostasis, or a state of equilibrium or stability. <br /> Incentive theories hold that motivation is regulated by external stimuli…ice cream, an A, money, etc. <br /> Evolutionary theories hold that natural selection favors behaviors that maximize reproductive success…explains affiliation, achievement, dominance, aggression, and sex drive in terms of adaptive value. <br />
  • One at a time, 10 pictures <br />
  • Image source:http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William-Adolphe_Bouguereau_(1825-1905)_-_Thirst_(1886).jpg <br /> License: Public domain <br />
  • Expectation: An idea about the future likelihood of getting something that is wanted. <br /> Significant human motivation derives from the individual’s subjective interpretation of reality. <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Abraham_maslow.jpg <br /> License: GFDL, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Free_Documentation_License <br /> Author: Inconnu <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg <br /> Maslow posited that the individual’s basic motives formed a hierarchy of needs, with needs at each level requiring satisfaction before achieving the next level. <br /> Biological: Bottom level needs, such as hunger and thirst, require satisfaction before other needs can begin operation. <br /> Safety is a requirement to attend to needs for protection from danger, need for security, comfort, and freedom from fear. <br /> Attachment is the need to belong, affiliate with others, love and to be loved. <br /> Esteem is the needs to like oneself, to see oneself as competent and effective, and to do what is necessary to earn the esteem of others. <br /> Cognitive: Humans demand thought stimulation, a need to know one’s past, to comprehend current existence, and to predict the future. <br /> Esthetic: Need for creativity, and the desire for beauty and order. <br /> Self-actualisation: Individual has moved beyond basic needs in the quest for fullest development of his/her potential. Individual is self-aware, self-accepting, socially responsive, creative, spontaneous, open to novelty and challenge. <br /> Transcendence: a step beyond fulfilment of individual potential, may lead some individuals to higher states of consciousness and a cosmic vision of one’s part in the universe. <br /> Maslow’s hierarchy presents an upbeat view of human motivation, with the core of the theory being the need for each individual to grow and actualise his/her highest potential. <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-J15764,_Italien,_Verpflegung_f%C3%BCr_Fallschirmj%C3%A4ger.jpg <br /> Image author: Unknown <br /> Image license: CC-by-3a Germany, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/de/deed.en <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hypothalamus_small.gif <br /> Image license: CC-BY-SA-2.1-jp <br /> Image source: https://pantherfile.uwm.edu/plenz/www/introFilesF07/chapter10.html <br /> License: Not specified <br />
  • Decades ago, researchers began studying the roles of the ventromedial hypothalamus and lateral hypothalamus in eating. Destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus can lead to obesity in rats. <br /> Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hypothalamus_small.gif <br /> Image license: CC-BY-SA-2.1-jp <br />
  • Decades ago, researchers began studying the roles of the ventromedial hypothalamus and lateral hypothalamus in eating. Destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus can lead to obesity in rats. <br /> Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hypothalamus_small.gif <br /> Image license: CC-BY-SA-2.1-jp <br />
  • http://www.eatingdisorders.org.au/key-research-a-statistics <br /> 10 x more likely in females <br /> More likely in Caucasians more than African Americans. <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Warning_Sex_in_progress_Do_not_disturb.jpg <br /> Image author: Nevit, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Nevit <br /> Image license: CC-by-SA 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Grasshopper_at_MGSP.jpg <br /> License: GFDL, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Free_Documentation_License <br /> Author:Rkitko, 2007, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Rkitko <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Allori_Venus_Cupido.jpg <br /> License: Public domain <br />
  • Image source: Burton et al. (2012) <br />
  • Sexual orientation is more likely based on biological factors like differing brain centers, genetics, and parental hormone exposure rather than environmental factors. <br /> Image source: Gerrig et al. (2011) <br />
  • 52% of gay adopted identical twins were also gay (22% of fraternal twins and 11% of adopted brothers) <br />
  • Image source: <br /> https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rebecca1917version.jpg <br /> Image author: Mary Pickford in Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1917) <br /> Image license: Public domain <br />
  • Image source: <br /> http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flickr_-_Sukanto_Debnath_-_A_happy_man.jpg <br /> Image author: Sukanto Debnath from Hyderabad, India, http://www.flickr.com/people/7487149@N03 <br /> Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic <br />
  • The cognitive component of emotion involves subjective feelings that have an evaluative aspect…a cognitive appraisal of an event is an important element in emotional experience. Researchers have, in the past, focused primarily on negative emotions, consistent with the bias in the field of psychology toward studying pathology, weakness, and suffering. In recent years, however, a group of psychologists have advocated for positive psychology…increasing research on contentment, well-being, human strength, and positive emotion. <br /> The physiological arousal associated with emotion occurs through the actions of the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for the highly emotional fight-or-flight response. The galvanic skin response (GSR) measures autonomic activation – the device that measures autonomic fluctuations while a person is questioned is called a polygraph or lie detector (really an emotion detector). Polygraph tests measure emotion, which may or may not be due to deceit; they are inaccurate often enough that they are deemed not reliable enough to be submitted as evidence in most types of courtrooms. <br /> In the brain, the limbic system is the emotional circuit (the hypothalamus, the amygdala, and adjacent structures); Joseph LeDoux (1996) has shown that the amygdala plays a particularly central role in modulating emotions. <br /> Behaviorally, emotions are expressed through body language and facial expressions. Research indicates considerable cross-cultural similarities in the ability to differentiate facial expressions of emotion. The facial-feedback hypothesis holds that facial muscles send signals to the brain that help it recognize the emotion being experienced…smile and feel better. <br /> Cross-cultural similarities have also been found in the cognitive and behavioral components, although display rules, or norms for regulating appropriate expression of emotion, vary from culture to culture. <br />
  • Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory holds that you feel autonomic arousal and look around to see why…if there’s a snake you feel fear. <br /> Image source: Burton et al. (2012) <br />
  • Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Capilano_suspension_bridge_-g.jpg <br /> Image author:goobiebilly, https://www.flickr.com/people/18424461@N08 <br /> Image license: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic <br />
  • Image source: Burton (2012), Figure 10.10, Ekman, Levenson & Friesen, 1983 <br /> Activity: Make these facial actions and notice response <br />
  • Image source: Burton (2012), Figure 10.10, Ekman, Levenson & Friesen, 1983 <br /> Images: Anger, Happiness, Disgust <br /> Activity: Identify the emotions in each pair <br />
  • Image source: Burton (2012), Figure 10.10, Ekman, Levenson & Friesen, 1983 <br />
  • Image source: Burton (2012), Figure 10.10, Ekman, Levenson & Friesen, 1983 <br />
  • Image source: Burton (2012), Figure 10.10, Ekman, Levenson & Friesen, 1983 <br />
  • New - Hedonic adaptation occurs when the mental scale that people use to judge the pleasantnessunpleasantness of their experiences shifts so that their neutral point, or baseline <br /> for comparison, changes. Unfortunately, when people’s experiences improve, hedonic adaptation may sometimes put them on a hedonic treadmill—their neutral point moves upward, so that the improvements yield no real benefits <br /> Evidence suggests that people adapt more slowly to negative events than to positive events (Larsen & Prizmic, 2008). Thus, even years later, people who suffer major setbacks, such as the <br /> death of a spouse or serious illness, often are not as happy as they were before the setback, but generally they are not nearly as unhappy as they or others would have predicted <br />
  • Image source: Burton (2012), Figure 10.18 <br />
  • Image source: Burton (2012), Figure 10.18 <br />
  • Image source: <br /> http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lac_icone.svg <br /> Image author:Savant fou, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Savant-fou <br /> Image license: CC-by-A 2.0, GFDL 1.2 <br />
  • Image source: Burton (2012), Figure 10.18 <br />
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg <br /> License: Public domain <br /> Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg <br /> License: CC-BY-A 2.5 <br /> Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo <br />

Introduction to motivation and emotion Introduction to motivation and emotion Presentation Transcript

  • 1 Introduction to psychology: Motivation & emotion Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2014 Imagesource:http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:XCBikeRacer.jpg,GFDL
  • 2 Reading Burton, Westen & Kowalski (2012) Chapter 10: Motivation and emotion Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Big_Book_blue.svg, Public domain
  • 3 Learning objectives 1.Distinguish among the different theoretical perspectives on motivation 2.Describe the regulation of eating 3.Describe how sexual motivation involves hormones and social and cultural factors 4.Distinguish between the two clusters of psychosocial motives (relatedness and agency) 5.Distinguish between the different theories of emotion View slide
  • 4 Overview Motivation 1. What is motivation? 2. Perspectives 1. Psychodynamic 2. Behaviourist 3. Cognitive 4. Humanistic 5. Evolutionary 3. Eating 4. Sexual 5. Psychosocial Emotion 1. What is emotion? 2. Perspectives 1. Physiological 2. Subjective 3. Neural View slide
  • 5 What is motivation? Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_gemma_and_mehmet.jpg, GFDL
  • 6 What is motivation? "motivation" and “emotion” derive from the same Latin verb movere (to move) Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Running_Samburu_Boy.jpg, CC-by-A 2.0
  • 7 What is motivation? What made you get out of bed this morning? What was the cause of this behaviour? What made you attend or watch this lecture? What was the cause of this behaviour?
  • 8 What is motivation? Motivation is what makes us:  act the way we do  start, direct, maintain, and stop our behaviours Motivation is the:  needs, wants, interests, and desires that energise & direct behaviour. Motives reflect:  biological needs  psychosocial needs
  • 9  Two major origins of motives: Biological: Limited in range but shared by all; related to survival and reproduction – e.g., need for oxygen, hydration, food, comfortable temperature, excretion, sleep Social/psychological: Vary between individuals and cultures – e.g., autonomy, affiliation, dominance, exhibition, order  Humans display an enormous range of motives and behaviour across cultures and between individuals, undermining the argument that human behaviour results greatly from inborn instincts. Range & diversity of human motives
  • 10 What is motivation? We are all “naive psychologists” i.e., we are constantly trying to figure out other people's motives and predict their behaviour
  • 11 1. Relate biology to behaviour 2. Account for behavioural variability 3. Infer private states from public acts 4. Assign responsibility for actions 5. Explain perseverance despite adversity Five functions of motivational concepts (Gerrig et al., 2008)
  • 12 1. Everything we do is rooted in biology and shaped by culture and experience. 2.Thoughts provide the direction or goals of a motive 3.Feelings provide the strength or force behind motives 4.Both motivation and emotion work together to influence behaviour Central issue: The nature and causes of human motives and emotions
  • 13 Perspectives on motivation
  • 14 Psychodynamic Behaviourist Cognitive Humanistic Evolutionary Perspectives on motivation
  • 15  Emphasises biological basis of motivation, reflecting evolutionary heritage  Freud argued that we are motivated by internal tension states (drives) that build up until satisfied  Two basic drives:  Sex (love, lust, intimacy)  Self-protection / Aggression (control, mastery)  Subsequent psychodynamic theorists argue for:  Need for relatedness to others  Need for self-esteem Psychodynamic perspective
  • 16  Freud argued that a person can be unaware of their own motives for their behaviours.  Motivation can be unconscious (implicit) and conscious (explicit) at the same time.  Unconscious motivation can be assessed using projective tests in which a person is asked to describe a vague stimulus. Unconscious motivation
  • Thematic Apperception Test Tell a dramatic story including what: 1. led up to the event 2. is happening at the moment 3. the characters are feeling & thinking, & 4. the outcome of the story was Motives coded from TAT are highly predictive of long-term behaviour patterns.
  • 18  Behaviours are governed by the environment.  Needs reflect a requirement such as food and water.  Drives are states of arousal that accompany an unfulfilled need (e.g., hunger, thirst).  Drive reduction theory argues that we behave in order to satisfy needs and reduce drives.  Drives can be primary (innate) or secondary (learned). Behaviourist perspective
  • 19  The aim of drive reduction is to restore equilibrium or homeostasis.  Homeostasis: tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state. Drives and homeostasis http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William-Adolphe_Bouguereau_(1825-1905)_-_Thirst_(1886).jpg  Useful for survival behaviours; less useful for “higher” behaviours
  • 20  Expectancy-value theory: motivation is a function of the: value people place on an outcome likelihood that they can achieve it.  Goals are established through social learning.  Conscious goals regulate much of human behaviour. Cognitive perspective
  • 21  Intrinsic motivation refers to the enjoyment of and interest in a behaviour for its own sake.  Self-determination theory: 3 innate needs:  competence  autonomy  relatedness  fulfillment of these needs increases intrinsic motivation  Implicit motives are those which are activated and expressed outside of conscious awareness. Cognitive perspective
  • 22  Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that human needs can be organised hierarchically. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  Physiological needs (e.g., breathing, hunger) come first  Then psychological needs (e.g., self-esteem) are pursued.
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Lower level needs must be fulfilled first
  • 24  Early theorists suggested behaviour was governed by instincts: fixed patterns of behaviour produced without learning  Motivational systems evolved independently in response to particular evolutionary pressures  Contemporary theorists argue that there are multiple motivational systems related to:  Survival  Reproduction Evolutionary perspective
  • 25 Motivation of hunger and eating
  • 26  Eating is a behaviour which involves consumption of food.  Food ingestion leads to metabolic reaction: Absorption. Food energy is extracted and stored as either glycogen or fat. Fasting. Energy stores are converted to glucose for use by the body. Eating
  • 27 Complex system that equips organisms with mechanisms that: Monitor & detect internal food need Initiate & organise eating behaviour Monitor quantity & quality of food eaten Detect when sufficient food has been eaten & stop eating Regulation of food intake
  • 28 Eating is part of a complex homeostatic process with:  Set points: Biologically optimal level system tries to maintain  Feedback mechanisms: e.g., receptors to monitor level of sugar in blood  Corrective mechanisms: these restore system back to set point when needed Regulation of food intake
  • 29  Physiological hunger is caused by dropping levels of glucose and lipids in the bloodstream (detected by brain and liver)  Hypothalamus plays a central role:  Lateral (outside edge) plays role in switching ‘on’ eating behaviour  Ventromedial (bottom, middle) plays role in switching ‘off’ eating What turns hunger on? Mice with damaged ventromedial hypothalamus can become obese.
  • 30  Food palatability: tasty foods can motivate eating.  Food variety: exposure to the same food day after day can reduce intake.  Time of day: if eating is at same time each day then conditioning can occur.  Presence of others: meal size increases as the group size increases.  Memory of last meal: people with short- term memory loss (e.g., dementia) eat more often External cues in eating
  • 31  Defined as >=15% ideal body weight for one’s height and age  Prevalent in industrialised cultures (~25% of Australian population)  Consequences:  Physical: Heart disease, diabetes or stroke, early mortality  Psychological: Negative stereotypes, discrimination, difficulty in relationships, low self-esteem Obesity
  • 32  Anorexia Nervosa: < 85% of expected weight, yet feels fat and continues to starve. (5% of Australian population)  Bulimia Nervosa: Binges - periods of intense, out-of-control eating followed by excessive exercise, vomiting, fasting or laxative use. (5% of Australian population)  Various contributing factors have been identified:  Genes, familial influences, low self- esteem, societal pressures Eating disorders & body image
  • 33 Sexual motivation
  • 34 Androgens Estrogen Pheromones Non-human sexual behaviours
  • 35 Motivational state of excitement and tension brought about by physiological & cognitive reactions to erotic stimuli. Human sexual arousal
  • 36 The psychology of sex  External stimuli (e.g., sexually explicit materials) can trigger sexual arousal in both men and women.  Imagined stimuli can influence sexual arousal and desire.  People who have a spinal cord injury and experience no genital stimulation can still experience sexual desire (Willmuth, 1987).  Dreams are also associated with sexual arousal.  Sexting is now considered to be a normal part of Australian high school courtship and sexual relationships (even though it is against the law for u/18s) – National Survey of Australian Secondary Students and Sexual Health 2013 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-05-04/sexting-a-normal-part-of-teenage-relationships-survey-find/5429020
  • 37 Masters and Johnson (1966, 1970)  Men and women have similar patterns of sexual response:  Excitement:Genitals become engorged with blood. Vagina expands, secretes lubricant. Penis enlarges.  Plateau:Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse and blood pressure continue to increase.  Orgasm:Contractions all over the body. Further increase in breathing, pulse and blood pressure. Sexual release.  Resolution:Body returns to its unaroused state. Male goes through refractory period.  Women are more variable, tending to respond more slowly but often remaining aroused longer.  Many women can have multiple orgasms, while men rarely do so in a comparable time period.
  • Human sexual response cycle Masters and Johnson (1966) Female sexual response cycle Male sexual response cycle
  • 39 Biology and sexual motivation  Hormones have two effects on the nervous system and behaviour:  Organisational effects: prenatal exposure to androgens alters the neural circuits in brain and spinal cord  Activational effects: alteration of adult levels of hormones can alter the intensity of a behaviour that is modulated by that hormone
  • 40 Culture and sexual motivation  Anthropological studies show wide cultural variation in sexual norms and what behaviour is considered appropriate.  For example, Western cultures view males as having greater sexual needs whereas other cultures hold the opposite view.
  • 41 Sexual orientation  Sexual orientation: Enduring direction of attraction for a sexual partner on a continuum (Kinsey): Homosexual HeterosexualBisexual  Twin studies document a biological basis for sexual orientation.  Hormonal responses differ between homosexual and heterosexual men.
  • 42 Biological theories of homosexuality 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage of Relatives with Gay Sexual Orientation 40 Genetic RelatednessRelationship Identical Twin Fraternal Twin Adoptive Sibling 100% 50% 50% 0% Male Female Figure 10.18 Genetics and sexual orientation (Weiten, 2013) Data from Bailey & Pillard, 1991; Bailey et. al. 1993
  • 43 Sexual disorders & therapy  Problems which consistently impair sexual functioning, e.g., Erectile dysfunction (men) Premature ejaculation Orgasmic disorders  Treatment includes behaviour therapy which assumes that people learn and can modify their sexual responses.
  • 44 Summary of influences on sexual motivation  Biological: e.g., sexual maturation, sex hormones, sexual orientation  Psychological: e.g., exposure to stimulating conditions, sexual fantasies  Social-cultural: e.g., family, societal and personal values, religion, cultural expectations
  • 45 Psychosocial motives Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rebecca1917version.jpg, Public domain
  • 46 Psychosocial motives  Personal and interpersonal motives (e.g., achievement, intimacy, etc)  Less biological but rooted in evolution  There are two major clusters of goals people pursue: Relatedness: connectedness with others Agency: motives for self-oriented goals
  • 47 Need for relatedness  Attachment motivation refers to the desire for physical and psychological proximity to another (comfort and pleasure).  Intimacy is closeness characterised by self-disclosure, warmth and mutual caring (adult relationships).  Affiliation is interaction with friends or acquaintances (communication and support).
  • 48 Need for achievement  Achievement motivation refers to the need to do well, to succeed, and to avoid failure  Persons who have a high level of need for achievement tend to:  Choose moderately difficult tasks  Enjoy being challenged  Work more persistently  Delay gratification  Pursue competitive careers
  • 49 Performance goals  Performance goals are motives to achieve a particular outcome:  Performance-approach goals: motivated to attain goal  Performance-avoidance goals: motivated by fear of not attaining goal  Mastery goals are motives to increase skills and competencies  These three different types of goals predict different outcomes
  • 50 Emotion Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flickr_-_Sukanto_Debnath_-_A_happy_man.jpg Image author: Sukanto Debnath, CC-by-A 2.0
  • 51 What is emotion?  An evaluative response to a situation that typically involves:  Cognition: Subjective, conscious experience  Physiology: Bodily arousal  Behaviour: Overt expression  Can be positive or negative feeling or response
  • 52 Theories of emotion Conscious experience of emotion results from one's perception of automatic arousal Thalamus sends simultaneous signals to the cortex (conscious experience) and the autonomic nervous system (visceral arousal).
  • 53 Theories of emotion Misattribution of arousal can occur when people misinterpret their autonomic arousal.  Dutton and Aron (1974) conducted a study where they arranged for young men to meet an attractive female while crossing a bridge.  Half the men crossed a bridge which was 10 feet above a stream, while the other half crossed a swaying, 230 foot suspension bridge.  The suspension bridge men called the woman for a date significantly more often than the low bridge men, suggesting misattribution of arousal as attraction rather than fear.
  • 54 Facial expression and emotion  There is an evolutionary link between the experience of emotion and facial expression of emotion:  Facial expressions serve to inform others of our emotional state.  Different facial expressions are associated with different emotions.  Facial expression can alter emotional experience.
  • 55 Creating fear in the face Participants instructed to:  (a) raise their eyebrows and pull them together  (b) raise their upper eyelids  (c) stretch their lips back towards their ears showed physiological changes consistent with fear.
  • 56 Culture and facial expressions  Cross-cultural studies have identified six facial expressions recognised by people of every culture that was examined:  surprise  fear  anger  disgust  happiness  sadness  Display rules: Norms about when emotional displays are considered appropriate within a specific culture ?
  • 57 Gender and emotional expression  Women  Experience more intense emotional states  Are better able to read emotional cues in others  Express emotions more intensely and openly than do men  Gender differences in emotional expression may reflect differing socialisation patterns.
  • 58 Taxonomy of emotions Common 5 include:  anger  fear  sadness  disgust  happiness Additional emotions:  contempt  shame  guilt  surprise  interest  anticipation  joy  trust There are between 5 and 9 basic emotional states.
  • 59 Positive and negative affect  Positive affect: pleasant emotions, drives approach type behaviour  Negative affect: unpleasant emotions, drives avoidant type behaviour  Distinction discovered through factor analysis studies  Within these two factors, emotions are substantially inter-correlated.  People who experience one negative emotion (e.g. anxiety) tend to experience others (e.g. sadness, guilt).
  • 60 Happiness  An emotional state characterised by a positive valence  Happiness is strongly related to:  love, marriage, work satisfaction, and personality  Happiness is moderately related to:  physical health  religious faith  cultural values (highest in individualistic, lowest in collectivist culture)  number of uninterrupted years of democracy  quality of social relationships  Happiness is not related to:  gender, age, wealth, intelligence, attractiveness
  • 61  Objective realities are not as important as subjective feelings  When it comes to happiness everything is relative  People are surprisingly bad at predicting what will make them happy  People often adapt to their circumstances Hedonic adaptation (Happiness set/settling point) Happiness
  • 62 Evolutionary perspective  Emotions are innate reactions to specific stimuli with little cognitive interpretation  Emotions serve an adaptive purpose (Darwin). They evolved:  because of their adaptive value (serve as important signals to ourselves and others)  before thought  Basic emotional expressions are wired into the organism and are recognised cross-culturally.
  • 63 Neuropsychology of emotion Three important areas:  Hypothalamus – link in circuit that converts emotional signals into autonomic and endocrine responses  Limbic system – Amygdala plays central role in linking sensory stimuli with feelings  Cortex – allows assessment of whether stimulus is safe or not, interpretation of meaning of peripheral responses (e.g., dry mouth) and regulation of facial displays
  • 64 Psychodynamic perspective  People can be unconscious of their own emotional experience.  Unconscious emotional processes can influence thought, behaviour & health.  We regularly delude ourselves about our abilities & attributes to avoid unpleasant emotional experiences.
  • 65 Cognitive perspective  Schachter and Singer (1962): Cognitive judgements (attributions) are a critical part of emotional experience.  Cognitive appraisals influence emotion.  Mood and emotion can affect thought and memory.
  • 66 Schacter-Singer theory of emotion  Emotion involves two factors:  physiological arousal  cognitive interpretation  A cognitive judgement or attribution is crucial to emotional experience.
  • 67 Summary & Conclusion
  • 68 Summary  Motivation refers to the forces that energise behaviour and includes two components:  what people want to do  how strongly they want to do it  Different theoretical perspectives (e.g., evolutionary, cognitive) suggest different reasons for motives.  Emotion is an evaluative response that typically involves subjective experience, physiological arousal and behavioural expression.
  • 69  3rd year psych unit, Semester 2  Prereqs: Psy 101 & Psy 102  ~6 weeks each on Motivation and Emotion Next unit on this topic: Motivation & Emotion (7124/6665)
  • 70  4th year (1 year FT or 2-3 years PT)  Can start Semester 1 or Semester 2  Requires DI-average in 2nd and 3rd year core psychology units  Honours & Post Graduate Information Evening - Wednesday 10 September 2014, 5:30-7:00pm at the Ann Harding Conference Centre (Building 24)  More info: See UC psychology homepage Honours in Psychology
  • 71  Burton, L., Westen, D., Kowalski, R. (2012). Psychology (3rd ed.). Milton, Queensland, Australia: Wiley.  Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2008). Motivation (Ch 11). Psychology and life (Australian edition). Sydney: Pearson Education Australia.  Weiten, W. (2010). Motivation and emotion (Ch 10). Psychology: Themes and variations (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. References Note: Image credits are on the slides or in the slide notes.
  • 72 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html