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Relationships

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The aim of this lecture is to introduce and discuss social-psychological aspects of interpersonal relationships and, in particular, attraction, exclusion, and close relationships.

The aim of this lecture is to introduce and discuss social-psychological aspects of interpersonal relationships and, in particular, attraction, exclusion, and close relationships.

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  • The aim of this lecture is to introduce and discuss social-psychological aspects of interpersonal relationships and, in particular, attraction, exclusion, and close relationships. Lecture webpages: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Social_psychology_(psychology)/Lectures/Relationships http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125/Lecture+Relationships http://www.slideshare.net/jtneill/lecture7-relationnships/ Image source: Jason Hutchens, 2004, CC-By-A 2.0 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:You_may_now_kiss_the_bride.jpg
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    • 1. Social Psychology
        • Relationships
        • 2008
        • Lecturer: James Neill
    • 2. Readings
      • Bauemeister & Bushman (2008):
      • Part 1 : Ch10 Attraction and Exclusion
      • Part 2 : Ch11 Close Relationships: Passion, Intimacy, and Sexuality
    • 3. Overview: Pt 1 (Attraction & Exclusion)
      • The need to belong
      • Interpersonal attraction
      • Rejection / social exclusion
    • 4. The Need to Belong (Affiliation)
        • Desire to form & maintain close, lasting relationships with other individuals.
    • 5. The need to belong
      • Homo sapiens:
      • Appear to need contact with other members of their species.
      • Experience a powerful drive to form & maintain close lasting relationships.
      • Usually form relationships easily.
      • Are reluctant to end relationships.
      • Seek an optimal balance between social contacts & solitude.
    • 6.  
    • 7. The need to belong
      • Basic need to belong is not unique to humans
      • People can be similar on more dimensions
      • People spend much time & energy to secure their place in the social group
    • 8. The need to belong
      • Belongingness consists of:
        • Regular social contact with others
        • Close, stable, mutually intimate contact
      • One without the other  partial satisfaction
    • 9. The need to belong
      • People do not continue to form relationships:
      • Typically seek ~4 to 6 close relationships.
      • Even in people-rich environments, most people form social circles of about 6 people.
    • 10. Marriage
      • People who marry live longer, healthier lives
      • People who stay married live longer and better than those who divorce
      • Happy marriage is an important consideration
    • 11. Attraction Forces which draw 2 or more people together. Interpersonal Repulsion Forces which drive 2 or more people apart.
    • 12. Ingratiation
      • What people actively do to try to make others like them.
    • 13. Similarity
      • Common, significant cause of attraction
      • Tend to like others who are similar to us
      • Otherwise we experience cognitive dissonance.
    • 14. Similarity
      • Do opposites attract? i.e., do we need complementarity?
        • little supporting evidence
      • Spouses are similar in many respects:
        • IQ
        • physical attractiveness
        • Education
        • SES
      • Couples more similar in attractiveness more likely to progress to committed relationship.
    • 15. Fig. 10-2, p. 334
    • 16. Matching Hypothesis
      • People are attracted to & form relationships with others who are similar to them in physical attractiveness.
    • 17. Self-monitoring
      • People change to become more similar to those with whom they interact:
      • High self-monitoring (field dependent) – maximise each social situation
      • Low self-monitoring (field independent) – interested in permanent connections and feelings
    • 18. Similarity
      • As cultures progress & form large, complex groups, there is more need for complementarity, e.g.,:
      • Risks in joining a new group
      • People tend to look for similarity
    • 19. Reinforcement theory
      • Behaviors reinforced tend to be repeated
      • People tend to be attracted to those who are rewarding to them
    • 20. Reinforcement theory
      • Reinforcement-affect model - based on principles of classical conditioning
      • Associate ‘attractive’ person with rewards & positive affect
    • 21.  
    • 22. Interpersonal rewards
      • Do favors for someone
      • Praise someone
    • 23. Reciprocity
      • Liking begets liking; We like those who like us
      • Mimicking increases liking.
      • If someone likes you:
        • Initially it is very favorable, but
        • If that liking is not returned, it can be a burden
      • We tend to prefer relationships that are psychologically balanced .
    • 24. The gain-loss hypothesis We like people most if they initially dislike us & then later like us e.g., (Aronson & Linder, 1965) Order of feedback Degree of liking Neg-Pos Pos-Pos Neg-Neg Pos-Neg 0 2 4 6 8 10    
    • 25. Playing hard to get
      • Prefer those who are ‘moderately’ selective (turned off by those too readily available & those who reject us).
      • Attractiveness  s towards bar closing time for those not in a relationship (Madey et al., 1996) .
      • Reactance – if freedom of choice threatened, desire  s for difficult to attain goal.
    • 26.
        • Costs
          • e.g., effort, conflict, compromise, sacrifice, risk
      Social Exchange Theory
      • People are motivated to  benefits &  costs in their relationships with others.
        • Rewards
          • e.g., love, companionship, sex
    • 27. Social Exchange Theory
      • Comparison level (CL)
        • average, expected outcome in relationships
      • Comparison level for alternatives (C alt )
        • expectations of rewards in alternative situation (what could I get elsewhere?)
      • (Sunk) Investment
        • things put into relationship that can’t be recovered.
    • 28. Equity Theory (Balance Theory)
      • People are most satisfied with a relationship when the ratio between benefits & contributions is similar for both partners
      • Your benefits = Partner’s benefits
      • Your contributions = Partner’s contributions
    • 29. Equity Theory (Balance Theory)
      • Prefer relationships that are psychologically balanced.
      • Motivated to restore balance in relationships
    • 30. Equity theory applied to two equitable and two inequitable relationships Outputs Inputs Outputs Inputs PETER OLIVIA Equity perceived Equity not perceived PETER OLIVIA   =     =       = =     Inputs or ouputs are:  Few  Average  Many
    • 31. Balance Theory
      • Agreement is an affirming experience, lead to positive affect. If we disagree, we seek to find agreement.
      • Attracted to similar others
        • We strive to like our friend’s friends.
    • 32. Commitment to one’s relationship is weaker when many high-quality alternative partners are available.
    • 33. Propinquity (Exposure or Psychological Proximity)
      • Best predictor of a relationship is proximity or nearness.
      • Mere-exposure effect
        • The more we’re exposed to something, the more we like it.
      • Familiarity
        • greater liking for a familiar stimulus.
      • Overexposure can reduce liking.
      • People also weigh:
        • Availability - interaction is easy & low cost
        • Expectation of continued interaction
    • 34.
      • 4 different women (confederates) attended a lecture over a semester.
      • Four conditions: each attended 0, 5, 10, or 15 times.
      • Participants (students in the lectures) then viewed pictures of the 4 women
      • They liked/ were most attracted to the woman they had been exposed to most .
      Moreland & Beach (1992)
    • 35. Moreland & Beach (1992) Ratings of attraction.
    • 36. Attraction
      • Propinquity
      • Availability
        • interaction is easy & low cost
      • Expectation of continued interaction
    • 37. Familiarity & exposure
      • Social allergy effect
        • Annoying habits become more annoying over time
      • Familiarity & repeated exposure can
        • make bad things worse
        • encourage liking someone
    • 38. Neighbors make friends – and enemies
      • Festinger et al. (1950)
        • Strongest predictor of friendships was propinquity
      • Ebbesen et al. (1976)
        • Strongest predictor of enemies was propinquity
      • Regular contact amplifies or multiplies power of other factors
    • 39.
      • Rate this woman’s:
      • Intelligence
      • Happiness
      • Success
      • 1 = Well below average
      • 2 = Below average
      • 3 = Average
      • 4 = Above average
      • 5 = Well above average
    • 40.
      • John:
      • 25 years old
      • Car salesman
      • Rents a small apartment
      • Lives on his own.
      • Does not have a girlfriend.
      • Allergies limit time he can spend outdoors.
      • Matt:
      • 26 years old
      • Business executive
      • Owns two houses
      • Happily married
      • Enjoys travelling, yacht racing, and nightclubbing.
      John or Matt?
    • 41. p. 340 A
    • 42. p. 340 B
    • 43. Attractiveness
      • Most people show preference for attractive over unattractive
      • “ What is beautiful is good” effect
        • Attractiveness = superiority on other traits
      • Attractive children are more popular with peers and teachers
      • Babies prefer attractive faces
    • 44. Attractiveness
      • For men, clothing represent wealth and status
        • High wealth & status men are more attractive
      • Body shape influences attractiveness
        • Cultural variation in ideal body weight
    • 45. Beauty
      • People agree who is beautiful but not why
      • Evolutionary psychology
        • beauty in women ~ Health, youth, fertility
      • Symmetry is attractive
      • Typicality is attractive
        • Average or composite faces are more attractive than individual faces
    • 46. Beauty
      • Babies show a preference for faces considered attractive by adults.
      • Some cultural & historical differences in perception of beauty
      • Despite cultural & historical differences there is a considerable degree of agreement as to what is thought of as beautiful.
    • 47. Beauty
      • Bias towards beauty - why?
      • Aesthetic rewards
      • Reflected ‘glory’
      • “ What-is-beautiful-is-good” stereotype - associate beauty with other ‘good’ things
      • Beautiful judged to be - intelligent, successful, happy, well-adjusted, socially skilled, confident, assertive (& vain)
    • 48. Beauty
      • In reality, beauty not related to intelligence, personality adjustment or SES
      • Costs of beauty
        • hard to interpret positive feedback
        • pressure to maintain appearance
        • little relationship between beauty in youth & satisfaction/adjustment in middle-age (Berscheid et al., 1972)
    • 49. Evolutionary Perspectives on Attraction / Mate Selection
      • Gender differences in mate selection & sexual behaviour
      • Males tend to have
        • more sexual partners &
        • partners that are young & attractive (more fertile).
      • Women tend to have
        • fewer sexual partners &
        • partners who are older & financially secure (better providers for offspring).
    • 50. Evolutionary Perspectives on Attraction / Mate Selection
      • Triver (1972) - parental investment theory
      • Buss (1994) - evolutionary perspective
      • Gender differences in jealously
      • BUT - differences between sexes small compared to similarities
    • 51. Acceptance People like you & include you in their groups. Social Rejection
        • People exclude you from their groups.
      (Social Exclusion; Ostracism)
    • 52. Not belonging is bad for you
      • Failure to satisfy a “need to belong” leads to detrimental effects, e.g.,:
      • Death rates  among people without social connections.
      • People without a good social network have  physical & mental health problems.
    • 53. Social Exclusion (video; 5:53 mins)
    • 54. Rejection
      • Ostracism
        • Excluded, rejected, & ignored
      • Effects of rejection
        • Inner states are usually -ve
    • 55. Rejection
      • Rejection sensitivity
        • Expect rejection & become hypersensitive to possible rejection
      • “ You hurt my feelings” = “You don’t care about the relationship”
        • Implicit message of rejection
    • 56. Rejection
      • Extent of hurt feelings is based on:
        • Importance of relationship
        • Clearness of rejection signal
      • Initial reaction to rejection – “ emotional numbness ”
        • Interferes with psychological and cognitive functioning
    • 57. Behavioral Effects of Rejection
      • Show  s in intelligent thought
      • Approach new interactions with skepticism
      • Typically less generous, less cooperative, less helpful
      • More willing to cheat or break rules
      • Act shortsighted, impulsive, self-destructive
    • 58. Behavioral Effects of Rejection
      • Repeated rejection can create aggression
      • Aggression can lead to rejection
      • Common theme in school shootings is social exclusion
    • 59. Loneliness
      • Desired > actual social contact
      • Painful feeling of wanting more human contact
      • Lacking in quantity and/or quality of relationships
      • Occurs during times of transition & disruption (e.g., moving, divorce)
    • 60. Loneliness
      • Unattached lonelier than attached
      • Widowed, divorced lonelier than never married
      • 18-30 year olds - loneliest group
      • Little difference between lonely & unlonely
        • Lonely have more difficulty understanding emotional states of others
      • Loneliness tends to be bad for physical health
    • 61. Social capital
      • Collective value of all "social networks“
      • Inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for one other
    • 62. Bowling Alone (Putnam, 2000)
      • Declining Social Capital: Trends over the last 25 years
      • Attending club meetings
      • Family dinners
      • Having friends over
      • 10 minutes of commuting  s social capital by 10%.
    • 63. Social rejection
      • Children are rejected by peers because they:
      • are aggressive
      • withdraw from contact
      • are different in some way
    • 64. Social rejection
      • Adults are most often rejected for being different from the rest of the group
      • Groups reject insiders more than outsiders for the same degree of deviance
      • Deviance within the group threatens the group’s unity
    • 65. Social rejection
      • Bad apple effect
        • One person who breaks the rules may inspire others to do the same
      • Threat of rejection influences good behavior
    • 66. Romantic rejection & unrequited love
      • Attribution theory & women refusing dates
      • Privately held reasons were internal to the man, stable, & global
      • Reasons told the man were external, unstable, and specific
        • These reasons encourage asking again
    • 67. Romantic rejection & unrequited love
      • Unrequited Love
        • Men are more often rejected lover; women do the rejecting more often
      • Stalking
        • Women are more often stalked
    • 68. Summary of Topics
      • The need to belong
        • Not belonging is bad for you
      • Attraction
        • Ingratiation
        • Social rewards
        • Reciprocity
        • Self-monitoring
        • Similarity
        • Propinquity
        • Matching hypothesis
        • Beauty
      • Rejection
        • Loneliness
        • Social capital
        • What leads to social rejection?
        • Romantic rejection & unrequited love
    • 69. Overview: Pt 2 (Close Relationships, Passion, Intimacy, and Sexuality )
      • What Is love?
      • Types of relationships
      • Maintaining relationships
      • Sexuality
    • 70. Love relationships
      • Liking versus loving
      • Passionate love
        • intense, involves physiological arousal
      • Companionate love - caring & affection
        • Characterised by high levels of self-disclosure
    • 71. What is love?
      • “ I love my grandmother”
      • “ I’m in love with my boyfriend”
      • “ I love psychology”
    • 72. Two types of love
      • Passionate
      • Companionate
      • Physiological difference
        • Presence of PEA
    • 73. Passionate Love
      • Strong, intense feelings of
        • Longing
        • Desire
        • Excitement
      • toward another person.
    • 74. Passionate Love
      • Most cultures have passionate (romantic) love, although forms & expressions vary
      • Not always viewed positively
      • Paradox of marrying for passionate love:
        • Long-term commitment based on temporary state
    • 75. Companionate Love
      • Affection for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined:
      • Mutual understanding
      • Caring
      • Commitment
      • Calm, serene emotions
      • Important for successful marriages
    • 76. Passionate love as a social construction
      • Romantic love is found in most cultures
      • Forms & expression vary by culture
      • Attitude varies by culture & era
    • 77. Love across time
      • Passionate love is important for starting a relationships
      • Companionate love is important for making it succeed & survive
    • 78.  
    • 79.  
    • 80. Fig. 11-3b, p. 365
    • 81. Sternberg’s (1988) Triangular Model of Love Motivational : physiological arousal, longing, sexual attraction Cognitive : conscious decision, willing to define as love, long term Emotional : closeness, sharing, support, understanding, concern PASSION INTIMACY COMMITMENT
    • 82. Triangular Theory of Love Sternberg (1988)
    • 83. Schacter’s 2-factor theory of emotion
      • 1. Physical arousal
      • 2. Cognitive appraisal (interpret arousal as love)
    • 84. Hatfield & Walster’s 3-factor Theory of Romantic Love
      • 1. Cultural exposure
      • 2. Physiological arousal
      • 3. Presence of appropriate love object
    • 85. Hatfield & Walster’s 3-factor Theory of Romantic Love + + Cultural exposure Physiological arousal Appropriate love object Romantic Love
    • 86. Does love last?
      • Passionate love is temporary
      • Successful relationships shift from passionate to companionate love
      2 years PASSION INTIMACY 1 year 5 years 10 years
    • 87. Exchange vs. Communal
      • Exchange relationships
        • Based on reciprocity & fairness
        • More frequent in broader society
        • Increases societal progress & wealth
      • Communal relationships
        • Based on love & concern without expectation of repayment
        • More frequent in close intimate relationships
        • More desirable, healthier, & mature
    • 88. Exchange vs. Communal
      • Exchange relationships encourage progress and wealth in larger groups
      • We don’t like calculating equity in our serious relationships
        • If people keep track of every little thing, it doesn’t feel like love
      • Communal relationships are more desirable in intimate relationships
    • 89. Attachment - Bowlby
      • Influenced by Freudian & learning theory
      • Believed childhood attachment predicted adult relationships
    • 90. Attachment - Shaver
      • Identified attachment styles to describe adult relationships
      • Anxious/Ambivalent
      • Secure
      • Avoidant
    • 91. Attachment styles
      • People can classify themselves reliably.
      • Choose the description that best fits your relationships:
      • 1 . I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting close to me.
    • 92. Attachment styles
      • 2. I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want to merge completely with another person, and this desire sometimes scares people away.
    • 93. Attachment styles
      • 3. I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others. I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and, often love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being.
    • 94.
      • Attachments marked by trust / other will continue to provide love & support.
      3 Original Attachment Styles Defensive detachment from other Fear of abandonment; feeling /one’s needs aren’t being met SECURE (56%) ANXIOUS/ AMBIVALENT (19%) AVOIDANT (25%)
    • 95. 2 Dimensions of Attachment
      • Theory developed along two dimensions:
      • Anxiety – attitudes toward self
      • Avoidance – attitudes toward others
    • 96. Attachment styles
      • Secure attachment
      • Dismissing avoidant attachment
      • Fearful avoidant attachment
      • Preoccupied attachment
    • 97.  
    • 98. Attachment
      • The new model splits avoidant types into two groups
      • Dismissing avoidants are independent
        • See themselves as worthy, but seek to prevent intimacy
      • Fearful avoidants have low opinions of themselves
        • Worry they aren’t lovable
    • 99. Avoidant Attachment Style
      • They still have the “need to belong”
      • Inner conflict: want contact but fear closeness
      • They have as much social contact as others. They are NOT loners, isolates
      • Hence may want to “juggle” relationship partners. Keep many relationships going but not let one get too close
    • 100. Attachment Matching
      • People do not always form relationships with others with same attachment style
      • Having one secure person improves relationship outcome (and two are better than one)
      • Rare to have both anxious, or both avoidant
      • Avoidant men, anxious women do well; anxious men with avoidant women, not so good
    • 101. Attachment & Sex
      • Secure
        • Generally have good sex lives
      • Preoccupied
        • May use sex to pull others close to them
      • Avoidant
        • Have a desire for connection
        • May avoid sex, or use it to resist intimacy
    • 102. Self-esteem & love
      • Popular belief that you need to love yourself before you can love others
        • Not demonstrated in theory or facts
      • Self-esteem
        • Low self-esteem – may feel unlovable
        • High self-esteem – may feel more worthy than present partner
    • 103. Self-love & loving others
      • Self-acceptance is good for getting along with others
      • Excessive self-love (e.g. narcissism) can
      • be detrimental to close relationships
      • Self-acceptance
        • More minimal form of self-love
        • Linked to positive interactions
    • 104. Maintaining relationships
      • Good relationships tend to stay the same over time
      • Popular myth that they continue to improve
      • Key to maintaining a good relationship is to avoid a downward spiral
    • 105. Is honesty the best policy?
      • People in love hold idealised versions of each other
      • Is it better to be yourself? Yes and no:
        • Research supports that we want our partners to view us as we view ourselves
        • Relationships can thrive when couples remain on their best behavior
        • More idealisation leads to stronger, longer relationships
    • 106. Is honesty the best policy? Fig. 11-6, p. 377
    • 107. Maintaining relationships
      • People perceive good relationships as getting better & better
      • Research shows that relationships either stay the same or go downhill
    • 108. Maintaining relationships
      • For relationships to succeed couples must avoid the “downward spiral”
        • Reciprocity of negative behaviour
      • Positive interactions must occur at least 5 x as often as negative ones
    • 109. Why do people stay with their relationship partners?
      • SATISFACTION: quality of the relationship, good interactions, “makes me happy”
      • Kind of obvious
      • But explains only about 30%
    • 110. Why do people stay with their relationship partners?
      • ALTERNATIVES: if you left this relationship, what would replace it?
      • Might leave a good partner in pursuit of a better one
      • Some guesswork
    • 111. Why do people stay with their relationship partners?
      • INVESTMENT/SUNK COSTS = what you have put into the relationship that will be lost if you leave
      • Examples, long effort to understand each other, learning to get along
      • Shared history together (experiences, memories, children, projects)
    • 112. Attributions
      • Difference in terms of attribution:
      • Relationship-enhancing :
        • Good acts - internal;
        • Bad acts - external factors
      • Distress-maintaining:
        • Good acts - external factors
        • Bad acts - internal
    • 113. Attributional processes
      • “ Why didn’t he do the dishes?”
      • “ Typical… he never wants to help out”
        • Distress-maintaining style of attribution
        • Unhappy couples attribute negative events to their partners and positive events to external factors
    • 114. Attributional processes
      • “ Why didn’t he do the dishes?”
      • “ He must have had a hard day at work.”
        • Relationship-enhancing style of attribution
        • Happy couples attribute negative events to external factors and positive events to their partners
    • 115. Optimism & devaluing
      • Optimism in the relationship
        • Happy couples have an idealised version of their relationship
        • Exaggerate the success of their relationships
      • Devaluing alternatives
        • People in lasting relationships do not find others appealing
    • 116. Investment model
      • 3 factors to explain long-term relationships
        • Satisfaction
        • Alternatives
        • Investments
      • Considered together they predict the likelihood of maintaining the relationship
    • 117. The Investment Model of Commitment Commitment Level Quality of Alternatives Investment Size Satisfaction Level Decision to Remain
    • 118. The Investment Model of Commitment
      • Explains why people remain in relationships with abusive or unsatisfying partners: if alternatives aren’t good, or sunk costs are high
      • 3 factors explain ~90% of variance in relationship outcomes
      • Also works for keeping versus changing jobs
    • 119. Sexuality
      • Humans form relationships based on two separate systems
        • Attachment system
          • Gender neutral
        • Sex drive
          • Focus on opposite sex (procreation)
      • Love comes from attachment drive; independent of gender
    • 120. Theories of sexuality
      • Social constructionist theories
      • Evolutionary theory
        • Gender differences based in reproductive strategies
      • Social exchange theory
    • 121. Sex & gender
      • Men > women sex drive
      • Coolidge effect
        • sexually arousing power of a new partner (greater than the appeal of a familiar partner)
      • Separating sex & love
        • Men  likely to seek & enjoy sex without love
        • Women  likely to enjoy love without sex
    • 122. A woman pays a higher biological price than a man for making a poor choice of sex partners, and so it behooves women to be more cautious than men about sex.
    • 123.  
    • 124. Homosexuality
      • Homosexuality challenges theories of sexuality
      • Most cultures condemn it
      • Natural selection does not support it
    • 125. Homosexuality
      • EBE – Exotic becomes erotic (Bem, 1998)
        • “ Sexual arousal” as a “label” for emotional nervousness resulting from exposure to the exotic
      • Difficult to test and verify this theory
    • 126. Extradyadic sex
      • Most reliable data suggests infidelity is rare in modern Western marriages
      • Tolerance for extramarital sex is fairly low
      • Extramarital sex is a risk factor for break ups
        • Cannot demonstrate causality
    • 127. Extradyadic sex
      • Long-term monogamous mating is more common among humans. Culture:
      • plays a role in monogamy
      • gives permission for divorce
      • influences love and sex
    • 128. Extradyadic sex
    • 129. Reasons for straying
      • Men desire novelty
        • Sometimes engage in extramarital sex without complaint about their marriage
      • Women’s infidelity more characterised by emotional attachment to lover
        • Usually dissatisfied with current partner
    • 130. Ending relationships: 4 factors (Levinger, 1980)
      • 1. A new life seems the only alternative
      • 2. Alternative partners available
      • 3. Expectation that relationship will fail
      • 4. Lack of commitment
    • 131. Ending relationships
      • 4 stages once relationship has started to fail (Rusult & Zembrodt, 1983)
      • 1. Loyalty – wait for improvement
      • 2. Neglect – allow deterioration
      • 3. Voice behaviour – work on improving
      • 4. Exit behaviour - end
    • 132. Relationship Dissolution Model (Duck, 1988, 1992) - 4 phases
      • Intrapsychic
        • brooding
      • Dyadic
        • do something
      • Social
        • tell friends, seek support
      • Grave-dressing
        • end relationship, getting ‘over’ it, ‘bury’ & memorialise.
    • 133.  
    • 134. Jealousy & possessiveness
      • Cultural theory
        • Product of social roles & expectations
      • Biological theory
        • Sexual jealousy in every culture
        • Forms, expressions, & rules may vary
      • Society can modify but not eliminate jealousy
    • 135. Evolutionary theory of jealousy
      • Men
        • To help ensure they do not support the upbringing of another’s child
      • Women
        • If husband becomes emotionally involved with another, he may withhold resources
    • 136. Jealousy & possessiveness
      • Jealousy can focus on either sexual or emotional connections with another
      • Men tend to focus more strongly on sexual aspects than women
    • 137. Causes of jealousy
      • Jealousy is a function of person & situation:
          • Many suspicions are accurate
          • Paranoid (false) jealousy is fairly rare
    • 138. Jealousy & type of interloper
      • The less of a threat from the other person, the less jealousy
        • Jealousy depends on how their traits compare to the third party
      • Both men & women are more jealous if the 3rd party is a man rather than a woman
    • 139. Social reality
      • Social reality
        • Public awareness of some event
        • Important role in jealousy
      • High social reality = High jealousy
        • The more other people know about your partner’s infidelity, the greater your jealousy
    • 140. Culture & female sexuality
      • All culture regulate sex in some ways
      • Cultural regulation is more directed at women
        • Erotic plasticity
        • Paternity uncertainty
    • 141. Erotic plasticity
      • Degree to which social, cultural, and situational factors influence sexuality
      • Female sexuality is more plastic (cultural), male is more natural (biological)
      • Neither is inherently better (no value judgment)
    • 142. Culture & the double standard
      • Supported more by women than men
      • Weaker than usually assumed
    • 143. Close Relationships Topic Summary
      • Love
        • Types of love (passionate & companionate)
        • Types of relationships (exchange vs. communal)
        • Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love
        • Schacter’s 2-factor theory
        • Culture-Arousal-Cognition models (Hatfield)
        • Attachment styles
        • Self-esteem & love
      • Maintaining Relationships
        • Attributions
        • Optimism & devaluing alternatives
        • Investment model
      • Sexuality
        • Extradyadic relationships
        • Erotic plasticity
      • Ending relationships
      • Jealousy
    • 144. References
      • Baumeister, R. F., & Bushman, B. J. (2008). Social psychology and human nature (1st ed.) Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

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