An Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology James Neill  (2010) Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra
Outline <ul><li>Introduction
What is research?
Quick Fun Survey
Research process
Research methods
Bias in research
Ethical issues </li></ul>
Reading Research methods in psychology  (Gerrig et al. 2008, Ch. 2)
disciplined inquiry What is research?
What is research?
What is research? Research is  formalised curiosity .  It is poking and prying with a purpose. - Zora Neale Hurston
<ul><li>Research is a  a systematic attempt to understand the world .
Psychological research  is a systematic attempt to understand  human experiences of themselves and the world . </li></ul>W...
<ul><li>Systematic development & testing of theory  about human behaviour and mental events
Disciplined enquiry  into human  thinking, feeling, and behaviour . </li></ul>What is  psychological research?
Research is a language <ul><li>Learn key terms / concepts
UG study, especially 1st year, is about acquiring the language skills to access and make sense of recorded research knowle...
Psychological research ...holds out the promise of discovering the  architecture of our psyche  and understanding our beha...
Psychological research is a recent phenomenon <ul><li>Western, scientific, psychological research only has about a 60-100 ...
Much still to be discovered - prospects for considerable growth & opportunity. </li><ul><li>e.g., due to technology, new r...
<ul><li>Observations, beliefs, information, and general knowledge lead to a new idea or a different way of thinking about ...
Theory: An organised set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena.
Use theory to formulate research questions. </li></ul>Process of research
<ul><li>Develop a hypothesis or hypotheses </li><ul><ul><li>A tentative and testable explanation(s) of the relationship be...
<ul><li>Initial observation or question
Form a hypothesis
Design the study
Analyse the data and draw conclusions
Report the findings
Consider open questions
Act on open questions </li></ul>The research process Gerrig et al. (2008)
Quick Fun Survey <ul><li>What is your favourite colour?
What is your favourite number?
What sex is the number 4?
What sex is the number 8? </li></ul>
Design Your Own Psychological Study
Research questions Expressing topics of interest as  research questions  is a key first step, e.g., <ul><li>Is it bad to s...
What is the effect of meditation on stress?
Do “smart drugs” really make people “smarter”? </li></ul>
My first study What changes in stress, anxiety, crisis and flow occur for novice abseilers?
Design your own study <ul><li>List  topics  you would like to research.
Create  research questions  & choose one.
What  variables  are to be measured?
What  research method  would you use?
What  population  and  sampling method  would you use? </li></ul>
Student research  opportunities <ul><li>Research participation
Research seminars
Research news e.g., via </li><ul><li>Journal alerts
Google Alerts </li></ul><li>Research journals </li><ul><li>Hard copies
Electronic copies </li></ul></ul>
Scientific method
Research is a way of thinking <ul><li>Researchers need to acknowledge & understand the limits of intuition & common sense
Philosophy of science
The scientific attitude
The scientific method </li></ul>
Science is based on… <ul><li>Knowledge of facts
Developing theories
Testing hypotheses
Public and repeatable procedures </li></ul>
If you are a scientist you believe that it is good to find out how the world works, that it is good to find out what the r...
 
Critical thinking Critical thinking does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions: <ul><li>Examines assumptions
Discerns hidden values
Evaluates evidence </li></ul>
It is a good morning exercise for a research scientist to discard a pet hypothesis every day before breakfast - It keeps h...
<ul><li>Set of procedures used for gathering and interpreting objective information in a way  that  minimises error and yi...
Its goal is to draw conclusions with  maximum  objectivity . </li><ul><li>Conclusions are objective when they are  not inf...
The doctrine that  all events   - physical, behavioural, and mental -  are “determined”  by  specific causal factors that ...
Theory-testing is the  main function of research <ul><li>Observations  lead to theory
Theory  = a specific set of assumptions and principles about a phenomenon.
Derive testable  hypotheses   (or guesses / predictions)
Systematically  test hypotheses  in various conditions in order to  determine the utility of the theory . </li></ul>
Theories, hypotheses & research observations Theories Low self-esteem feeds depression Hypothesis People with low self-est...
Operationalisation Refers to how a fuzzy psychological construct is actually measured <ul><li>e.g., the concept of intelli...
<ul><li>Variables are factors which can be controlled and/or measured in research
Two types: </li><ul><ul><li>Independent Variable (IV) (or “predictors”)
Dependent Variable (DV) (or “outcomes”) </li></ul></ul></ul>Research variables
Independent vs. dependent variables Independent Variable(s) Dependent Variable(s)
Independent vs. dependent variables Independent Variable   <ul><li>the factor that is controlled and manipulated by the re...
the variable whose effect is being studied </li></ul>Dependent Variable   <ul><li>the factor that may change in response t...
in psychology it is usually a behaviour or mental process  </li></ul>
Independent vs. dependent variables: Example IV:  Graffiti  or  no graffiti  on or near a letterbox DV:  Whether or not a ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Research Methods in Psychology

47,411

Published on

Introduces the role and nature of research and research methods in psychological science.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
7 Comments
50 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • I found good Animals informative slide presentation. Great presentation, nice information i like this '' presentation slide.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I found good Animals informative slide presentation. Great presentation, nice information i like this '' presentation slide.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Great Presentation> A loud Ovation for you
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • RESEARCh
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Note that I've put many of the popular quotations into a separate, shorter presentation about the 'spirit of research' - http://www.slideshare.net/jtneill/spirit-of-research
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
47,411
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2,284
Comments
7
Likes
50
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Introduces the role and nature of research and research methods in psychological science. Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brain_mechanism.svg Image author: Alexander Krainov, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Alex_Krainov License: Creative Commons Share-Alike 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gadl/395079578/ Image author: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gadl/ License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
  • Image source: Unknown. Examination of this image suggests an orderly discipline, yet space and environment for creativity and passion.
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nics_events/2349632625/in/set-72157610727439784/ By nic&apos;s events - http://www.flickr.com/photos/nics_events/ License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
  • Just as research of our physical world and its properties and laws has lead to our creation of incredibly artful and scientific structures, so too psychological research holds out the promise of discovering the architecture of our psyche and our behaviour with the world around us. Image source: Unknown.
  • Blue is usually the most popular 7 is usually the most popular 4 is usually male 8 is usually female This suggests that we may be more predictable than we like to think and indicates that there may be many patterns which can help to explain our thinking, feeling, and behaviouur.
  • The process of psychological research, generating theories and testing hypotheses.
  • Blue is usually the most popular 7 is usually the most popular 4 is usually male 8 is usually female This suggests that we may be more predictable than we like to think and indicates that there may be many patterns which can help to explain our thinking, feeling, and behaviouur.
  • Image sources: Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mvvermeulen/106707882/ By mauritsv - http://www.flickr.com/photos/mvvermeulen/ License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 James Neill (questionnaire). Explain story of my first research study – curiousity + methodology.
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/emdot/96674873/ By emdot - http://www.flickr.com/photos/emdot/ License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
  • Blue is usually the most popular 7 is usually the most popular 4 is usually male 8 is usually female This suggests that we may be more predictable than we like to think and indicates that there may be many patterns which can help to explain our thinking, feeling, and behaviouur.
  • Image soruce: A-bomb unknown
  • Image soruce: A-bomb unknown
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wwworks/1291468732/ By woodleywonderworks&apos; http://www.flickr.com/people/wwworks/
  • Facts are what need to be explained objective - viewable by others based on direct observation reasonable observers agree are true
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/3290475538/ License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 by kevindooley - http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/
  • People surrounded by grafitti are more likely to steal Broken window effect See: http://www.rug.nl/gmw/nieuws/archief/archief2008/persberichten/153_08?lang=en
  • qualitative approaches which utilise ethnography, grounded theory, content analysis of language, observation, etc. quantitative approaches which use tools (such as surveys) to collect empirical data
  • Strengths: Conclusions about cause &amp; effect can be drawn - Weaknesses – artificial and ethical/practical constraints
  • Image source: https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/wiki/File:Diphenhydramine_pills.jpg Image license: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en Image author: dysamoria, http://www.flickr.com/photos/dysamoria
  • qualitative approaches which utilise ethnography, grounded theory, content analysis of language, observation, etc. quantitative approaches which use tools (such as surveys) to collect empirical data
  • Image source: Myers.
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gadl/395079578/ By gadl - http://www.flickr.com/photos/gadl/ License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Correlation_vs_causation.png Image author:Rcragun http://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Rcragun&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1 Image license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en
  • Image source: Myers.
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Phineas_gage_-_1868_skull_diagram.jpg License: Public domain
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Note.svg Image license: Public domain
  • Image source: Unknown.
  • If you want to know what the proportion of blue to red marbles is, the most efficient way is to take a sample and count the ratio. Image source: Mysers.
  • http://research.unlv.edu/OPRS/history-ethics.htm
  • Research Methods in Psychology

    1. 1. An Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology James Neill (2010) Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction
    3. 3. What is research?
    4. 4. Quick Fun Survey
    5. 5. Research process
    6. 6. Research methods
    7. 7. Bias in research
    8. 8. Ethical issues </li></ul>
    9. 9. Reading Research methods in psychology (Gerrig et al. 2008, Ch. 2)
    10. 10. disciplined inquiry What is research?
    11. 11. What is research?
    12. 12. What is research? Research is formalised curiosity . It is poking and prying with a purpose. - Zora Neale Hurston
    13. 13. <ul><li>Research is a a systematic attempt to understand the world .
    14. 14. Psychological research is a systematic attempt to understand human experiences of themselves and the world . </li></ul>What is psychological research?
    15. 15. <ul><li>Systematic development & testing of theory about human behaviour and mental events
    16. 16. Disciplined enquiry into human thinking, feeling, and behaviour . </li></ul>What is psychological research?
    17. 17. Research is a language <ul><li>Learn key terms / concepts
    18. 18. UG study, especially 1st year, is about acquiring the language skills to access and make sense of recorded research knowledge </li></ul>
    19. 19. Psychological research ...holds out the promise of discovering the architecture of our psyche and understanding our behaviour in the world around us.
    20. 20. Psychological research is a recent phenomenon <ul><li>Western, scientific, psychological research only has about a 60-100 year history.
    21. 21. Much still to be discovered - prospects for considerable growth & opportunity. </li><ul><li>e.g., due to technology, new research techniques and directions are becoming available. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Observations, beliefs, information, and general knowledge lead to a new idea or a different way of thinking about some phenomenon
    23. 23. Theory: An organised set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena.
    24. 24. Use theory to formulate research questions. </li></ul>Process of research
    25. 25. <ul><li>Develop a hypothesis or hypotheses </li><ul><ul><li>A tentative and testable explanation(s) of the relationship between two (or more) events or variables </li></ul></ul><li>Use the scientific method to design the study </li></ul>Process of research
    26. 26. <ul><li>Initial observation or question
    27. 27. Form a hypothesis
    28. 28. Design the study
    29. 29. Analyse the data and draw conclusions
    30. 30. Report the findings
    31. 31. Consider open questions
    32. 32. Act on open questions </li></ul>The research process Gerrig et al. (2008)
    33. 33. Quick Fun Survey <ul><li>What is your favourite colour?
    34. 34. What is your favourite number?
    35. 35. What sex is the number 4?
    36. 36. What sex is the number 8? </li></ul>
    37. 37. Design Your Own Psychological Study
    38. 38. Research questions Expressing topics of interest as research questions is a key first step, e.g., <ul><li>Is it bad to smack your children?
    39. 39. What is the effect of meditation on stress?
    40. 40. Do “smart drugs” really make people “smarter”? </li></ul>
    41. 41. My first study What changes in stress, anxiety, crisis and flow occur for novice abseilers?
    42. 42. Design your own study <ul><li>List topics you would like to research.
    43. 43. Create research questions & choose one.
    44. 44. What variables are to be measured?
    45. 45. What research method would you use?
    46. 46. What population and sampling method would you use? </li></ul>
    47. 47. Student research opportunities <ul><li>Research participation
    48. 48. Research seminars
    49. 49. Research news e.g., via </li><ul><li>Journal alerts
    50. 50. Google Alerts </li></ul><li>Research journals </li><ul><li>Hard copies
    51. 51. Electronic copies </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Scientific method
    53. 53. Research is a way of thinking <ul><li>Researchers need to acknowledge & understand the limits of intuition & common sense
    54. 54. Philosophy of science
    55. 55. The scientific attitude
    56. 56. The scientific method </li></ul>
    57. 57. Science is based on… <ul><li>Knowledge of facts
    58. 58. Developing theories
    59. 59. Testing hypotheses
    60. 60. Public and repeatable procedures </li></ul>
    61. 61. If you are a scientist you believe that it is good to find out how the world works, that it is good to find out what the realities are, that it is good to turn over to mankind at large the greatest possible power to control the world... It is not possible to be a scientist unless you believe that the knowledge of the world, and the power which this gives, is a thing which is of intrinsic value to humanity, and that you are using it to help in the spread of knowledge, and are willing to take the consequences. - J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967)
    62. 63. Critical thinking Critical thinking does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions: <ul><li>Examines assumptions
    63. 64. Discerns hidden values
    64. 65. Evaluates evidence </li></ul>
    65. 66. It is a good morning exercise for a research scientist to discard a pet hypothesis every day before breakfast - It keeps him [sic] young. - Konrad Lorenz
    66. 67. <ul><li>Set of procedures used for gathering and interpreting objective information in a way that minimises error and yields dependable generalisations .
    67. 68. Its goal is to draw conclusions with maximum objectivity . </li><ul><li>Conclusions are objective when they are not influenced by emotions or personal biases . </li></ul></ul>Scientific method
    68. 69. The doctrine that all events - physical, behavioural, and mental - are “determined” by specific causal factors that are potentially knowable . Concept of determinism
    69. 70. Theory-testing is the main function of research <ul><li>Observations lead to theory
    70. 71. Theory = a specific set of assumptions and principles about a phenomenon.
    71. 72. Derive testable hypotheses (or guesses / predictions)
    72. 73. Systematically test hypotheses in various conditions in order to determine the utility of the theory . </li></ul>
    73. 74. Theories, hypotheses & research observations Theories Low self-esteem feeds depression Hypothesis People with low self-esteem score higher on a depression scale Test with observations Administer tests of self-esteem and depression. See if a low score on one predicts a high score on the other.
    74. 75. Operationalisation Refers to how a fuzzy psychological construct is actually measured <ul><li>e.g., the concept of intelligence has been operationalised through a variety of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests </li></ul>
    75. 76. <ul><li>Variables are factors which can be controlled and/or measured in research
    76. 77. Two types: </li><ul><ul><li>Independent Variable (IV) (or “predictors”)
    77. 78. Dependent Variable (DV) (or “outcomes”) </li></ul></ul></ul>Research variables
    78. 79. Independent vs. dependent variables Independent Variable(s) Dependent Variable(s)
    79. 80. Independent vs. dependent variables Independent Variable <ul><li>the factor that is controlled and manipulated by the researcher
    80. 81. the variable whose effect is being studied </li></ul>Dependent Variable <ul><li>the factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
    81. 82. in psychology it is usually a behaviour or mental process </li></ul>
    82. 83. Independent vs. dependent variables: Example IV: Graffiti or no graffiti on or near a letterbox DV: Whether or not a passerby takes an envelope with money clearly showing from a letterbox Results: <ul><li>Graffiti condition: 27% took the $
    83. 84. No graffiti condition: 13% took the $ </li></ul>
    84. 85. Reliability <ul><li>Degree to which a test produces similar scores each time it is used
    85. 86. Stability, consistency </li></ul>Validity <ul><li>Extent to which a test measures what it was intended to test </li></ul>Reliability and validity
    86. 87. <ul><li>Distortion of evidence because of the personal motives and expectations of the viewer
    87. 88. Counter by: </li><ul><li>Standardisation: A set of uniform procedures for treating each participant
    88. 89. Operational definition: Define constructs in terms of the specific operation or procedure used to determine its presence </li><ul><li>All variables in a research study must be given operational definitions </li></ul></ul></ul>Observer bias
    89. 90. Psychological research methods
    90. 91. <ul><li>Experimental – randomised sampling
    91. 92. Quasi-experimental – natural sampling
    92. 93. Non-experimental – cross-sectional sampling </li></ul>Psychological research methods
    93. 94. Experimental research method <ul><li>Experimenter manipulates the IVs, then measures the results on the DVs
    94. 95. Random assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control group = treat same as experimental group except for the IV manipulation
    95. 96. Experimental group = treat same as control group except for the IV manipulation
    96. 97. Resulting differences are concluded to be due to the IV </li></ul></ul>
    97. 98. <ul><li>Alternative explanations to research can result from </li><ul><ul><li>Confounding variables
    98. 99. Expectancy effects </li><ul><li>Placebo effect </li></ul></ul></ul><li>The more alternative explanations for a given result, the less confidence there is for an initial hypothesis </li></ul>Experimental research method
    99. 100. <ul><li>A variable other than what the experimenter purposely introduced that affects a participant’s behaviour </li><ul><li>e.g., Hawthorne effect </li></ul><li>Confounding variables add confusion and place the interpretation of the data at risk </li></ul>Confounding variable
    100. 101. <ul><li>Results that occur when a researcher or observer subtly communicates to the participants the kind of behaviour he or she expects, therefore, creating the expected reaction and/or outcome </li><ul><li>e.g., encouraging some kinds of responses in interviews </li></ul></ul>Expectancy effect
    101. 102. Occurs when the experimental participants change their behaviour in the absence of any kind of experimental manipulation. Placebo effect
    102. 103. Consistent procedures for giving instructions, responses, and holding all other variables constant except those being systematically varied <ul><li>Placebo control
    103. 104. Double-blind control
    104. 105. Between-subjects designs
    105. 106. Within-subjects designs </li></ul>Control procedures
    106. 107. <ul><li>The inclusion of an experimental condition in which the treatment is not administered
    107. 108. e.g., real pills vs. placebo pills </li></ul>Placebo control
    108. 109. <ul><li>Experimental procedure in which both the experimenter and the subject are unaware as to who received the treatment
    109. 110. Seen as the strongest way of controlling for experimenter and expectancy biases </li></ul>Double-blind control
    110. 111. <ul><li>Between-subjects Design </li><ul><li>Different groups of participants are randomly assigned to experimental conditions or to control condition </li></ul><li>Within-subjects Design </li><ul><li>Each participant is his or her own control </li></ul></ul>Between-subjects vs. within-subects design
    111. 112. Ways of gathering psychological data
    112. 113. <ul><li>Qualitative – words, pictures
    113. 114. Quantitative – numbers
    114. 115. Mixed - words and numbers </li></ul>Qualitative vs. quantitative research data
    115. 116. Qualitative research Subjective - individuals’ interpretation of events is important e.g., <ul><li>Historical accounts
    116. 117. Participant observation
    117. 118. In-depth interviews </li></ul>
    118. 119. Quantitative research Objective – seeks precise measurement & analysis of target concepts e.g., <ul><li>Psychological tests
    119. 120. Questionnaires
    120. 121. Physiological measures </li></ul>
    121. 122. Mixed methods Involves a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods.
    122. 123. <ul><li>Archival
    123. 124. Observations
    124. 125. Behavioural
    125. 126. Self-report surveys </li><ul><li>Mail
    126. 127. Interviews
    127. 128. Online </li></ul></ul>Research methods <ul><li>Physiological
    128. 129. Experiential sampling </li><ul><li>e.g., with palm pilots </li></ul><li>Archival records </li></ul>
    129. 130. <ul><li>Information taken from existing records </li><ul><ul><li>Examples include birth and death records, weather reports, voting patterns, and attendance figures </li></ul></ul></ul>Archival data
    130. 131. Observational research Researchers directly observe and record behaviour: <ul><li>Naturalistic observation - researcher records behavior as it occurs naturally
    131. 132. Tests - researcher presents stimuli or problems and records responses </li></ul>
    132. 133. Naturalistic observation <ul><ul><li>Naturally occurring behaviour is viewed and recorded without attempting to manipulate or interfere the situation.
    133. 134. Field-rich data, time consuming, difficult to generalise. </li></ul></ul>
    134. 135. Behavioural measures <ul><li>Overt actions and reactions that are observed and recorded
    135. 136. Direct observations </li><ul><ul><li>The behaviour is clearly visible and is easily recorded
    136. 137. Can be aided by technology </li></ul></ul></ul>
    137. 138. Self-report research <ul><li>Behaviour identified through a participant’s own observations and reports
    138. 139. People rate or describe their behaviour, opinion, or mental state e.g., via: </li><ul><li>Questionnaires
    139. 140. Rating scales e.g., </li><ul><li>from 1 to 7 rate your opinion of … </li></ul></ul></ul>
    140. 141. <ul><li>Determines extent to which two variables are related
    141. 142. Correlational Coefficient ( r ) </li><ul><li>Indicates the degree of relationship between two variables
    142. 143. Values of: </li></ul></ul>- 1.0 = perfect negative correlation 0.0 = no correlation +1.0 = perfect positive correlation Correlational methods
    143. 144. <ul><li>Positive and negative correlations </li></ul>Correlational methods
    144. 145. Causal relationships and correlations <ul><li>Correlation does not equal causation
    145. 146. How can causality be demonstrated? e.g. </li><ul><li>Experimentally (explanatory)
    146. 147. Predictive, longitudinal studies </li></ul></ul>
    147. 148. Correlation vs. causation
    148. 149. Laboratory research <ul><li>Purpose-designed research setting
    149. 150. Provides uniform conditions for all participants
    150. 151. Permits elimination of irrelevant factors
    151. 152. May seem artificial </li></ul>
    152. 153. Case study <ul><li>Intensive observation of a particular individual or a small group.
    153. 154. Aims to reveal things true of all.
    154. 155. Rich data, time consuming, difficult to generalise. </li></ul>Is language uniquely human?
    155. 156. <ul><li>Iron rod through head (frontal lobes)
    156. 157. Affected personality and behaviour
    157. 158. Suggested function localisation </li></ul>Case study example: Phineas Gage
    158. 159. Survey research <ul><li>Commonly used
    159. 160. Ascertains self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people
    160. 161. Ideally question a representative, random sample of people </li></ul>
    161. 162. Experiential sampling
    162. 163. Replication <ul><li>Reconducting a previous study to see whether its findings are repeatable (reliable).
    163. 164. Nothing is generally “proven” until at least several studies have been conducted showing similar results.
    164. 165. Usually replicate with different participants, in different situations, in different cultures. </li></ul>
    165. 166. Sampling Sampling
    166. 167. <ul><li>Sample : </li><ul><li>Subset of a population selected as participants in an experiment </li></ul><li>Representation Sample : </li><ul><li>A subset of the population being studied </li></ul><li>Population : </li><ul><li>Entire set of individuals to which generalisations will be made based on an experimental sample </li></ul></ul>Sampling
    167. 168. Ethical issues in research Guidelines and procedures for conducting ethical psychological research
    168. 169. History of research ethics <ul><li>Nuremberg code (1948): </li><ul><li>voluntary consent is essential
    169. 170. benefits of research must outweigh the risks. </li></ul><li>Thalidomide (late 1950's-early 1960's)
    170. 171. Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972).
    171. 172. Declaration of Helinski (1964) </li></ul>
    172. 173. Ethical issues in psychological research <ul><li>Right to privacy
    173. 174. Informed consent </li><ul><li>use of deception </li></ul><li>Animal rights </li><ul><li>Is there justification for discomfort or harm a research procedure may produce? </li></ul><li>APA publishes ethical guidelines </li></ul>
    174. 175. <ul><li>Research participants are asked to sign statements indicating they have been informed as to the potential risks and benefits of the study and consent to participate. </li></ul>Informed consent
    175. 176. <ul><li>Risks to the participants must be minimised, especially in studies of more personal aspects of behaviour.
    176. 177. And there must be likely gains which outweigh the risks/costs. </li></ul>Risk/gain assessment
    177. 178. For some research it is not possible to tell participants the intention of the study without biasing the results <ul><li>Australian Psychological Society (2007) Code of Ethics has explicit guidelines
    178. 179. National Health and Medical Research Council (NH-MRC) has further restrictions </li></ul>Intentional deception
    179. 180. <ul><li>At the end of all studies each participant must be provided with as much information about the study as possible in age-appropriate style. </li></ul>Debriefing
    180. 181. Summary <ul><li>Research is formalised curiousity
    181. 182. Discover your research passions & follow them  </li></ul><ul><li>Develop research questions, theory, and hypotheses – then test scientifically. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain objectivity
    182. 183. “ Failed” research can often tells us as much as “successful” research. </li></ul>
    183. 184. Summary <ul><li>IVs = predictors; DVs = outcomes
    184. 185. Biases: observer, participants; use standardisation and controls
    185. 186. Ways of gathering data: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed
    186. 187. Research methods: Archival, Lab research, Survey, Observation, Case study
    187. 188. Ethics: Consent, privacy, risk etc. </li></ul>
    188. 189. References <ul><li>Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2008). Psychology and life (Australian edition.). Sydney: Pearson.
    189. 190. Myers, D. G. (2007). Thinking critically with psychological science (Ch1). In Psychology (8 th ed.) . New York: Worth.
    190. 191. University of Gronigen. People surrounded by grafitti more likely to steal . </li></ul>
    191. 192. Open Office Impress <ul><li>This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.
    192. 193. Free and open source software.
    193. 194. http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html </li></ul>
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×