Personal control and the self
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Personal control and the self



This lecture discussses personal control beliefes and the self and its strivings.

This lecture discussses personal control beliefes and the self and its strivings.



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  • Image source: <br /> Image by: Tommy Wong, <br /> Image license: CC-by-A, <br /> Acknowledgements: This lecture is based in part on instructor resource slides from Wiley. <br /> Wednesday 17 September, 2014, 12:30-14:30, 12B2 <br /> 7124-6665 Motivation and Emotion / G <br /> Centre for Applied Psychology <br /> Faculty of Health <br /> University of Canberra <br /> Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia <br /> ph: +61 2 6201 2536 <br /> [email_address] <br /> <br />
  • Image source: <br /> License: Public domain <br /> Image source: <br /> License: CC-BY-A 2.5 <br /> Author: <br />
  • Notes: This chapter is the first within the Cognition section of Reeve (2009) <br /> Image source: <br /> Image by: United States Marine Corps <br /> Image license: Public domain <br />
  • What does the future have in store for you? <br /> How able are to copewith what the future has in store for you? <br />
  • Another example: <br /> Efficacy expectation: If I can control my temper and be polite to the officer... <br /> Outcome expectation: Then I&apos;ll save myself the cost of a $200 ticket <br />
  • “Of the four sources of self-efficacy, personal behaviour history is the most influential (Bandura, 1986).” (Reeve, 2009, p. 235) <br /> Modeling influence depends on perceived similarity of actor and personal experience. <br /> Personal behaviour history and vicarious experience are generally the stronger sources of efficacy information (Reeve, 2009, p. 237) <br /> Image source: <br /> Image author: Charles J Sharp <br /> Image license: CC-by-SA 3.0, <br />
  • Two practical points about self-efficacy: <br /> Self-efficacy beliefs can be acquired and changed <br /> The level of self-efficacy predicts ways of coping that can be called “competence functioning” or “personal empowerment” <br /> Thus, self-efficacy expectations provide the cognitive-motivational foundation underlying personal empowerment. <br /> An example is the self-defense and emotion-management 5-week training program (Ozer & Bandura, 1990). Other contexts include children&apos;s literacy, IT or public speaking skills, therapists, sales people etc. <br /> (Reeve, 2009, p. 241) <br />
  • “The mastery modeling program is a formal procedure to utilise the four courses of self-efficacy as a means to advance from ancious novices to confident masters of the craft. By having novices perform each skill and receive corrective feedack from the expert, the novice builds efficacy through a personal behaviour history...” (Reeve, 2009, p. 242) <br /> Activity – Identify what of the four sources of self-efficacy are fostered through each of the Mastery modeling steps. <br />
  • Image source: <br /> Image author: Vincent Maccio, <br /> Image license: CC-by-SA 3.0 <br />
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  • Basically, what happens during encounters with failure? <br />
  • “As efficacy expectations are the building blocks of self-efficacy, outcome expectancies are the building blocks of learned helplessness.” (Reeve, 2009, p. 244) <br />
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  • It takes 10,000 hours to become an expert (Gladwell, 2005) <br />
  • Image source: <br /> License: Public domain <br /> Image source: <br /> License: CC-BY-A 2.5 <br /> Author: <br />

Personal control and the self Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2014 Image source Personal control beliefs & the self & its strivings
  • 2. 2 Overview 1. Personal control beliefs 2. The self and its strivings
  • 3. 3 Personal control beliefs Reading: Reeve (2009) Ch 9 (pp. 263-294)
  • 4.  Personal control beliefs 4 Outline  Motivation to exercise personal control  Expectancy  Efficacy  Outcome  Perceived control:  Self  Action  Control  Self-efficacy  Sources of self-efficacy  Self-efficacy effects on behaviour  Self-efficacy or the psychological need for competence?  Empowerment  Empowering people: Mastery modeling program Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 9, pp. 229-230)  Ways of coping  Mastery versus helplessness  Learned helplessness  Learning helplessness  Applications to humans  Components  Effects of helplessness  Helplessness and depression  Explanatory style  Criticisms and alternative explanations  Reactance theory  Reactance and helplessness  Putting it all together: Hope
  • 5. Questions about expectancy and control  What are your expectations for your future? 5  Will you get the next job you apply for?  If you go on a blind date, would the other person like you?  Can you run 3 kms without stopping to rest?  Do you believe that you are in control of the events that happen to you?  Or is what happens to you controlled by luck, fate, or others?  How do your expectations and perceptions of control affect:  Your motivation?  Your performance? Based on Reeve (2009, p. 230)
  • 6. Motivation to exercise personal control: 6 Initial assumptions and understandings  People desire control over their environment so as to be able to make:  positive outcomes ­ likely  negative outcomes ¯ likely  Exercising personal control is predicated upon a person's belief that s/he has the power to influence results favourably.  The strength with which people try to exercise personal control can be traced to their expectancies of being able to do so. Based on Reeve (2009, p. 231)
  • 7. 7 Two kinds of expectancies Expectancy: A subjective prediction of how likely it is that an event will occur. Efficacy expectations “Can I do it?” Expectation of being able to enact the behaviours needed to cope effectively with the situation at hand. e.g., Can I do 20 mins on a treadmill, 3 x week for 12 months? Outcome expectations “Will what I do work?” Expectation that one's behaviour will produce positive outcomes (or prevent negative outcomes). e.g., Would I lose 5 kgs as a result? Motivation to exercise personal control Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 231-232)
  • 8. 8 Two kinds of expectancies: Efficacy and outcome Person Behaviour Outcome Efficacy expectations “Can I do it?” e.g., Can I control my fright and ask him to dance? Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 9.1, p. 232) Outcome expectations “Will it work?” e.g., Will he say yes and will we have fun?
  • 9. (Alternative terminology for the Personal-Behaviour-OOuuttccoommee mmooddeell)) Action (Means) Control 9 Self → Action → Control model of perceived control Self (Agent) Efficacy expectations e.g., Can I use effective coping strategies during difficult discussions? Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 9.2, p. 233) (Ends) Perceived control e.g., can I improve my marriage? Outcome expectations e.g., Will using these coping strategies improve my marriage?
  • 10. 10 Self-efficacy One’s judgment of how well one will cope with a situation (given the skills one possesses and the circumstances one faces). Capacity to improvise ways to translate personal abilities into effective performance. The opposite of self-efficacy is self-doubt. Self-efficacy predicts the motivational balance between wanting to give it a try vs. anxiety, doubt and avoidance. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 233-235)
  • 11. Sources of self-efficacy Effects of self-efficacy 11 Sources & effects of self-efficacy Extent of self-efficacy Personal behaviour history Vicarious experience (Modeling) Verbal persuasion (Pep talk) Physiological activity Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 9.3, pp. 235-240) Choice (Approach vs. avoid) Effort and persistence Thinking and decision making Emotional reactions (Stress, anxiety) Image source:
  • 12. 12 Empowerment Empowerment involves possessing the knowledge, skills, and beliefs that allow people to exert control over their lives. Knowledge Empowerment Based on Reeve (2009, p. 241) Self-efficacy beliefs Skills
  • 13. measures novices' efficacy expectation on each component skill 2. Expert models each component skills. Expert provides corrective feedback, as needed. 3. Novices emulate each modeled skill. Expert provides corrective feedback, simulated performance while peers watch. As they watch, peers provide encouragement and tips. Each person takes a turn until everyone has performed multiple times. 6. Novices perform individually in a near-naturalistic situation that features numerous and reaslistic difficulties, obstacles, and setbacks while the expert provides modeling and corrective feedback. 7. Expert models confident demeanour and arousal-regulating strategies. 13 Empowering people: Mastery modeling program 1. Expert identifies component skills involved in effective coping and as needed. 4. Novices integrate the separate component skills into an overall simulated performance. Expert introduces only mild obstacles and helps novices integrate the different skill components into an overall performance. 5. Novices participate in cooperative learning groups. One person gives a Based on Reeve (2009, p. 242) which is based on Ozer and Bandura (1990)
  • 14. 14 Mastery beliefs Perceived control over attaining desirable outcomes and preventing aversive ones Responds to failure by remaining task- and mastery-focused Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 242-243) Image source:
  • 15. 15 Stress and coping Stress occurs when the demands of a situation exceed our resources. Coping refers to choiceful attempts to deal with stress.
  • 16. Taking action by moving toward and interacting with the problem vs. walking away from the problem Social vs. solitary Taking action with a team of others vs. acting alone Proactive vs. reactive Taking action to prevent a problem before vs. after it 16 Ways of coping Way of coping Illustration Approach vs. avoidance occurs Direct vs. indirect Taking action with a team of others vs. acting alone Control vs. escape Take-charge approach vs. staying clear of the situation Alloplastic vs. autoplastic Taking action to change the problem vs. taking action to change one's self Problem focused vs. emotion focused Taking action to manage the problem causing the stress vs. regulating one's emotional response to the problem Based on Reeve (2009, Table 9.1, p. 243) which is based on Skinner et al. (2003)
  • 17. 17 How to make stress your friend Kelly McGonigal, 2013 TED Talk (15 mins) Start at 1:00; End at 13:21
  • 18. 18 Mastery versus helplessness Mastery motivational orientation • A hardy, resistant portrayal of the self during encounters of failure • Failure feedback can be helpful and constructive information. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 243-244) Helpless motivational orientation • A fragile view of the self during encounters of failure • Failure feedback is a sign of personal inadequacy.
  • 19. 19 Learned helplessness The psychological state that results when an individual expects that life’s outcomes are uncontrollable. My behaviour Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 9.4, p. 245) Outcomes that happen to ne Other (uncontrollable) influences
  • 20. Learned helplessness Seligman and Maier experiment How helplessness is learnt. Based on Reeve (2009, p. 246)
  • 21. Learned helplessness RReessuullttss ooff aa pprroottoottyyppiiccaall lleeaarrnneedd hheellpplleessssnneessss ssttuuddyy Base d on Reeve (2009, Table 9.2, p. 243) w hich is based on Seligman & Meier (129167)
  • 22. Learned helplessness study with humans Authentic feedback (Controllable problem) vs. Random and bogus feedback (Uncontrollable problem) Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 9.6, p. 248)
  • 23. 23 Three components of learned helplessness Contingency Cognition Behaviour Objective •Subjective relationship personal control between a beliefs person’s •Biases behaviour and •Attributions the environment’s •Expectancies outcomes (range: 0 to 1) Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 249-250) Listless, demoralised coping behaviour vs. assertive, active, energetic coping
  • 24. 24 Three effects of helplessness Decreased willingness to try “Why try?“ Acquired pessimistic set that interferes with one’s ability to learn new response-outcome contingencies Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 250-252) Energy-depleting emotions (e.g., Listlessness, apathy, depression) Motivational deficits Learning deficits Emotional deficits
  • 25. Helplessness and depression Perceived control judgments for depressed and non-depressed individuals Depressed individuals had the most accurate perceptions in the no-control condition. Non-depressed individuals perceived they had greater control than they did. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 252-253)
  • 26. 26 Explanatory style: Relatively stable, cognitively-based personality orientation Attributions vary in their locus, stability and controllability Optimistic explanatory style • Explains bad events with attributions that are unstable and controllable • Related to the self-serving bias of an illusion of control which contributes to enhancing self-esteem and promoting an optimistic view of the future Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 253-255) Pessimistic explanatory style • Explains bad events with attributions that are stable and uncontrollable • Associated with academic failure, social distress, impaired job performance, physical illness, and depression
  • 27. 27 Criticisms & alternative explanations Criticisms • • Traumatic events themselves could induce helplessness. • The expectation of failure induces helplessness. • Uncontrollable events induce helplessness deficits not because they are uncontrollable but because they are unpredictable. Alternative explanations • • People actually motivated to remain passive. • Helplessness might fundamentally be a physiological, rather than a cognitive, phenomenon. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 255-256)
  • 28. 28 Reactance theory Reactance Based on Reeve (2009, p. 256) The psychological and behavioural attempt at reestablishing (“reacting” against) an eliminated or threatened freedom.
  • 29. Reactance and helplessness Integrative model of reactance & learned helplessness Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 9.8, p. 258)
  • 30. 30 Putting it all together: Hope Self-efficacy Mastery Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 259-260) motivation Agentic thinking Performer’s perceived capacity to accomplish the goals “I can do this.” Pathways thinking Performer’s belief that he/she can generate multiple viable routes to desired goals “I will find a way to get this done.”
  • 31. 31 Why do high-hope people outperform low-hope counterparts? Set specific, short-term goals Set mastery (learning) goals Rely on internal self-set goals Engage with intrinsic motivation  Flexible problem-solving approach Determination reservoir Perceive meaning in life Based on Reeve (2009, p. 260)
  • 32. 32 The self & its strivings Reading: Reeve (2009) Ch 10 (pp. 263-293)
  • 33. 33 Outline – The self and its strivings  The self  The problem with self-esteem  Self-concept  Self-schemas and their motivational properties  Consistent self  Why people self-verify  Possible selves  Cognitive dissonance Based on Reeve (2009, p. 263)  Identity  Roles  Identity-confirming behaviours  Identity-restoring behaviours  Agency  Self as action and development from within  Self-concordance  Self-regulation  Developing more competent self-regulation
  • 34. 34 Six dimensions of psychological well-being 1. Self-acceptance 2. Positive relations with others 3. Autonomy 4. Environmental mastery 5. Purpose in life 6. Personal growth Based on Reeve (2009, Table 10. 1, p. 265) which is based on Ryff (1991)
  • 35. 35 The self Four topics taking center stage Defining or creating the self Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 264-266) Relating the self to society Discovering & developing personal potential Managing or regulating the self
  • 36. Self-constructs or self-construals Self-esteem: general feelings of self-worth or self-value Self-efficacy: beliefs about one's ability to perform specific tasks Self-confidence: belief in one's personal worth and likelihood of succeeding. Self-confidence is a combination of self-esteem 36 and general self-efficacy. Self-concept: nature and organisation of beliefs about one's self. Based on Neill (2005,
  • 37. 37 The problem with self-esteem 1. Self-esteem is positively correlated with happiness, achievement etc. and negatively correlated with anxiety and depression 2. But self-esteem itself doesn't seem to cause anything 3. Thus, self-esteem is a barometer or scorecard for success and failure, but is not a causal variable 4. The crusade to boost self-esteem is overrated – better off helping people to build skills and self-efficacy Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 266-268)
  • 38. 38 Self-concept (cognitive structure) Set of beliefs an individual uses to conceptualise his or her self e.g., “I am....” (self-descriptions) Cluster of domain-specific self-schemas a reflection of the invariance people have discovered in their own social behaviour. (the way the self has been differentiated and articulated in memory) Based on Reeve (2009, p. 268)
  • 39. 39 Motivational properties of self-schemas Consistent self Self-schemas direct behaviour to confirm the self-view and to prevent episodes that generate feedback that might disconfirm that self-view. Possible self Self-schemas generate motivation to move the present self toward a desired future self. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 269-272)
  • 40. Benefits of well-developed self-schema 40 Process information about the self with relative ease. Benefits of well-developed self-schema Confidently predict his own future behaviour in the domain. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 268-270) Quickly retrieve self-related behavioural evidence from the domain. Resist counter-schematic information about him/herself.
  • 41. Processes underlying self-verification and self-concept change Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.1, p. 272)
  • 42. 42 Possible selves Representations of attributes, characteristics, and abilities that the self does not yet possess. Mostly social in origin, as the individual observes the selves modeled by others. The possible self’s motivational role is to link the present self with ways to become the possible (ideal) self. An important piece of the puzzle in understanding how the self develops Portraying the self as a dynamic entity with a past, present, and future. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 273-275)
  • 43. 43 Cognitive dissonance Cognitive dissonance Assumptions A state of tension that occurs whenever an individual simultaneously holds two cognitions (ideas, attitudes, beliefs, opinions) that are psychologically inconsistent with one another. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 275-276) Most people are motivated to justify their own actions, beliefs, and feelings. People are not rational beings; instead, people are rationalising beings.
  • 44. 44 Don't eat the marshmallow! Joachim de Posada, 2009 TED Talk (6 mins)
  • 45. 45 Cognitive dissonance Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 276-278) Dissonance arousing situation • New cognition or behaviour implies the opposite of an old cognition (i.e., old belief). • Counter-attitudinal cognition or behaviour must produce aversive consequences. • Person must accept personal responsibility for those aversive consequences. Coping strategies • Remove the dissonant belief • Reduce the importance of the dissonant belief • Add a new consonant belief • Increase the importance of the consonant belief
  • 46. Motivational processes underlying cognitive dissonance Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.2, p. 278)
  • 47. Identity is the means by which the self relates to society, and it captures the essence of who the self is within a cultural context. Once people assume social roles (e.g., mother, bully), their identities direct their behaviors in ways that express the role-identity’s cultural value. behaviours (identity-confirming behaviours) and to avoid other behaviours (identity-disconfirming behaviours). 47 Identity (social relationship) The identity directs the person to pursue some Based on Reeve (2009, p. 279-281)
  • 48. 48 Affect control theory Motivation and emotion produce Identity-confirming behaviours (i.e., fundamental sentiment-confirming) Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 280-281) Identity-restoring behaviours
  • 49. 49 Affect control theory People behave in ways that minimise affective deflection. Identities motivate behaviour → People with nice (or powerful) identities engage in nice (or powerful) behaviours. Affective deflections energise behaviour → When people act in identity-conflicting ways, affective deflection occurs to energise identity-restoring courses of action. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 280-281)
  • 50. 50 Agency Self as action and development from within, (innate processes and motivations) Human beings possess a core self, energised by innate motivation and directed by the inherent developmental processes of differentiation and integration. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 281-282) Not all self-structures are equally authentic; while some reflect the core self, others reflect and reproduce the society.
  • 51. 51 Self-concordance People pursue goals that are congruent or “concordant” with their core self Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.3, p. 284) Self-Concordance Model
  • 52. Diagrammatic illustration of self-integrated and non-integrated action BasedFi gounr eR 1e0e.v 4e (2009, Figure 10.4, p. 285)
  • 53. Cyclical path model for the Self-concordance Model illustrates developmental gains in well-being and self-concordance The self-concordance model illustrates the motivational and developmental benefits of pursuing life goals that emanate out of the integrated or core self. Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.5, p. 287)
  • 54. Cyclical phases of self-regulation Self-regulation involves the person’s meta-cognitive monitoring of how his or her goal-setting progress is going. Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.6, p. 289)
  • 55. Developing more competent self-regulation: Summary of the social learning process to acquire Acquiring a greater capacity for more effective self-regulation increases the self’s capacity to carry out the goal-setting 55 self-regulation skill process on one’s own. Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.7, p. 290) Acquisition of competent self-regulation skill Able to self-regulate one's goals, behaviours, and standards in the domain. Lack of self-regulation skill Unable to regulate one's goals, implementation intentions, and coping strategies in a new domain. Social learning process 1. Observe expert model 2. Imitation, social guidance, feedback 3. Internalisation of standards 4. Self-regulatory process, including self-monitoring, self-evaluating
  • 56. 56 Next lecture Nature of emotion (Ch 11)
  • 57. 57 References  Ozur, E. M., & Bandura, A. (1990). Mechanisms governing empowerment effects: A self-efficacy analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 472-486.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Ryff, C. D. (1991). A tale of shifting horizons. Psychology and Aging, 6, 286- 295. Note: Image credits are in the slide notes
  • 58. 58 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software. 