Mindsets, control, and the self

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This lecture discussses mindsets, personal control beliefs, and the self and its strivings.

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  • Image source: https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/wiki/File:Girl_with_styrofoam_swimming_board.jpg
    Image by: Tommy Wong, http://www.flickr.com/people/gracewong/
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    Acknowledgements: This lecture is based in part on instructor resource slides from Wiley.
    Wednesday 16 September, 2015, 12:30-14:30, 12B2
    7124-6665 Motivation and Emotion / G
    Centre for Applied Psychology
    Faculty of Health
    University of Canberra
    Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia
    ph: +61 2 6201 2536
    [email_address]
    http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion
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  • Based on Reeve (2015, Table 9.1 Four mindsets and their associated motivational systems, p. 241)
  • Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 9.1 Two different mindsets to motivationally support the sequential phases of goal setting and goal striving, p. 242)
  • Based on Reeve (2015, Table 9.1 Four mindsets and their associated motivational systems, p. 241)
  • Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 9.2a Antecedents and consequences of the Promotion Mindset, p. 241)
  • Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 9.2b Antecedents and consequences of the Prevention Mindset, p. 241)
  • Based on Reeve (2015, Table 9.1 Four mindsets and their associated motivational systems, p. 241)
  • Based on Reeve (2015, Table 9.4 Manifestations of mastery and performance goals in the classroom context, p. 258)
  • Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 9.5 Antecedents & consequences of the three achievement goals, p. 258)
  • Based on Reeve (2015, Table 9.1 Four mindsets and their associated motivational systems, p. 241)
  • Convert this slide to text
    Insert a previous slide about coping
  • Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 9.6 Cognitive dissonance process, p. 264)
  • Another example:
    Efficacy expectation: If I can control my temper and be polite to the officer...
    Outcome expectation: Then I'll save myself the cost of a $200 ticket
  • Notes: This chapter is the first within the Cognition section of Reeve (2009)
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  • What does the future have in store for you?
    How able are to cope with what the future has in store for you?
  • “Efficacy and outcome expectations are separate, causal determinants to the initial and regulation of behaviour.” (p. 231)
    Another example:
    A politican candidate:
    Efficacy expectation: Can I give a competent speech
    Outcome expectation: By giving a competent speech, can I win the election?
    Another example:
    Surgeon performing an operation
    “Both efficacy and outcome expectations need to be reasonably high before behaviour becomes energetic and goal directed?... Take away either of these positive forecasts and reluctance and avoidance become rather logical ways of acting.” - p. 232
  • Another example:
    Efficacy expectation: If I can control my temper and be polite to the officer...
    Outcome expectation: Then I'll save myself the cost of a $200 ticket
  • “Of the four sources of self-efficacy, personal behaviour history is the most influential (Bandura, 1986).” (Reeve, 2009, p. 235)
    Modeling influence depends on perceived similarity of actor and personal experience.
    Personal behaviour history and vicarious experience are generally the stronger sources of efficacy information (Reeve, 2009, p. 237)
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  • Two practical points about self-efficacy:
    Self-efficacy beliefs can be acquired and changed
    The level of self-efficacy predicts ways of coping that can be called “competence functioning” or “personal empowerment”
    Thus, self-efficacy expectations provide the cognitive-motivational foundation underlying personal empowerment.
    An example is the self-defense and emotion-management 5-week training program (Ozer & Bandura, 1990). Other contexts include children's literacy, IT or public speaking skills, therapists, sales people etc.
    (Reeve, 2009, p. 241)
  • “The mastery modeling program is a formal procedure to utilise the four courses of self-efficacy as a means to advance from ancious novices to confident masters of the craft. By having novices perform each skill and receive corrective feedack from the expert, the novice builds efficacy through a personal behaviour history...” (Reeve, 2009, p. 242)
    Activity – Identify what of the four sources of self-efficacy are fostered through each of the Mastery modeling steps.
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  • Basically, what happens during encounters with failure?
  • “As efficacy expectations are the building blocks of self-efficacy, outcome expectancies are the building blocks of learned helplessness.” (Reeve, 2009, p. 244)
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  • It takes 10,000 hours to become an expert (Gladwell, 2005)
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  • Mindsets, control, and the self

    1. 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2015 Image source Mindsets, control, and the self
    2. 2. 2 1. Mindsets (Ch 9) 2. Personal control beliefs (Ch 10) 3. The self and its strivings (Ch 11) Overview
    3. 3. 3 Mindsets Reading: Reeve (2015) Ch 9 (pp. 239-267)
    4. 4. 4 Outline Based on Reeve (2015, Ch 9, p. 239)  Four mindsets  Mindset 1: Deliberative- Implemental  Deliberative mindset  Implemental mindset  Downstream consequences  Mindset 2: Promotion- Prevention  Promotion Mindset  Prevention Mindset  Definitions of success and failure  Goal-striving strategies  Ideal and ought self-guides  Regulatory fit  Four mindsets  Mindset 1: Deliberative- Implemental  Deliberative mindset  Implemental mindset  Downstream consequences  Mindset 2: Promotion- Prevention  Promotion Mindset  Prevention Mindset  Definitions of success and failure  Goal-striving strategies  Ideal and ought self-guides  Regulatory fit  Mindset 3: Growth- Fixed  Fixed Mindset  Growth Mindset  Meaning of effort  Origins of fixed-growth motivation  Achievement goals  Mindset 4: Cognitive dissonance  Dissonance-arousing situations  Choice  Insufficient justification  Effort justification  New information  Motivational processes  Self-perception theory  Mindset 3: Growth- Fixed  Fixed Mindset  Growth Mindset  Meaning of effort  Origins of fixed-growth motivation  Achievement goals  Mindset 4: Cognitive dissonance  Dissonance-arousing situations  Choice  Insufficient justification  Effort justification  New information  Motivational processes  Self-perception theory
    5. 5. 5 Mindset 1: Deliberative-Implemental Implemental: A post-decisional closed-minded way of thinking that considers only information related to goal attainment and shields against non-goal-related considerations. Deliberative: An open-minded way of thinking to consider the desirability and feasibility of a range of possible goals that one might or might not pursue. Two sequential ways of thinking to differentiate the patterns of thought that occurs during goal-setting versus that which occurs during goal striving. Based on Reeve (2015, Table 9.1, p. 241)
    6. 6. 6 Mindset 1: Deliberative-Implemental Phase 2: Goal striving Implemental mindset Planning and action to attain the goal. Phase 1: Goal setting Deliberative mindset Goal deliberation and formulation of what to do Two different mindsets to motivationally support the sequential phases of goal setting and goal striving. Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 9.1, p. 242)
    7. 7. 7 Mindset 2: Promotion-Prevention Prevention: A focus on preventing the self from not maintaining one’s duties and responsibilities by adopting a vigilant behavioral strategy. Promotion: A focus on advancing the self toward ideals by adopting an eager locomotion behavioral strategy. Two different orientations people adopt during goal striving to distinguish an eager improvement-based regulatory style from a vigilant security-based regulatory style. Based on Reeve (2015, Table 9.1, p. 241)
    8. 8. 8 Mindset 2: Promotion-Prevention Antecedents and consequences of the Promotion Mindset. Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 9.2a, p. 245) Attention to improvement needs Goals are seen as ideals, hopes, aspirations Situations signaling possible gain Sensitivity to positive outcomes Motivational orientation is to attain gains Behavioral strategy is fast, eager, locomotion Promotion Focus Emotionality: Cheerfulness versus dejection
    9. 9. 9 Mindset 2: Promotion-Prevention Antecedents and consequences of the Prevention Mindset. Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 9.2b, p. 245) Attention to security needs Goals are seen as oughts, obligations, responsibilities Situations signaling possible loss Sensitivity to negative outcomes Motivational orientation is to prevent losses Behavioral strategy is cautious, vigilant, assessment Prevention Focus Figure 9.2 (b) Emotionality: Calm versus agitation
    10. 10. 10 Mindset 2: Promotion-Prevention Prevention: ● Success means the absence of loss. ● Person strives to maintain a satisfactory state. ● Success means that no change has occurred. ● Failure means a loss and a painful change has occurred. Promotion: • Success means the presence of gain. • Person strives to attain a positive outcome. • Positive outcome takes the form of advancement or improved state of affairs. Failure has no special meaning. Different definitions of success and failure. Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 246-247)
    11. 11. 11 Mindset 2: Promotion-Prevention Prevention: ● Safety-based strategy can be characterised as being cautious, staying committed, staying the course, protecting one’s commitments, playing it safe, assessing where one stands and being vigilant. Promotion: • Gain-based strategy can be characterised as open- mindedness, exploration, locomotion, acting fast, and eager approach. Different goal-striving strategies. Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 247-248)
    12. 12. 12 Mindset 3: Growth-Fixed Fixed: The belief that one’s personal qualities are fixed, set, and not open to change. Growth: The belief that one’s personal qualities are malleable, changeable, and can be developed through effort. Two contrasting ways of thinking about the nature of one’s personal qualities. Based on Reeve (2015, Table 9.1, p. 241)
    13. 13. 13 Mindset 3: Growth-Fixed Fixed: ● High effort means low ability, evidence that the performer lacks ability. ● “The more you try, the dumber you therefore must be.” Growth: • Effort is a tool, the means by which people turn on and vitalise the development of their skills and abilities. Meaning of effort. Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 251-252)
    14. 14. 14 Mindset 3: Growth-Fixed Fixed: ● People adopt performance goals and are concerned with looking smart and not looking dumb. ● Concerned about good performance when others are watching. Growth: • People adopt mastery goals and are concerned with learning something new and improving as much as they can. Mindsets lead to different achievement goals. Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 254-255)
    15. 15. 15 Achievement goals Main achievement goals Mastery goals - Develop one’s competence - Make progress - Improve the self - Overcome difficulties with effort and persistence Performance goals - Prove one’s competence - Display high ability - Outperform others - Succeed with little apparent effort Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 255-257)
    16. 16. 16 Benefits of adopting mastery goals Preference for a challenging task one can learn from Adoption of a mastery goal Work harder Persist longer Perform better Use conceptually based learning strategies Experience greater intrinsic than extrinsic motivation More likely to ask for information & help (rather than a performance goal) Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 7.2, ,p. 185)
    17. 17. 17 Integrating classical & contemporary approaches to achievement motivation Classical approach Atkinson’s theory Contemporary approach Achievement goals Integrated model Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 257-259)
    18. 18. 18 Achievement goals in the classroom (Ames & Archer, 1988) Manifestations of mastery and performance goals in the classroom context Based on Reeve (2015, Table 9.4, p. 258)
    19. 19. 19 Antecedents & consequences of the three achievement goals (Elliot & Church, 1997) Mastery goal Achievement motivation Performance- approach goal Performance- avoidance goal Competence expectancy Fear of failure Intrinsic motivation Graded performance .22 .26 -.34 .21 -.14 .41 .45 .31 .36 -.26 -.34 Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 9.5, p. 258)
    20. 20. 20 Avoidance motivation & ill-being Fear of failure Perform- ance- avoidanc e goals LOW *Self-esteem *Personal control *Vitality *Life satisfaction *Psychological well- being Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 259-261)
    21. 21. 21 Mindsets 4: Consistency-Dissonance Dissonance: Information and behavioral actions that suggest that, no, one is actually not a competent, moral and reasonable person. Consistency: Information and behavioral actions that confirm that, yes, one is a competent, moral and reasonable person. The near-universal self-view that one is a competent, moral, and reasonable person. Based on Reeve (2015, Table 9.1, p. 241)
    22. 22. 22  Dissonant belief Reduce importance Remove  Consonant belief Increase importance Add a new consonant belief  Dissonant belief Reduce importance Remove  Consonant belief Increase importance Add a new consonant belief Dissonance reduction strategies. Mindsets 4: Consistency-Dissonance Based on Reeve (2015, p. 262)
    23. 23. 23Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 131-133) Choice Insufficient justification Effort justification New information A difficult choice may create dissonance. Used to explain actions taken with little or no external prompting. Extreme behaviours breed extreme beliefs. “If I did that, I must really love this place!” As you collect new information, you expose yourself to opportunities to contradict your beliefs. Mindsets 4: Consistency-Dissonance Dissonance-arousing situations.
    24. 24. 24 Mindsets 4: Consistency-Dissonance Cognitive dissonance process. Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 9.6, p. 264) Dissonance reduced or eliminated Dissonance-reduction strategy implemented Dissonance motivation Produces inconsistency between cognitions Dissonance-arousing situational events
    25. 25. 25 Two kinds of expectancies: Efficacy and outcome Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 9.1, p. 232) Person OutcomeBehaviour Efficacy expectations “Can I do it?” e.g., Can I control my fright and ask him to dance? Outcome expectations “Will it work?” e.g., Will he say yes and will we have fun?
    26. 26. 26 Personal control beliefs Reading: Reeve (2015) Ch 10 (pp. 269-302)
    27. 27. 27 Outline Based on Reeve (2015, Ch 9, pp. 229-230)  Motivation to exercise personal control  Two kinds of expectancy  Efficacy  Outcome  Perceived control  Self  Action  Control  Self-efficacy  Sources of self-efficacy  Self-efficacy effects on behaviour  Self-efficacy or the psychological need for competence?  Empowerment  Empowering people: Mastery modeling program  Motivation to exercise personal control  Two kinds of expectancy  Efficacy  Outcome  Perceived control  Self  Action  Control  Self-efficacy  Sources of self-efficacy  Self-efficacy effects on behaviour  Self-efficacy or the psychological need for competence?  Empowerment  Empowering people: Mastery modeling program  Mastery beliefs  Ways of coping  Mastery versus helplessness  Learned helplessness  Learning helplessness  Applications to humans  Components  Helplessness effects  Reactance theory  Reactance and helplessness  Hope  Expectancy-value model  Mastery beliefs  Ways of coping  Mastery versus helplessness  Learned helplessness  Learning helplessness  Applications to humans  Components  Helplessness effects  Reactance theory  Reactance and helplessness  Hope  Expectancy-value model
    28. 28. 28 Questions about expectancy and control  What are your expectations for your future?  Will you get the next job you apply for?  On a blind date, would the other person like you?  Can you run 3 kms without stopping?  Do you perceive that you are in control of the events that happen to you?  Or is what happens to you controlled by luck, fate, or others?  How do your expectations and perceptions of control affect your:  motivation?  performance?  What are your expectations for your future?  Will you get the next job you apply for?  On a blind date, would the other person like you?  Can you run 3 kms without stopping?  Do you perceive that you are in control of the events that happen to you?  Or is what happens to you controlled by luck, fate, or others?  How do your expectations and perceptions of control affect your:  motivation?  performance? Based on Reeve (2015, p. 269)
    29. 29. 29 Motivation to exercise personal control: Initial assumptions and understandings  People desire control over their environment so as to be able to make:  positive outcomes ↑ likely  negative outcomes ↓ likely  Exercising personal control is predicated upon a person's belief that s/he has the power to influence results favourably.  The strength with which people try to exercise personal control can be traced to their expectancies of being able to do so.  People desire control over their environment so as to be able to make:  positive outcomes ↑ likely  negative outcomes ↓ likely  Exercising personal control is predicated upon a person's belief that s/he has the power to influence results favourably.  The strength with which people try to exercise personal control can be traced to their expectancies of being able to do so. Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 269-270)
    30. 30. 30 Two kinds of expectancies Expectancy: A subjective prediction of how likely it is that an event will occur. Expectancy: A subjective prediction of how likely it is that an event will occur. Efficacy expectations “Can I do it?” Expectation of being able to enact behaviours needed to cope effectively with the situation at hand. e.g., Can I do 20 mins on a treadmill, 3 times a week for 12 months? Outcome expectations “Will what I do work?” Expectation that one's behaviour will produce positive outcomes (or prevent negative outcomes). e.g., Would I lose 5 kgs as a result? Motivation to exercise personal control Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 270-271)
    31. 31. 31 Two kinds of expectancies: Efficacy and outcome Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 10.1, p. 270) Person OutcomeBehaviour Efficacy expectations “Can I do it?” e.g., Can I control my fright and ask him to dance? Outcome expectations “Will it work?” e.g., Will he say yes and will we have fun?
    32. 32. 32 Self → Action → Control model of perceived control Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 10.2, p. 271) Self (Agent) Efficacy expectations e.g., Can I use effective coping strategies during difficult discussions? Action (Means) Control (Ends) Perceived control e.g., can I improve my marriage? (Alternative terminology for the Personal-Behaviour-Outcome model)(Alternative terminology for the Personal-Behaviour-Outcome model) Outcome expectations e.g., Will using these coping strategies improve my marriage?
    33. 33. 33 Self-efficacy Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 272-274) One’s judgement of how well one will cope with a situation (given the skills one possesses and the circumstances one faces). Capacity to improvise ways to translate personal abilities into effective performance. The opposite of self-efficacy is self-doubt. Self-efficacy predicts the motivational balance between wanting to give it a try vs. anxiety, doubt and avoidance.
    34. 34. 34 Sources & effects of self-efficacy Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 10.3, p. 277) Extent of self-efficacy Personal behaviour history Vicarious experience (Modeling) Verbal persuasion (Pep talk) Physiological activity Choice (Approach vs. avoid) Effort and persistence Thinking and decision making Emotional reactions (Stress, anxiety) Sources of self-efficacy Effects of self-efficacy Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Skier-carving-a-turn.jpg
    35. 35. 35 Empowerment Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 280-281) Empowerment Knowledge Self-efficacy beliefs Skills Empowerment involves possessing the knowledge, skills, and beliefs that allow people to exert control over their lives.
    36. 36. 36 Empowering people: Mastery modeling program Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 281-282) which is based on Ozer and Bandura (1990) 1. Expert identifies component skills involved in effective coping and measures novices' efficacy expectation on each component skill 2. Expert models each component skills. Expert provides corrective feedback, as needed. 3. Novices emulate each modeled skill. Expert provides corrective feedback, as needed. 4. Novices integrate the separate component skills into an overall simulated performance. Expert introduces only mild obstacles and helps novices integrate the different skill components into an overall performance. 5. Novices participate in cooperative learning groups. One person gives a simulated performance while peers watch. As they watch, peers provide encouragement and tips. Each person takes a turn until everyone has performed multiple times. 6. Novices perform individually in a near-naturalistic situation that features numerous and reaslistic difficulties, obstacles, and setbacks while the expert provides modeling and corrective feedback. 7. Expert models confident demeanour and arousal-regulating strategies. 1. Expert identifies component skills involved in effective coping and measures novices' efficacy expectation on each component skill 2. Expert models each component skills. Expert provides corrective feedback, as needed. 3. Novices emulate each modeled skill. Expert provides corrective feedback, as needed. 4. Novices integrate the separate component skills into an overall simulated performance. Expert introduces only mild obstacles and helps novices integrate the different skill components into an overall performance. 5. Novices participate in cooperative learning groups. One person gives a simulated performance while peers watch. As they watch, peers provide encouragement and tips. Each person takes a turn until everyone has performed multiple times. 6. Novices perform individually in a near-naturalistic situation that features numerous and reaslistic difficulties, obstacles, and setbacks while the expert provides modeling and corrective feedback. 7. Expert models confident demeanour and arousal-regulating strategies.
    37. 37. 37 Mastery beliefs Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 282-284) Perceived control over attaining desirable outcomes and preventing aversive ones Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jomopro09-expert-flat-04.jpg Responds to failure by remaining task- and mastery-focused
    38. 38. 38 Stress and coping  Stress occurs when the demands of a situation exceed our resources.  Coping refers to choiceful attempts to deal with stress.  Stress occurs when the demands of a situation exceed our resources.  Coping refers to choiceful attempts to deal with stress.
    39. 39. 39 Ways of coping Based on Reeve (2015, Table 10.1, p. 283) which is based on Skinner et al. (2003) Way of coping Illustration Approach vs. avoidance Taking action by moving toward and interacting with the problem vs. walking away from the problem Social vs. solitary Taking action with a team of others vs. acting alone Proactive vs. reactive Taking action to prevent a problem before vs. after it occurs Direct vs. indirect Taking action with a team of others vs. acting alone Control vs. escape Take-charge approach vs. staying clear of the situation Alloplastic vs. autoplastic Taking action to change the problem vs. taking action to change one's self Problem focused vs. emotion focused Taking action to manage the problem causing the stress vs. regulating one's emotional response to the problem
    40. 40. 40 How to make stress your friend Kelly McGonigal, 2013 TED Talk (15 mins) Start at 1:00; End at 13:21 http://www.ted.com/talks/kelly_mcgonigal_how_to_make_stress_your_friend.html TED Talk (15 mins) Start at 1:00; End at 13:21 http://www.ted.com/talks/kelly_mcgonigal_how_to_make_stress_your_friend.html
    41. 41. 41 Mastery versus helplessness Based on Reeve (2015, p. 282-284) Mastery motivational orientation • A hardy, resistant portrayal of the self during encounters of failure • Failure feedback can be helpful and constructive information. Helpless motivational orientation • A fragile view of the self during encounters of failure • Failure feedback is a sign of personal inadequacy.
    42. 42. 42 Learned helplessness Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 10.4, p. 284) The psychological state that results when an individual expects that life’s outcomes are uncontrollable. The psychological state that results when an individual expects that life’s outcomes are uncontrollable. My behaviour Outcomes that happen to ne Other (uncontrollable) influences
    43. 43. Learned helplessness Based on Reeve (2009, p. 246) Seligman and Maier experiment How helplessness is learnt.
    44. 44. 44Based on Reeve (2015, Table 10.2, p. 286) which is based on Seligman & Meier (1967) Results of a prototypical learned helplessness studyResults of a prototypical learned helplessness study Learned helplessness
    45. 45. Learned helplessness study with humans Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 10.5, p. 287) Authentic feedback (Controllable problem) Random and bogus feedback (Uncontrollable problem) vs.
    46. 46. 46 Three components of learned helplessness Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 288-289) Contingency Cognition Behaviour Objective relationship between a person’s behaviour and the environment’s outcomes (range: 0 to 1) •Subjective personal control beliefs •Biases •Attributions •Expectancies Listless, demoralised coping behaviour vs. assertive, active, energetic coping
    47. 47. 47 Three effects of helplessness Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 289-290) Decreased willingness to try “Why try?“ Acquired pessimistic set that interferes with one’s ability to learn new response- outcome contingencies Energy- depleting emotions (e.g., Listlessness, apathy, depression) Motivational deficits Learning deficits Emotional deficits
    48. 48. Helplessness and depression Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 10.6, pp. 292) Perceived control judgments for depressed and non-depressed individuals Depressed individuals had the most accurate perceptions in the no-control condition. Non-depressed individuals perceived they had greater control than they did.
    49. 49. 49 Explanatory style: Relatively stable, cognitively-based personality orientation Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 293-295) Optimistic explanatory style • Explains bad events with attributions that are unstable and controllable • Related to the self-serving bias of an illusion of control which contributes to enhancing self-esteem and promoting an optimistic view of the future Pessimistic explanatory style • Explains bad events with attributions that are stable and uncontrollable • Associated with academic failure, social distress, impaired job performance, physical illness, and depression Attributions vary in their locus, stability and controllability
    50. 50. 50 Criticisms & alternative explanations Based on Reeve (2015, p. 295) • • Traumatic events themselves could induce helplessness. • The expectation of failure induces helplessness. • Uncontrollable events induce helplessness deficits not because they are uncontrollable but because they are unpredictable. Criticisms • • People actually motivated to remain passive. • Helplessness might fundamentally be a physiological, rather than a cognitive, phenomenon. Alternative explanations
    51. 51. 51 Reactance theory Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 297-298) Reactance The psychological and behavioural attempt at reestablishing (“reacting” against) an eliminated or threatened freedom.
    52. 52. 52 Putting it all together: Hope Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 298-299) Self-efficacy Mastery motivation High self-efficacy Performer’s perceived capacity to accomplish the goals “I can do this.” Clear pathways to goal attainment Performer’s belief that he/she can generate multiple viable routes to desired goals “I will find a way to get this done.”
    53. 53. 53 Why do high-hope people outperform low-hope counterparts?  Set specific, short-term goals  Set mastery (learning) goals  Rely on internal self-set goals  Engage with intrinsic motivation  Flexible problem-solving approach  Determination reservoir  Perceive meaning in life  Set specific, short-term goals  Set mastery (learning) goals  Rely on internal self-set goals  Engage with intrinsic motivation  Flexible problem-solving approach  Determination reservoir  Perceive meaning in life Based on Reeve (2015, p. 298-299)
    54. 54. 54 The self & its strivings Reading: Reeve (2015) Ch 11 (pp. 303-334)
    55. 55. 55 Outline – The self and its strivings Based on Reeve (2015, p. 303-304)  The self  The problem with self-esteem  Self-concept  Self-schemas  Motivational properties of self- schemas  Consistent self  Self-verification and self-concept change  Why people self-verify  Possible selves  The self  The problem with self-esteem  Self-concept  Self-schemas  Motivational properties of self- schemas  Consistent self  Self-verification and self-concept change  Why people self-verify  Possible selves  Agency  Self as action and development from within  Self-regulation  Self-regulation  Developing more competent self- regulation  Self-control  Identity  Roles  Identify-establishing behaviours  Identity-confirming behaviours  Identity-restoring behaviours  What is the self?  Agency  Self as action and development from within  Self-regulation  Self-regulation  Developing more competent self- regulation  Self-control  Identity  Roles  Identify-establishing behaviours  Identity-confirming behaviours  Identity-restoring behaviours  What is the self?
    56. 56. 56 Aspects of the self Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 264-266) Defining or creating the self Relating the self to society Discovering & developing personal potential Managing or regulating the self
    57. 57. 57 Six dimensions of psychological well-being 1. Self-acceptance 2. Positive relations with others 3. Autonomy 4. Environmental mastery 5. Purpose in life 6. Personal growth 1. Self-acceptance 2. Positive relations with others 3. Autonomy 4. Environmental mastery 5. Purpose in life 6. Personal growth Based on Reeve (2009, Table 10. 1, p. 265) which is based on Ryff (1991)
    58. 58. 58 Self-concept (cognitive structure) Based on Reeve (2009, p. 268) a reflection of the invariance people have discovered in their own social behaviour. (the way the self has been differentiated and articulated in memory) Set of beliefs an individual uses to conceptualise his or her self e.g., “I am....” (self-descriptions) Cluster of domain-specific self-schemas
    59. 59. 59 Benefits of well-developed self-schema Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 268-270) Process information about the self with relative ease. Confidently predict his own future behaviour in the domain. Quickly retrieve self- related behavioural evidence from the domain. Resist counter-schematic information about him/herself. Benefits of well-developed self-schema
    60. 60. 60 Motivational properties of self-schemas Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 269-272) Self-schemas direct behaviour to confirm the self-view and to prevent episodes that generate feedback that might disconfirm that self-view. Consistent self Self-schemas generate motivation to move the present self toward a desired future self. Possible self
    61. 61. Processes underlying self-verification and self-concept change Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.1, p. 272)
    62. 62. 62 Possible selves Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 273-275) An important piece of the puzzle in understanding how the self develops Mostly social in origin, as the individual observes the selves modeled by others. The possible self’s motivational role is to link the present self with ways to become the possible (ideal) self. Representations of attributes, characteristics, and abilities that the self does not yet possess. Portraying the self as a dynamic entity with a past, present, and future.
    63. 63. 63 Identity (social relationship) Based on Reeve (2009, p. 279-281) The identity directs the person to pursue some behaviours (identity-confirming behaviours) and to avoid other behaviours (identity-disconfirming behaviours). Once people assume social roles (e.g., mother, bully), their identities direct their behaviors in ways that express the role-identity’s cultural value. Identity is the means by which the self relates to society, and it captures the essence of who the self is within a cultural context.
    64. 64. 64 Agency Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 281-282) Self as action and development from within, (innate processes and motivations) Self as action and development from within, (innate processes and motivations) Human beings possess a core self, energised by innate motivation and directed by the inherent developmental processes of differentiation and integration. Not all self-structures are equally authentic; while some reflect the core self, others reflect and reproduce the society.
    65. 65. 65 Self-concordance Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.3, p. 284) Self-Concordance Model People pursue goals that are congruent or “concordant” with their core self
    66. 66. Diagrammatic illustration of self- integrated and non-integrated action Figure 10. 4Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.4, p. 285)
    67. 67. Cyclical path model for the Self-concordance Model illustrates developmental gains in well-being and self-concordance Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.5, p. 287) The self-concordance model illustrates the motivational and developmental benefits of pursuing life goals that emanate out of the integrated or core self.
    68. 68. Cyclical phases of self-regulation Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.6, p. 289) Self-regulation involves the person’s meta-cognitive monitoring of how his or her goal-setting progress is going.
    69. 69. 69 Developing more competent self-regulation: Summary of the social learning process to acquire self-regulation skill Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 10.7, p. 290) Acquiring a greater capacity for more effective self-regulation increases the self’s capacity to carry out the goal-setting process on one’s own. Acquisition of competent self-regulation skill Able to self-regulate one's goals, behaviours, and standards in the domain. Lack of self- regulation skill Unable to regulate one's goals, implementation intentions, and coping strategies in a new domain. Social learning process 1. Observe expert model 2. Imitation, social guidance, feedback 3. Internalisation of standards 4. Self-regulatory process, including self-monitoring, self-evaluating
    70. 70. 70 Nature of emotion (Ch 12) Next lecture
    71. 71. 71 References  Ozur, E. M., & Bandura, A. (1990). Mechanisms governing empowerment effects: A self-efficacy analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 472-486.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Ryff, C. D. (1991). A tale of shifting horizons. Psychology and Aging, 6, 286- 295.  Ozur, E. M., & Bandura, A. (1990). Mechanisms governing empowerment effects: A self-efficacy analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 472-486.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Ryff, C. D. (1991). A tale of shifting horizons. Psychology and Aging, 6, 286- 295. Note: Image credits are in the slide notes
    72. 72. 72 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html

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