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The aim of this lecture is to introduce and discuss social-psychological aspects of interpersonal relationships and, in particular, attraction, exclusion, and close relationships.

The aim of this lecture is to introduce and discuss social-psychological aspects of interpersonal relationships and, in particular, attraction, exclusion, and close relationships.

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  • The aim of this lecture is to introduce and discuss social-psychological aspects of interpersonal relationships and, in particular, attraction, exclusion, and close relationships. Lecture webpages: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Social_psychology_(psychology)/Lectures/Relationships http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125/Lecture+Relationships http://www.slideshare.net/jtneill/lecture7-relationnships/ Image source: Jason Hutchens, 2004, CC-By-A 2.0 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:You_may_now_kiss_the_bride.jpg

Relationships Relationships Presentation Transcript

  • Social Psychology
      • Relationships
      • 2008
      • Lecturer: James Neill
  • Readings
    • Bauemeister & Bushman (2008):
    • Part 1 : Ch10 Attraction and Exclusion
    • Part 2 : Ch11 Close Relationships: Passion, Intimacy, and Sexuality
  • Overview: Pt 1 (Attraction & Exclusion)
    • The need to belong
    • Interpersonal attraction
    • Rejection / social exclusion
  • The Need to Belong (Affiliation)
      • Desire to form & maintain close, lasting relationships with other individuals.
  • The need to belong
    • Homo sapiens:
    • Appear to need contact with other members of their species.
    • Experience a powerful drive to form & maintain close lasting relationships.
    • Usually form relationships easily.
    • Are reluctant to end relationships.
    • Seek an optimal balance between social contacts & solitude.
  •  
  • The need to belong
    • Basic need to belong is not unique to humans
    • People can be similar on more dimensions
    • People spend much time & energy to secure their place in the social group
  • The need to belong
    • Belongingness consists of:
      • Regular social contact with others
      • Close, stable, mutually intimate contact
    • One without the other  partial satisfaction
  • The need to belong
    • People do not continue to form relationships:
    • Typically seek ~4 to 6 close relationships.
    • Even in people-rich environments, most people form social circles of about 6 people.
  • Marriage
    • People who marry live longer, healthier lives
    • People who stay married live longer and better than those who divorce
    • Happy marriage is an important consideration
  • Attraction Forces which draw 2 or more people together. Interpersonal Repulsion Forces which drive 2 or more people apart.
  • Ingratiation
    • What people actively do to try to make others like them.
  • Similarity
    • Common, significant cause of attraction
    • Tend to like others who are similar to us
    • Otherwise we experience cognitive dissonance.
  • Similarity
    • Do opposites attract? i.e., do we need complementarity?
      • little supporting evidence
    • Spouses are similar in many respects:
      • IQ
      • physical attractiveness
      • Education
      • SES
    • Couples more similar in attractiveness more likely to progress to committed relationship.
  • Fig. 10-2, p. 334
  • Matching Hypothesis
    • People are attracted to & form relationships with others who are similar to them in physical attractiveness.
  • Self-monitoring
    • People change to become more similar to those with whom they interact:
    • High self-monitoring (field dependent) – maximise each social situation
    • Low self-monitoring (field independent) – interested in permanent connections and feelings
  • Similarity
    • As cultures progress & form large, complex groups, there is more need for complementarity, e.g.,:
    • Risks in joining a new group
    • People tend to look for similarity
  • Reinforcement theory
    • Behaviors reinforced tend to be repeated
    • People tend to be attracted to those who are rewarding to them
  • Reinforcement theory
    • Reinforcement-affect model - based on principles of classical conditioning
    • Associate ‘attractive’ person with rewards & positive affect
  •  
  • Interpersonal rewards
    • Do favors for someone
    • Praise someone
  • Reciprocity
    • Liking begets liking; We like those who like us
    • Mimicking increases liking.
    • If someone likes you:
      • Initially it is very favorable, but
      • If that liking is not returned, it can be a burden
    • We tend to prefer relationships that are psychologically balanced .
  • The gain-loss hypothesis We like people most if they initially dislike us & then later like us e.g., (Aronson & Linder, 1965) Order of feedback Degree of liking Neg-Pos Pos-Pos Neg-Neg Pos-Neg 0 2 4 6 8 10    
  • Playing hard to get
    • Prefer those who are ‘moderately’ selective (turned off by those too readily available & those who reject us).
    • Attractiveness  s towards bar closing time for those not in a relationship (Madey et al., 1996) .
    • Reactance – if freedom of choice threatened, desire  s for difficult to attain goal.
      • Costs
        • e.g., effort, conflict, compromise, sacrifice, risk
    Social Exchange Theory
    • People are motivated to  benefits &  costs in their relationships with others.
      • Rewards
        • e.g., love, companionship, sex
  • Social Exchange Theory
    • Comparison level (CL)
      • average, expected outcome in relationships
    • Comparison level for alternatives (C alt )
      • expectations of rewards in alternative situation (what could I get elsewhere?)
    • (Sunk) Investment
      • things put into relationship that can’t be recovered.
  • Equity Theory (Balance Theory)
    • People are most satisfied with a relationship when the ratio between benefits & contributions is similar for both partners
    • Your benefits = Partner’s benefits
    • Your contributions = Partner’s contributions
  • Equity Theory (Balance Theory)
    • Prefer relationships that are psychologically balanced.
    • Motivated to restore balance in relationships
  • Equity theory applied to two equitable and two inequitable relationships Outputs Inputs Outputs Inputs PETER OLIVIA Equity perceived Equity not perceived PETER OLIVIA   =     =       = =     Inputs or ouputs are:  Few  Average  Many
  • Balance Theory
    • Agreement is an affirming experience, lead to positive affect. If we disagree, we seek to find agreement.
    • Attracted to similar others
      • We strive to like our friend’s friends.
  • Commitment to one’s relationship is weaker when many high-quality alternative partners are available.
  • Propinquity (Exposure or Psychological Proximity)
    • Best predictor of a relationship is proximity or nearness.
    • Mere-exposure effect
      • The more we’re exposed to something, the more we like it.
    • Familiarity
      • greater liking for a familiar stimulus.
    • Overexposure can reduce liking.
    • People also weigh:
      • Availability - interaction is easy & low cost
      • Expectation of continued interaction
    • 4 different women (confederates) attended a lecture over a semester.
    • Four conditions: each attended 0, 5, 10, or 15 times.
    • Participants (students in the lectures) then viewed pictures of the 4 women
    • They liked/ were most attracted to the woman they had been exposed to most .
    Moreland & Beach (1992)
  • Moreland & Beach (1992) Ratings of attraction.
  • Attraction
    • Propinquity
    • Availability
      • interaction is easy & low cost
    • Expectation of continued interaction
  • Familiarity & exposure
    • Social allergy effect
      • Annoying habits become more annoying over time
    • Familiarity & repeated exposure can
      • make bad things worse
      • encourage liking someone
  • Neighbors make friends – and enemies
    • Festinger et al. (1950)
      • Strongest predictor of friendships was propinquity
    • Ebbesen et al. (1976)
      • Strongest predictor of enemies was propinquity
    • Regular contact amplifies or multiplies power of other factors
    • Rate this woman’s:
    • Intelligence
    • Happiness
    • Success
    • 1 = Well below average
    • 2 = Below average
    • 3 = Average
    • 4 = Above average
    • 5 = Well above average
    • John:
    • 25 years old
    • Car salesman
    • Rents a small apartment
    • Lives on his own.
    • Does not have a girlfriend.
    • Allergies limit time he can spend outdoors.
    • Matt:
    • 26 years old
    • Business executive
    • Owns two houses
    • Happily married
    • Enjoys travelling, yacht racing, and nightclubbing.
    John or Matt?
  • p. 340 A
  • p. 340 B
  • Attractiveness
    • Most people show preference for attractive over unattractive
    • “ What is beautiful is good” effect
      • Attractiveness = superiority on other traits
    • Attractive children are more popular with peers and teachers
    • Babies prefer attractive faces
  • Attractiveness
    • For men, clothing represent wealth and status
      • High wealth & status men are more attractive
    • Body shape influences attractiveness
      • Cultural variation in ideal body weight
  • Beauty
    • People agree who is beautiful but not why
    • Evolutionary psychology
      • beauty in women ~ Health, youth, fertility
    • Symmetry is attractive
    • Typicality is attractive
      • Average or composite faces are more attractive than individual faces
  • Beauty
    • Babies show a preference for faces considered attractive by adults.
    • Some cultural & historical differences in perception of beauty
    • Despite cultural & historical differences there is a considerable degree of agreement as to what is thought of as beautiful.
  • Beauty
    • Bias towards beauty - why?
    • Aesthetic rewards
    • Reflected ‘glory’
    • “ What-is-beautiful-is-good” stereotype - associate beauty with other ‘good’ things
    • Beautiful judged to be - intelligent, successful, happy, well-adjusted, socially skilled, confident, assertive (& vain)
  • Beauty
    • In reality, beauty not related to intelligence, personality adjustment or SES
    • Costs of beauty
      • hard to interpret positive feedback
      • pressure to maintain appearance
      • little relationship between beauty in youth & satisfaction/adjustment in middle-age (Berscheid et al., 1972)
  • Evolutionary Perspectives on Attraction / Mate Selection
    • Gender differences in mate selection & sexual behaviour
    • Males tend to have
      • more sexual partners &
      • partners that are young & attractive (more fertile).
    • Women tend to have
      • fewer sexual partners &
      • partners who are older & financially secure (better providers for offspring).
  • Evolutionary Perspectives on Attraction / Mate Selection
    • Triver (1972) - parental investment theory
    • Buss (1994) - evolutionary perspective
    • Gender differences in jealously
    • BUT - differences between sexes small compared to similarities
  • Acceptance People like you & include you in their groups. Social Rejection
      • People exclude you from their groups.
    (Social Exclusion; Ostracism)
  • Not belonging is bad for you
    • Failure to satisfy a “need to belong” leads to detrimental effects, e.g.,:
    • Death rates  among people without social connections.
    • People without a good social network have  physical & mental health problems.
  • Social Exclusion (video; 5:53 mins)
  • Rejection
    • Ostracism
      • Excluded, rejected, & ignored
    • Effects of rejection
      • Inner states are usually -ve
  • Rejection
    • Rejection sensitivity
      • Expect rejection & become hypersensitive to possible rejection
    • “ You hurt my feelings” = “You don’t care about the relationship”
      • Implicit message of rejection
  • Rejection
    • Extent of hurt feelings is based on:
      • Importance of relationship
      • Clearness of rejection signal
    • Initial reaction to rejection – “ emotional numbness ”
      • Interferes with psychological and cognitive functioning
  • Behavioral Effects of Rejection
    • Show  s in intelligent thought
    • Approach new interactions with skepticism
    • Typically less generous, less cooperative, less helpful
    • More willing to cheat or break rules
    • Act shortsighted, impulsive, self-destructive
  • Behavioral Effects of Rejection
    • Repeated rejection can create aggression
    • Aggression can lead to rejection
    • Common theme in school shootings is social exclusion
  • Loneliness
    • Desired > actual social contact
    • Painful feeling of wanting more human contact
    • Lacking in quantity and/or quality of relationships
    • Occurs during times of transition & disruption (e.g., moving, divorce)
  • Loneliness
    • Unattached lonelier than attached
    • Widowed, divorced lonelier than never married
    • 18-30 year olds - loneliest group
    • Little difference between lonely & unlonely
      • Lonely have more difficulty understanding emotional states of others
    • Loneliness tends to be bad for physical health
  • Social capital
    • Collective value of all "social networks“
    • Inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for one other
  • Bowling Alone (Putnam, 2000)
    • Declining Social Capital: Trends over the last 25 years
    • Attending club meetings
    • Family dinners
    • Having friends over
    • 10 minutes of commuting  s social capital by 10%.
  • Social rejection
    • Children are rejected by peers because they:
    • are aggressive
    • withdraw from contact
    • are different in some way
  • Social rejection
    • Adults are most often rejected for being different from the rest of the group
    • Groups reject insiders more than outsiders for the same degree of deviance
    • Deviance within the group threatens the group’s unity
  • Social rejection
    • Bad apple effect
      • One person who breaks the rules may inspire others to do the same
    • Threat of rejection influences good behavior
  • Romantic rejection & unrequited love
    • Attribution theory & women refusing dates
    • Privately held reasons were internal to the man, stable, & global
    • Reasons told the man were external, unstable, and specific
      • These reasons encourage asking again
  • Romantic rejection & unrequited love
    • Unrequited Love
      • Men are more often rejected lover; women do the rejecting more often
    • Stalking
      • Women are more often stalked
  • Summary of Topics
    • The need to belong
      • Not belonging is bad for you
    • Attraction
      • Ingratiation
      • Social rewards
      • Reciprocity
      • Self-monitoring
      • Similarity
      • Propinquity
      • Matching hypothesis
      • Beauty
    • Rejection
      • Loneliness
      • Social capital
      • What leads to social rejection?
      • Romantic rejection & unrequited love
  • Overview: Pt 2 (Close Relationships, Passion, Intimacy, and Sexuality )
    • What Is love?
    • Types of relationships
    • Maintaining relationships
    • Sexuality
  • Love relationships
    • Liking versus loving
    • Passionate love
      • intense, involves physiological arousal
    • Companionate love - caring & affection
      • Characterised by high levels of self-disclosure
  • What is love?
    • “ I love my grandmother”
    • “ I’m in love with my boyfriend”
    • “ I love psychology”
  • Two types of love
    • Passionate
    • Companionate
    • Physiological difference
      • Presence of PEA
  • Passionate Love
    • Strong, intense feelings of
      • Longing
      • Desire
      • Excitement
    • toward another person.
  • Passionate Love
    • Most cultures have passionate (romantic) love, although forms & expressions vary
    • Not always viewed positively
    • Paradox of marrying for passionate love:
      • Long-term commitment based on temporary state
  • Companionate Love
    • Affection for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined:
    • Mutual understanding
    • Caring
    • Commitment
    • Calm, serene emotions
    • Important for successful marriages
  • Passionate love as a social construction
    • Romantic love is found in most cultures
    • Forms & expression vary by culture
    • Attitude varies by culture & era
  • Love across time
    • Passionate love is important for starting a relationships
    • Companionate love is important for making it succeed & survive
  •  
  •  
  • Fig. 11-3b, p. 365
  • Sternberg’s (1988) Triangular Model of Love Motivational : physiological arousal, longing, sexual attraction Cognitive : conscious decision, willing to define as love, long term Emotional : closeness, sharing, support, understanding, concern PASSION INTIMACY COMMITMENT
  • Triangular Theory of Love Sternberg (1988)
  • Schacter’s 2-factor theory of emotion
    • 1. Physical arousal
    • 2. Cognitive appraisal (interpret arousal as love)
  • Hatfield & Walster’s 3-factor Theory of Romantic Love
    • 1. Cultural exposure
    • 2. Physiological arousal
    • 3. Presence of appropriate love object
  • Hatfield & Walster’s 3-factor Theory of Romantic Love + + Cultural exposure Physiological arousal Appropriate love object Romantic Love
  • Does love last?
    • Passionate love is temporary
    • Successful relationships shift from passionate to companionate love
    2 years PASSION INTIMACY 1 year 5 years 10 years
  • Exchange vs. Communal
    • Exchange relationships
      • Based on reciprocity & fairness
      • More frequent in broader society
      • Increases societal progress & wealth
    • Communal relationships
      • Based on love & concern without expectation of repayment
      • More frequent in close intimate relationships
      • More desirable, healthier, & mature
  • Exchange vs. Communal
    • Exchange relationships encourage progress and wealth in larger groups
    • We don’t like calculating equity in our serious relationships
      • If people keep track of every little thing, it doesn’t feel like love
    • Communal relationships are more desirable in intimate relationships
  • Attachment - Bowlby
    • Influenced by Freudian & learning theory
    • Believed childhood attachment predicted adult relationships
  • Attachment - Shaver
    • Identified attachment styles to describe adult relationships
    • Anxious/Ambivalent
    • Secure
    • Avoidant
  • Attachment styles
    • People can classify themselves reliably.
    • Choose the description that best fits your relationships:
    • 1 . I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting close to me.
  • Attachment styles
    • 2. I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want to merge completely with another person, and this desire sometimes scares people away.
  • Attachment styles
    • 3. I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others. I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and, often love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being.
    • Attachments marked by trust / other will continue to provide love & support.
    3 Original Attachment Styles Defensive detachment from other Fear of abandonment; feeling /one’s needs aren’t being met SECURE (56%) ANXIOUS/ AMBIVALENT (19%) AVOIDANT (25%)
  • 2 Dimensions of Attachment
    • Theory developed along two dimensions:
    • Anxiety – attitudes toward self
    • Avoidance – attitudes toward others
  • Attachment styles
    • Secure attachment
    • Dismissing avoidant attachment
    • Fearful avoidant attachment
    • Preoccupied attachment
  •  
  • Attachment
    • The new model splits avoidant types into two groups
    • Dismissing avoidants are independent
      • See themselves as worthy, but seek to prevent intimacy
    • Fearful avoidants have low opinions of themselves
      • Worry they aren’t lovable
  • Avoidant Attachment Style
    • They still have the “need to belong”
    • Inner conflict: want contact but fear closeness
    • They have as much social contact as others. They are NOT loners, isolates
    • Hence may want to “juggle” relationship partners. Keep many relationships going but not let one get too close
  • Attachment Matching
    • People do not always form relationships with others with same attachment style
    • Having one secure person improves relationship outcome (and two are better than one)
    • Rare to have both anxious, or both avoidant
    • Avoidant men, anxious women do well; anxious men with avoidant women, not so good
  • Attachment & Sex
    • Secure
      • Generally have good sex lives
    • Preoccupied
      • May use sex to pull others close to them
    • Avoidant
      • Have a desire for connection
      • May avoid sex, or use it to resist intimacy
  • Self-esteem & love
    • Popular belief that you need to love yourself before you can love others
      • Not demonstrated in theory or facts
    • Self-esteem
      • Low self-esteem – may feel unlovable
      • High self-esteem – may feel more worthy than present partner
  • Self-love & loving others
    • Self-acceptance is good for getting along with others
    • Excessive self-love (e.g. narcissism) can
    • be detrimental to close relationships
    • Self-acceptance
      • More minimal form of self-love
      • Linked to positive interactions
  • Maintaining relationships
    • Good relationships tend to stay the same over time
    • Popular myth that they continue to improve
    • Key to maintaining a good relationship is to avoid a downward spiral
  • Is honesty the best policy?
    • People in love hold idealised versions of each other
    • Is it better to be yourself? Yes and no:
      • Research supports that we want our partners to view us as we view ourselves
      • Relationships can thrive when couples remain on their best behavior
      • More idealisation leads to stronger, longer relationships
  • Is honesty the best policy? Fig. 11-6, p. 377
  • Maintaining relationships
    • People perceive good relationships as getting better & better
    • Research shows that relationships either stay the same or go downhill
  • Maintaining relationships
    • For relationships to succeed couples must avoid the “downward spiral”
      • Reciprocity of negative behaviour
    • Positive interactions must occur at least 5 x as often as negative ones
  • Why do people stay with their relationship partners?
    • SATISFACTION: quality of the relationship, good interactions, “makes me happy”
    • Kind of obvious
    • But explains only about 30%
  • Why do people stay with their relationship partners?
    • ALTERNATIVES: if you left this relationship, what would replace it?
    • Might leave a good partner in pursuit of a better one
    • Some guesswork
  • Why do people stay with their relationship partners?
    • INVESTMENT/SUNK COSTS = what you have put into the relationship that will be lost if you leave
    • Examples, long effort to understand each other, learning to get along
    • Shared history together (experiences, memories, children, projects)
  • Attributions
    • Difference in terms of attribution:
    • Relationship-enhancing :
      • Good acts - internal;
      • Bad acts - external factors
    • Distress-maintaining:
      • Good acts - external factors
      • Bad acts - internal
  • Attributional processes
    • “ Why didn’t he do the dishes?”
    • “ Typical… he never wants to help out”
      • Distress-maintaining style of attribution
      • Unhappy couples attribute negative events to their partners and positive events to external factors
  • Attributional processes
    • “ Why didn’t he do the dishes?”
    • “ He must have had a hard day at work.”
      • Relationship-enhancing style of attribution
      • Happy couples attribute negative events to external factors and positive events to their partners
  • Optimism & devaluing
    • Optimism in the relationship
      • Happy couples have an idealised version of their relationship
      • Exaggerate the success of their relationships
    • Devaluing alternatives
      • People in lasting relationships do not find others appealing
  • Investment model
    • 3 factors to explain long-term relationships
      • Satisfaction
      • Alternatives
      • Investments
    • Considered together they predict the likelihood of maintaining the relationship
  • The Investment Model of Commitment Commitment Level Quality of Alternatives Investment Size Satisfaction Level Decision to Remain
  • The Investment Model of Commitment
    • Explains why people remain in relationships with abusive or unsatisfying partners: if alternatives aren’t good, or sunk costs are high
    • 3 factors explain ~90% of variance in relationship outcomes
    • Also works for keeping versus changing jobs
  • Sexuality
    • Humans form relationships based on two separate systems
      • Attachment system
        • Gender neutral
      • Sex drive
        • Focus on opposite sex (procreation)
    • Love comes from attachment drive; independent of gender
  • Theories of sexuality
    • Social constructionist theories
    • Evolutionary theory
      • Gender differences based in reproductive strategies
    • Social exchange theory
  • Sex & gender
    • Men > women sex drive
    • Coolidge effect
      • sexually arousing power of a new partner (greater than the appeal of a familiar partner)
    • Separating sex & love
      • Men  likely to seek & enjoy sex without love
      • Women  likely to enjoy love without sex
  • A woman pays a higher biological price than a man for making a poor choice of sex partners, and so it behooves women to be more cautious than men about sex.
  •  
  • Homosexuality
    • Homosexuality challenges theories of sexuality
    • Most cultures condemn it
    • Natural selection does not support it
  • Homosexuality
    • EBE – Exotic becomes erotic (Bem, 1998)
      • “ Sexual arousal” as a “label” for emotional nervousness resulting from exposure to the exotic
    • Difficult to test and verify this theory
  • Extradyadic sex
    • Most reliable data suggests infidelity is rare in modern Western marriages
    • Tolerance for extramarital sex is fairly low
    • Extramarital sex is a risk factor for break ups
      • Cannot demonstrate causality
  • Extradyadic sex
    • Long-term monogamous mating is more common among humans. Culture:
    • plays a role in monogamy
    • gives permission for divorce
    • influences love and sex
  • Extradyadic sex
  • Reasons for straying
    • Men desire novelty
      • Sometimes engage in extramarital sex without complaint about their marriage
    • Women’s infidelity more characterised by emotional attachment to lover
      • Usually dissatisfied with current partner
  • Ending relationships: 4 factors (Levinger, 1980)
    • 1. A new life seems the only alternative
    • 2. Alternative partners available
    • 3. Expectation that relationship will fail
    • 4. Lack of commitment
  • Ending relationships
    • 4 stages once relationship has started to fail (Rusult & Zembrodt, 1983)
    • 1. Loyalty – wait for improvement
    • 2. Neglect – allow deterioration
    • 3. Voice behaviour – work on improving
    • 4. Exit behaviour - end
  • Relationship Dissolution Model (Duck, 1988, 1992) - 4 phases
    • Intrapsychic
      • brooding
    • Dyadic
      • do something
    • Social
      • tell friends, seek support
    • Grave-dressing
      • end relationship, getting ‘over’ it, ‘bury’ & memorialise.
  •  
  • Jealousy & possessiveness
    • Cultural theory
      • Product of social roles & expectations
    • Biological theory
      • Sexual jealousy in every culture
      • Forms, expressions, & rules may vary
    • Society can modify but not eliminate jealousy
  • Evolutionary theory of jealousy
    • Men
      • To help ensure they do not support the upbringing of another’s child
    • Women
      • If husband becomes emotionally involved with another, he may withhold resources
  • Jealousy & possessiveness
    • Jealousy can focus on either sexual or emotional connections with another
    • Men tend to focus more strongly on sexual aspects than women
  • Causes of jealousy
    • Jealousy is a function of person & situation:
        • Many suspicions are accurate
        • Paranoid (false) jealousy is fairly rare
  • Jealousy & type of interloper
    • The less of a threat from the other person, the less jealousy
      • Jealousy depends on how their traits compare to the third party
    • Both men & women are more jealous if the 3rd party is a man rather than a woman
  • Social reality
    • Social reality
      • Public awareness of some event
      • Important role in jealousy
    • High social reality = High jealousy
      • The more other people know about your partner’s infidelity, the greater your jealousy
  • Culture & female sexuality
    • All culture regulate sex in some ways
    • Cultural regulation is more directed at women
      • Erotic plasticity
      • Paternity uncertainty
  • Erotic plasticity
    • Degree to which social, cultural, and situational factors influence sexuality
    • Female sexuality is more plastic (cultural), male is more natural (biological)
    • Neither is inherently better (no value judgment)
  • Culture & the double standard
    • Supported more by women than men
    • Weaker than usually assumed
  • Close Relationships Topic Summary
    • Love
      • Types of love (passionate & companionate)
      • Types of relationships (exchange vs. communal)
      • Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love
      • Schacter’s 2-factor theory
      • Culture-Arousal-Cognition models (Hatfield)
      • Attachment styles
      • Self-esteem & love
    • Maintaining Relationships
      • Attributions
      • Optimism & devaluing alternatives
      • Investment model
    • Sexuality
      • Extradyadic relationships
      • Erotic plasticity
    • Ending relationships
    • Jealousy
  • References
    • Baumeister, R. F., & Bushman, B. J. (2008). Social psychology and human nature (1st ed.) Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.